King david personality type

King David the INFP— Inside the Heart of the Legendary Warrior and Poet | by Derek

Michelangelo’s David

An MBTI Analysis of the Rise and Fall of Ancient Israel’s Beloved Psalmist

Princess Diana, John Lennon, William Shakespeare: easily recognizable names of those labeled as INFP, according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. The list goes on, including other artists, writers, and activists. But are there others who typically go under the radar?

Meet King David, one of the most famous characters of the Old Testament. His legendary status in the Jewish and Christian faith precedes him, as he is the central figure upon whom God grants favor to rule his kingdom and through whom blesses Israel. He is known for his great military conquests and feats of strategy, becoming the most successful and one of the wealthiest of all Israel’s kings.

But who would guess that underneath the hardened battle armor was a man who penned over half of the book of Psalms, a collection of poetry, lamentation and praise? David moves the biblical reader and historian not by his achievements as a king, but by his tenderness, softness of heart, child-like faith and fiery passion.

This article is written to argue that the character of David revealed in the biblical text reflects the INFP profile as described by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. The following will outline a few highlights of David’s life while psychoanalyzing them from the MBTI perspective.


Much has been written about the classic INFP profile. They are considered one of the most empathetic types, having an ability to reach a depth of emotion and care other types cannot even fathom. One of the main attributes that drives this type is the quest for meaning: the existential question of their lives continually fuels their search for real significance and value on this side of eternity. This continual hunger for truth and beauty must line up with the INFP’s desire for internal harmony. Without these in place, the classic INFP suffers immensely. Their interpretation of harmony revolves around their values. If an INFP settles for anything less than what their belief system mandates, then disharmony sets in. The potential for stress, anxiety and fear is great for the INFP who cannot possibly live a perfect life. They exist with an idealistic view, constantly peering forward to what could possibly be, yet dwelling on past events, scrutinizing every moralistic choice and the outcomes of their decisions.

David, The Drama King

There is no other person in biblical literature who was more beloved than King David, the shepherd boy from the town of Bethlehem. He alone has more written about him in the sixty-six book cannon than any other biblical figure.

More than Moses, Paul the Apostle and even Jesus himself!

But what would a great character be without some serious character flaws? In fact, David has more sins documented in the bible compared to any other character. It is relatively easy to demonstrate how stressful situations caused David to act erratically in typical INFP behavior.

When one reviews his many moral failures, it is difficult to see how God could have been so fond of such a flawed person! However, as we break down some of David’s low points in life, we will reach deeper into the soul of the man who was after God’s own heart.

Running After God’s Own Heart

From his humble beginnings as a shepherd boy to the kingship of an imperial kingdom, David’s life is thoroughly documented in the Books of 1st and 2nd Samuel. Not only do they display his courageous achievements, such as his stunning defeat of the Philistine warrior Goliath; they also showcase his incredible sensitivity and raw humanity, such as his infamous infidelity with Bathsheba and subsequent murder of her husband, Uriah. However, within the peaks and valleys of his tumultuous life, the reader gazes into the heart and mind of one of Israel’s most beloved characters and gets to glimpse at the soul of a man who was chosen by God to rule the nation of Israel. The story of David’s life reveals both the weakness and frailty of the human heart but also exemplifies the grace and mercy of God.

The Overlooked Boy VS The People’s Choice

What caused God to choose a young, wide eyed shepherd boy to be the next king of Israel? Why did God pass up on his six foot tall, broad-shouldered, battle-hardened brothers and instead pick the youngest, inexperienced, and overlooked kid in the field? What did God see in this small boy that he treasured above all other characteristics?

These questions are undoubtedly the same ones that David would ask himself over the course of his lifetime. The youngest of seven children born to Jesse, he spent the majority of his youth in the sheep fields on the hills of Bethlehem. Unbeknownst to him, the nation’s top prophet of the day, Samuel, would be heading directly to his home on heavenly orders from God to find the next king of Israel. As the Jesse and his family welcomed the prophet Samuel and prepared a celebratory meal, young David remained oblivious and unaware in the field, most likely gazing in wonder at the stars, strumming his lyre and singing softly to his sheep.

Sheeping, Harping, and Star Gazing

Can you imagine the most important person in your country (i.e. the President) coming to your home town and having your family tell you to go outside and do yard work all day? This was the attitude of Jesse and his sons, who overlooked David and sent him away. But David felt at home on the sheep pastures, spending hours alone with only herds of sheep to keep him company. He most likely spent long hours on the hillsides, honing his skills as a musician and practicing his psalm-writing skills.

The Anointing of David

Samuel looked upon each son of Jesse, sizing them up from head to foot, confident that one of these men was the handpicked of God, the next King of Israel.

But as the story goes, God whispered into Samuel’s ear, “Don’t be swayed by their tall stature and muscular frames. People judge by looking at the outward appearance, but I look at the contents of the heart.”

This revolutionary quote struck Samuel with clarity as he asked Jesse “are these all your children?” Jesse responded, “no, I have another son, David, who is attending the sheep.” When David was summoned, Samuel immediately took his ram’s horn full of oil and poured it over David, effectively anointing him King in front of his envious brothers.

An Idealist Living in a Realist’s World

In a world riddled with imperfections, mistakes and disappointments, David longed for a space in time where the perfections of God would be fully realized. He spent long hours meditating on God’s word and peering towards the future of the Kingdom of God, when the righteous and pure would inherit the land and the ungodly would perish in their sins.

His psalms are chalk-full of references to the Millennial Kingdom, a time when the Messiah would establish order, truth and righteousness in all the earth. It would be a time when sin, death and evil would be vanquished completely and justice would reign.

David cried out helplessly in the psalms, knowing the great evil in the hearts of the men around him. His tears were mixed with anguish at the thoughts of unjust men speaking evil in their hearts and committing abominations.

Although no one is exempt from sin, David had a deep sense of idealism that pervaded his writings. When reading through his psalms, one can sense that desire for purity and goodness.

Romantically Inclined and Passionately Divine

If David could be summed up in one word, the word would be passion. David was a man of passion, a romantic lover of God who gave himself deeply to the pursuit of God’s heart.

Out of almost every person of the Old Testament, David had a unique view of the character of God.

He viewed God not as a boastful, wrathful, domineering God who commanded his servants about like slaved.

David’s revelation of God was one of love, mercy and grace.

He viewed God as one who absolutely enjoyed his creation, and wanted nothing more than to be in a relationship with His people. He wrote in the psalms that he was the “beloved of God” and that he was the “apple of God’s eye” and that God “delights in me”.

The average biblical reader would ponder how such a man could say these things! After all, wasn’t David a sinner? Didn’t he mess up all the time? Why and how could God love a man with such a bad track record? How could David see himself as such a saint?

This revelation of God’s heart is the backbone of the doctrines of Christianity, the very foundation of who God is. The fact that God loved David so dearly is the chief reason why David pursued God so fervently. The goodness of God’s love was the flame that kept David’s heart on fire as he would come back again and again to the place of prayer and worship. He spent long hours in the house of God, offering up songs of praise and worship. He is the only man in the bible who is recorded to have been a “man after god’s own heart” (Acts 10).

Master Poet and Sweet Psalmist

Throughout the psalms, David reveals his brokenness, sincerity and longing for the presence of God. He truly lived to please the one he loved.

As a psalmist, David is believed to have penned at least 2/3 of the Book of Psalms. This book of the bible records a history of songs, lamentations and praises from multiple authors. In it, we see the vulnerability of David’s heart. Within these psalms are both the shouts of triumphant joy over the righteousness and faithfulness of God but also the deep pain, perplexity and honest bewilderment in the face of loss, betrayal and fear.

In perhaps the most famous psalm of all, the 23rd, the Lord is depicted as a shepherd who carefully protects and guides his sheep. It displays the peace of God that David relied on for strength. In other psalms such as Psalm 42, David compared his desire for the presence of God to the panting of a deer for the water brook; it is something essential for survival and well-being. If one casually flipped through and scanned these poems, it would be easy to see the breadth of emotional content. The INFP is easily led by their emotions and less by rational process of thought.

Champion of the Underdog/Warrior/Activist

In perhaps David’s most famous conquest, the battle with Goliath, the giant, exemplifies his INFP qualities of holding ferociously to inner convictions and championing the cause of the underdog. When the Philistine army came to town, they challenged the Israelites to battle by sending for their towering giant of a warrior. It is written that Goliath was over nine feet tall, a ridiculous height even by modern standards!

At this point in time, David was still a teenage boy belting out ballads on the backside of some hill in Bethlehem. But when word came that Goliath was cursing the armies of the one true God, something lit up inside David’s belly that set him on a one-way course towards the Philistine army. He took a well rounded stone and slung it at the forehead of the giant, effectively killing him. And to top it all off, he took Goliath’s sword and beheaded the guy on the spot! Talk about zeal for the house of God!

The Boldness of the Faithful

David was convinced that the armies of Israel had God Almighty on their side so he did not fear the voice of his enemy. What an army of battle hardened soldiers could not accomplish, David did with a mere sling. He was instantly catapulted into stardom. The INFP lives for their personal cause, whatever it may be. They utilize their deep empathy to fuel themselves into action for the betterment of those around them. But even with the immediate and immense fame and glory, David did not grow boastful. He had one of the most humble hearts in the entire biblical record. The record says he continued to serve underneath the current King of Israel and maintained a perfect record.

Compassion Triumphs All

Not only was David a man of passion; he was also a man of compassion. He had an innate ability to empathize with others on a deep intuitive level that is recorded again and again in the bible.

One of the most famous examples is when David was on the run from King Saul, the paranoid ruler of Israel who was hell-bent on murdering his former employee, David. While searching out the wilderness for David, Saul stepped into a nearby cave to relieve himself. Unbeknownst to him, David and his posse were also hiding out in the same cave. And while all his friends egged him on to finish Saul and take his rightful place as the heir to the throne, David refused. He didn’t believe in senseless killing. He didn’t believe that he should be the one to take Saul’s life, even though he had every right.

Again,the opportunity came up for David to finish off Saul while he slept. And you know what David did? He passed on the opportunity. Again, he showed an incredible amount of mercy and compassion for his enemy and former friend. Even Saul had to admit that David was a better man than he.

INFP — the Virtuous and Just Soul

All MBTI types have the natural ability and potential to tap into the raw humanity of life. But the INFP lives in that mystical arena of life and death, of passion and pleasure, of the cosmic collective. They live by their deeply ingrained standards of purity, authenticity and empathy.

Kind David is a shining example of a historical, literary, and religious figure who embodied the characteristics of the INFP to the utmost degree. His vulnerability in his darkest moments to his pursuit and adherence of truth and justice show us the depths of the human soul. David is a model to all who’ve made mistakes in their lives; a redeemed and refined man, the epitome of what it means to struggle to exist in an imperfect world.

Old Testament Bible Personalities: David the ENFJ

King David: The ENFJ

Characterized by:*

the value they place in humanity, imaginative and loyal, desire to make the world better for everyone


ambitious, keen interest in people, focused on values


can become people pleasers, put too much on their “to do” lists, forget themselves

*Information for personality types has largely been derived from a culmination of my own study from graduate coursework and the sources below. I attempt to be diligent and responsible with my research, as well as original in presenting the information, however with the massive online information on the MBTI and personality assessments, there is likely to be some overlap in information presented. If you find any of the material presented here elsewhere, it is merely  coincidental, however please use the following contact information to provide me with the resource, so that research can be done and  proper citation can be provided if warranted-beamindfoulsoul@gmail. com 

The names and the characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses for the different personality types come from a culmination of the works cited below, my own interpretation and descriptions are used unless otherwise directly quoted and cited. 

If I use any other resource it will be quoted directly, and cited separately from this. 


MBTI Manual published by CPP 
*Briggs Myers, Isabel (2015, 7th ed). Introduction to Myers-Briggs Type: A Guide to Understanding Your Results on the MBTI Assessment. USA: CPP, Inc & The Myers Briggs Co.

*Disclaimer: Using the MBTI to speculate personality type of Bible characters is only a jumping off point for further discussion and learning from them. Bible characters cannot take the MBTI themselves, therefore what I provide here is merely conjecture. 

David in the Bible:

  • David’s character is an extremely large presence in the Bible. His name alone found in almost 1000 verses and 28 out of 66 books of the Bible (19 OT; 9 NT).
  • First mentioned by name in Ruth 4:17 (1 Sam 16)
  • David’s introduction and most well known story of his defeat of Goliath (1 Sam 16-17)
  • His life account can be found in 1 & 2 Samuel
  • wrote many of the Psalms (here’s just a few I’ve selected: Ps. 37, Ps. 51, Ps. 86, Ps. 142)

David’s background:

  • came from a family in the tribe of Judah (aka the lineage of Jesus)
  • lived in Israel and tended his father’s sheep
  • became the 2nd king of Israel.
  • dad’s name was Jesse
  • youngest of 8 sons
  • great, great grandson of Ruth
  • a “ruddy“ youth
  • played the harp
  • reigned in Israel from 1010-970 BC
  • Saul’s archenemy
  • a “man after God’s own heart”
  • Johnathan, Saul’s son, was his best friend
  • Characterized by his humility and loyalty to God, repented when he sinned
  • Struggled with sexual sin, had more than 1 wife (2 Sam 5:13)
  • A great poet (Psalms)

David’s character: 

The account of David’s life in the Bible is one that can be read and reread and the well of lessons we can garner will never run dry. He was all together human, his flaws, imperfections, and sins all penned for the whole world to read and learn from forever, yet he was still a “man after God’s own heart.”

He was the youngest of 8 boys, born to Jesse (if you are interested in more information about birth order and it’s impacts on personality development, I found a great blog post that discusses it in relation to the MBTI traits.

You can find it here. Some often reported traits of a last born child are: sociable, charming, loving, fun (may be described as a “class clown”), open, willing to take risks, sometimes impetuous, temperamental, irresponsible, self-centred. I encourage you to study his life and see if you can find these descriptions to be true of him.

David was:
  • humble
  • outgoing
  • loyal
  • principled
  • did not tolerate revenge, left it to God
  • empathetic
  • emotionally aware
  • respectful of others
  • sociable
  • charming
  • sometimes irresponsible
  • risk taker
  • open and loving
  • creative
  • compassionate
  • trustworthy
  • supportive
  • persuasive
  • inspirational

Create in me a clean heart, O God; and renew a right spirit within me

Psalm 51:10


David was a shepherd for his father. He became Saul’s armor bearer after killing Goliath, he was an army captain, a harp player, a dynamic and outgoing ruler who stayed loyal, for the most part, to his values and principles.

On more than one occasion he was presented with the opportunity to kill Saul, however he was adamant that slaying God’s anointed was reprehensible. He was on the run for much of his early life from Saul who was his jealous archenemy. Let’s not discount the trauma this would have caused, yet he did not waiver in his dedication to God, and when he sinned, he repented.

Life as King

Besides his slaying of Goliath, perhaps his other most well known action was his ordered killing of Uriah to hide his adultery with Bathsheba. The son from that union died and when presented with his sin he wept and demonstrated true repentance, a quality we never see from his predecessor, Saul. He was a dedicated servant of God and a true encouragement.

The overall lesson I learn from studying his life

There are so many other things that make up David’s life and I encourage anyone to take time to study his life- his character, his behaviors, his responses and all of the things that make up David’s life are worth countless hours of study.

However, for me, the overall lesson I learn from his life is that even though I am a flawed human, I can still receive the grace and mercy from God, the Father if I humble myself and obey His commands.

David’s character seems to fit perfectly with the traits of an ENFJ.

Disclaimer: Using the MBTI to speculate personality type of David is only a jumping off point for further discussion and learning from his life.

2 Growth Tips 

I pick growth tips with the specific character, as well as the specific personality type in mind, but they are relevant for us all.

Be Contentcontentment is png

Being content can be a difficult concept to understand and implement because live in a world that emphasizes achieving our “best life,” with a success driven mindset. There are thousands of blogs, self help books, personal development strategies emphasizing being more productive, more organized, more efficient at all the things in life.

How then can we maximize our potential, constantly work at self improvement and success, and at the same time be content or satisfied with our current state? Alternatively, if I’m content in life, does that mean that I just forget working towards goals?

Am I supposed to be satisfied with mediocrity? Let’s look at a time when David was not content and use his mistake to get some answers.

Not that I speak in respect of want: for I have learned, in whatsoever state I am, therewith to be content

Paul, Philippians 4:11

David needed to learn to be content.

Perhaps there were times in David’s life in which he demonstrated contentment, however, we have record of at least one time in which he was not content with what he had. Instead of minding his own business and being grateful for his own life (and wife), he gazed upon
Bathsheba bathing, committing adultery with her, and having her husband killed to deal with the product of that adultery. He would’ve been better off learning to be content with what he had, instead he gazed outside of his own house and in to someone else’s, evidently becoming dissatisfied with what he had.

On Learning Contentment

  • Practice gratitude
  • Look at what I have instead of what I don’t have
  • Stop comparing what I have (or don’t have) to what someone else has (or doesn’t have)

David should’ve taken some time to practice being grateful for what he had already. Instead of looking at what he did not have (Bathsheba), he should’ve busied himself looking at the wife he already had. He needed to quit gazing at what another man had and start gazing at what he already had.

David’s discontentment caused such a chain reaction of sin that I am surprised he was able to recover, but I am grateful that he did because it means that we can too!!

My Personal Lesson about Contentment

Being content is a relevant and timely lesson for me personally at this time. Recently, it has been easy for me to focus too much of my attention on all of the progress being made toward getting back to “normal life” in the United States (in regards to Covid pandemic of 2020).

I see my friends visiting each other, spending time with friends and family, going to worship normally, going to stores, ball games, restaurants, hair salons, and all sorts of activities. Things are opening up and it seems to be there there is some light at the end of the covid tunnel for everyone back home.

While everything seems to be getting back to normal in the states, it seems like we are regressing. We have definitely experienced a roller coaster of lockdowns, without (what seems like) any progress toward reopening. In fact, we have been in some form of lockdown since November 2020 and it is April 2021, and I still do not see any promise of changes here in Ontario.

I cannot attend worship with the saints, instead I worship in my home with my family. I cannot see friends, go to gatherings, celebrate birthdays, get my haircut, buy nonessential products in the stores, and the list can go on of the things “I cannot do.”

Photo by Andrea Piacquadio on

You see, that mindset of dissatisfaction can creep in so easily, even while writing this I’m starting to feel a little discontent.

However, notice how I’m mentioned all of the things I cannot do and I focused my attention on just all of the stuff my friends back home CAN do. In order for me to find contentment in this current state, I should be focusing my attention on all of the things I get to do. I need to look at what I do have and not what I don’t have. I need to practice being thankful for all of the blessings I do have, and I need to stop comparing.

I get to worship with my family, I am so thankful for a family that serves the same God I do. I get to take some time to learn this new country, I get to have family time that is uninterrupted with loads and loads of other responsibilities, I get to stay at home and enjoy this time with myself and with my family.

I have a place to sleep, I have a warm bed, I have my health, freedom to worship in my home, I have the ability to talk to people all over the world. When it comes right down to it, I am not isolated as much as I think I am when I practice gratitude, which leads to contentment.

Practice Gratitude

I have been practicing gratitude and counting my blessings for all the things that we CAN do and I express sincere excitement and thankfulness for my friends who are experiencing some return to normalcy.

I am aware of the times when I begin comparing my situation to theirs instead of being genuinely grateful for the blessings that they getting to enjoy, and I actively work to change my attitude.

In this way, I practice contentment. Paul, in Philippians 4, says that he LEARNED contentment. That means, it takes practice. It takes effort.

Set Boundaries

Boundary setting goes hand in hand with learning contentment. David, because he was king, could take what he wanted and use his power for what he wanted. While he was a good man, concerned with godly principles much of his life, he also was not perfect.

There is no doubt that David’s power differential was at play when he committed adultery with Bathsheba and had her husband murdered. In other words, he would not have been able to demand Uriah’s murder (and likely would not have had an opportunity to commit adultery with Bathsheba-the wife of a well respected general in the king’s army) had he not been the most powerful person in the nation.

David’s adultery with Bathsheba is not the only time David failed to set boundaries, but it’s the one example I’m sticking with for this article. On the other hand, David did often set boundaries for himself. For example, he valued leaving vengeance to God, which was shown in his refusal to kill Saul even though he had at least 2 opportunities to do so.

Photo by Pixabay on

Boundaries are lines that we set up for ourselves that we decide we will not cross. Our boundaries determine what permissions we grant to others in regards to how they treat us. (For example, Bathsheba either had poor/diffuse boundaries for whatever reason-i.e. being enamoured with the fact that the king wanted her-or she violated her boundary lines due to the power differential).

Like learning contentment, assessing our values can help us determine our boundaries. In David’s situation, he was clearly made aware that he crossed his own lines, and more importantly God’s, when Nathan pointed out to him “Thou art the man” (2 Samuel 12:7).

Setting boundaries for ourselves, gives us and others with whom we interact a clear understanding of where we draw the line.

Photo by veeterzy on

Image boundary setting as a spectrum. On one end are the very rigid boundaries and on the other are the very diffuse boundaries. Having rigid or diffuse boundaries both demonstrate unhealthy thought processes, instead, it would be best to try to aim for the centre of these two extremes.

A person with very diffuse boundaries typically are not assertive, unable to stand up for themselves, lack insight in to their value system, struggle to maintain an individual identity, and are those people typically referred to as “people pleasers.”

A person with very rigid boundaries can be described as someone immovable, unflinching, unable to empathize, struggle with maintaining relationships, cannot see the gray areas, unable to compromise. Unhealthy boundaries tend to arise from issues of childhood attachment to parents/primary caregivers and/or traumatic experiences.

Learning where we fall on this spectrum of boundary setting can help us more deeply understand ourselves, form an identity, help us develop more fulfilling relationships (which leads to contentment btw) and can help us heal any traumatic wounds we have experienced in our lives.

boundary setting graphic

ENFJ’s growth tips to learn contentment and to set proper boundaries arise from their desire to be valuable and influential in the world. They want humanity to be better and feel like they have what it takes to contribute to a world in order for it to be better. The ENFJ’s in our lives make the world a better place!

If you like this and would like to hear how we came to type David or get more detail about him as an ENFJ, please consider listening to the podcast episode (season 1 episode 3) which can be found on my website. 

The Mindful Soul Podcast

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What kind of test Soldier, Poet, King. A quiz with a dark aesthetic divides into three types

The Soldier, Poet, King personality type test, inspired by The Oh Hellos song of the same name, has become a trend in social networks. Flashmob participants answer philosophical questions, become "Kings", "Poets" or "Soldiers" and come up with an aesthetic for each character.

What kind of test Soldier, Poet, King . Internet users are captivated by a personality type test inspired by the song Soldier, Poet, King by The Oh Hellos. Quiz invites the participants of the flash mob to find out who they are - a soldier, a poet or a king. Test Maker nour (on tumblr - @atlanticsea , on tiktok - @oceanknives ) composed 20 questions about attitudes towards duty, death, love and provided it with book quotes.

— … stands right in front of you.
- ... looks like something that should be destroyed.
- ... gold and covered with flowers.

Screenshot of question

Many of the questions in the test are psychological, so you will have to think carefully about them in order to answer honestly. Internet users reflect on fears and their thoughts during sleepless nights.

The person who hurt you is after you. In your nightmares, he says:
- "I love you."
- "I forgive you."
- "I'm disappointed in you."

Screenshot of the question

Apparently, the popularity of the song Soldier, Poet, King and the high quality of the entertaining test did their job - more than a million people passed the quiz, and it got into the tops of the Uquiz portal.

What the Soldier, Poet, King test results mean . After passing the test, the Internet user receives his result - a soldier, a poet or a king, which is accompanied by a corresponding quote from the song and a description from the author of the quiz. If the king got, then the person most likely feels depressed, forced to put on a good face in a bad game and wants to free himself from the pressure of duty and responsibilities.

A ruler will come whose forehead is covered with thorns and anointed with oil, like the son of David.

Test result

Poets in the test are people who doubt their abilities, but continue to create and hope that one day fear will leave them, and love and joy of life will triumph.

A poet will come whose weapon is the word. He will strike you with his tongue.

Test result

A soldier means a person who constantly struggles with something and cannot get rid of the feeling of anger, secretly dreaming of peace and quiet.

A soldier will come carrying a mighty sword. He will destroy your city to the ground.

Test result

The flashmob participants noticed that “King” is the most frequently used in the test results. They tried to explain why so many people become "Kings" through psychology.

How bloggers turned the personality test into an aesthetic trend . Social media users actively share the results of the Soldier, Poet, King test and come up with their own interpretations for each personality type. Videos explaining why people don't get the results they expected, and what it says about them, are gaining popularity. For example, about "Kings" who wanted to become "Poets".

"I thought it would be a Poet, but it turned out to be a King." It's about those girls who are most eager to explore their imagination and let their favorite art form flourish. But a sense of responsibility, logic and practicality inspired them with the idea that putting creativity above everything else is an act of selfishness, when everyday life tasks and services to others should be a priority.

The aesthetics of the Soldier, Poet, King test are being thought through in social networks. The authors of the selections imagine what the “Kings” look like in modern life and what they can get involved in - the exact sciences or ancient art, they like to go to museums and work a lot.

"Soldiers" in aesthetic videos don't like to sit still, they run somewhere, fight, listen to music or completely immerse themselves in art.

And poets constantly drink coffee, carry notebooks and travel.

The test became so popular that tiktokers began to invent their own based on it. They create videos with the aesthetics of "Kings", "Poets" and "Soldiers" and promise that TikTok's algorithms will lead viewers to the desired video themselves.

Previously, Medialeaks told how viewers are looking for secret meanings and Easter eggs in the Doja Cat outfit at the Schiaparelli show. We saw demonic motifs and references to Jenna Marbles.

The kingdom of Shaul and the kingdom of David — Lechaim

According to Jewish tradition (see: Jerusalem Talmud, tractate Chagiga, 2:3), King David died on the holiday of Shavuot, whose life and activity are described in detail in the Tanakh (Shmuel I, starting with 16th chapter, Shmuel II, the first two chapters of Mlahim I). David was not the first Jewish king; he was preceded by King Shaul. In this article, we will compare the reign of Shaul and the reign of David and the personalities of both kings and give the opinions of sages and commentators on why Shaul was anointed to the kingdom initially, and then David had to replace him.

The Tanakh tells that before the appointment of Shaul, the elders of the people of Israel turned to the prophet Shmuel with a request to appoint a king over us to judge them, as is customary among all nations. Shmuel did not like this request, but the Almighty ordered him to fulfill the desire of the people, while saying: "... they did not reject you, but rejected Me, so that I would not reign over them" (see: [footnote text='On how the wise men and commentators of different generations connected the story in the book of Shmuel with the command of the Almighty to appoint a king in the book of Dvarim, see our article: Yitzhak Streshinsky, "Set a king over you..." ']Shmuel I, 8:4‑7[/footnote]) .

Spirit of Shmuel, summoned to Shaul by a sorceress from Endor. Salvator Rosa. 1668. Louvre, Paris

Throughout the years of his reign, Sha'ul waged constant wars with the enemies of the people of Israel, especially the Philistines. During one of these wars, friction occurred between him and the prophet Shmuel, after the king, who had gathered an army in Gilgal to fight the Philistines, himself offered sacrifices to the Almighty, without waiting for the arrival of Shmuel. Then Shmuel said to him: “You acted foolishly! You have not fulfilled the commandment of the Lord your God, which He commanded you. Because now the Lord would establish your reign over Israel forever. And now your reign will not stand! The Lord will find for Himself a man after His own heart, and the Lord will appoint him as a leader over His people, because you have not done what the Lord commanded you” (Shmuel I, 13:13-14).

The final break between the king and the prophet occurred after Shaul did not comply with the order to completely exterminate the sworn enemies of the people of Israel, the Amalekites, and destroy their property. Shaul and the people spared King Agag and the best of the cattle. After that, the Almighty ordered Shmuel to go to Yishai from Beit-Lehem, since He saw a king among his sons. According to the word of the Almighty, Shmuel anointed David, the youngest of the sons of Yishai, to the kingdom.

David appeared at the royal court as a musician and squire. His success in the wars with the Philistines and the love of the people of Israel for him aroused the envy of Shaul, which turned into blind hatred. Shaul tried several times to kill David and chased him into hiding.

Shaul's reign ended tragically - he threw himself on his sword after being defeated in battle with the Philistines, in which three of his sons were also killed, including David's close friend, Yeonathan. Then David was first proclaimed king over the tribe of Judah in Hebron, and after that the elders of Israel offered him to reign over all the people. David was able to unite the people of Israel around the capital in Jerusalem, won a final victory over the Philistines, defeated the neighboring states and established the power of the kingdom of Israel up to the Euphrates River. In addition, David began preparations for the construction of the Temple in Jerusalem, which was built in the days of his son and successor, King Solomon. Through the prophet Nathan, David received the promise of the Most High, according to which his dynasty would rule the people of Israel forever.

Reading the book of Shmuel, one can pay attention to the fundamental difference between the election of Shaul and the election of David. Shaul became king on the initiative that came from the people, and the Almighty agreed to his appointment only after the fact. At the same time, the anointing of David to the kingdom was a direct indication of the Almighty to Shmuel, and his choice from the sons of Yishai was also associated with direct Divine intervention. It is said about Shaul that he was tall: “a head taller than all the people” (see: Shmuel I, 9: 2), and when choosing a king from the sons of Yishai, the Almighty ordered Shmuel to choose not the high Eliav, but David, the youngest of the sons , saying at the same time: “... do not look at his appearance and his high stature, for I rejected him. For (the point) is not in what a man sees—man sees only what is seen by the eye, but the Lord sees what is in the heart” (ibid., 16:7). Since the reason for choosing Sha'ul was the desire of the people, a person with an appearance that pleased the people was chosen. And David was chosen primarily by the will of the Almighty, for whom it is not the appearance of a person that is important, but first of all his qualities and [footnote text='See. Malbim's commentary on Shmuel 16:7. ‘]deeds[/footnote].

King Shaul tries to spear David. Fragment of a miniature. France. About 1250. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York

Note also the difference in behavior and personal qualities between Shaul and David. Because of his baseless hatred of David, Shaul spent time and energy persecuting him instead of using all his resources to fight the Philistines and strengthen the kingdom of Israel. David, at the time when he was hiding from the persecution of Shaul, did not use the opportunities presented to him to kill him, and then, already being king, did not take revenge on those Jews who were his personal enemies, wished him harm, humiliated and insulted him. At the same time, being ready to forgive insults and persecution on a personal level, David mercilessly punished the enemies of the entire people of Israel.

Another point worth noting is the different reactions of Shaul and David to the admonitions of the prophets. After the prophet Shmuel rebuked Shaul for leaving King Agag and the cattle of the Amalekites, Shaul replied that the people spared "the best of the flocks and cattle" in order to sacrifice it to the Almighty, and only then admitted that he had sinned, while saying that “I was afraid of the people and obeyed them” (see: Shmuel I, ch. 15). In contrast, David, after being rebuked by the prophet Nathan because of the story with Batsheba, did not look for excuses and did not shift the blame on others, but immediately admitted: “I have sinned against the Lord” ([footnote text = 'On the opinions of the sages and commentators on this story, see our article: Itzhak Streshinsky. The Story of David and Bat Sheva // Lechaim. 2014. No. 6. ']Shmuel II, 12:13[/footnote]).

Above, we noted some aspects that made David more worthy of kingship than Saul. Let us note that in the blessing of the forefather Jacob to his son Yehuda it is said: “The scepter will not depart from Yehuda, the scepter of the legislator from his descendants” (Bereshit, 49:10). The sages and commentators saw in this blessing a promise that the kingship would belong to the tribe of Judah. As you know, Shaul came from the tribe of Benjamin, and in connection with this, the question arises of how legitimate his accession was initially.

Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman (Ramban; 1194-1270) explained in his commentary on the Torah (Genesis 49:9) that since the request to appoint a king at that time was displeasing to the Almighty, He did not want to immediately appoint a king from the tribe, from whom "the scepter shall not depart." And as for the words of Shmuel to Shaul “because now the Lord would confirm your reign over Israel forever”, then, according to Ramban, if Shaul had not sinned, it is quite possible that he and his descendants would have continued to rule among the people of Israel, but not over all knees. Maybe Shaul would have ruled over the tribes of the descendants of Rachel (Benyamin, Ephraim and Menashe) or he would have been a king subject to a king from the tribe of Judah.

It can be noted that, according to the Ramban, there could initially be the possibility that the people of Israel would have two kingdoms. The first is the kingdom of the descendants of Judah, which would rule over most of the people of Israel, and the second is the kingdom of the house of Shaul only over the descendants of Rachel, or a kind of vassal kingdom, subject to the house of David. Further in his commentary, the Ramban wrote that after the accession of David, those who appointed kings from tribes other than Judah violated Jacob's command. According to Ramban, it was for this that the Hasmonean dynasty, whose representatives were koen, received punishment.

Talmudist and Tanakh commentator r. Menachem ben Shlomo Meiri (1249-1316) in the preface to his commentary on the book of Tehilim. In his opinion, in the days when Shmuel anointed Sha'ul to be king, there was no one in the tribe of Judah who was fit to be king. And since the children of Israel asked to urgently appoint a king over them, the Most High fulfilled their request, and a king from another tribe was appointed. This appointment was temporary until one appeared among the descendants of Judah who would be worthy of royal power. And after Shaul sinned, it became clear that the time of his reign had expired and a worthy representative of the tribe of Judah should come to replace him.

However, from the above opinion that Shaul's kingdom was temporary, it does not follow that Saul must have sinned in order for the kingdom to pass to David. It is quite possible that if he had not sinned, then the kingdom would have passed from the dynasty of Shaul to the dynasty of David in a natural way. For example, after Shaul's death, the kingdom could have passed to his son Yeonathan, who, being a friend of David and recognizing that David was destined to be king, would have handed over the reins of government to him. Also, one of David's wives was Shaul's daughter, Michal, and giving him the throne would have looked natural.

In his halachic work "Mishneh Torah" Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Rambam; 1138-1204) did not address the question of the legitimacy of Shaul's kingdom, but formulated an important principle of the eternity of the Davidic dynasty. He wrote in The Laws of Kings and Wars (1:9): “Kings from the dynasty of David will reign forever, as it is written: “Your throne will be enduring forever” (Shmuel II, 7:16). But if a king from other tribes of Israel reigns, the reign of his house will end, as it was said to Jeroham: “but not forever” ”(Mlahim I, 11:39).

One can understand that, according to the Rambam, the power of any dynasty other than the Davidic dynasty can initially only be temporary. As an example of such a temporary dynasty, the Rambam mentioned Jerovam, who was appointed by the prophet Ahijah, and he ruled over ten tribes after the division of the kingdom after the death of King Solomon. Perhaps the Rambam wanted to emphasize that only after the dynasty of David had been established, the power of other royal houses could not be permanent and they could not replace the house of David.

Reading the Tanakh, one can see how imperfect Shaul's kingdom was, and the identity of the king himself was also ambiguous.

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