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STD Facts - Human papillomavirus (HPV)

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the United States. HPV vaccines can prevent some of the health effects HPV causes. This fact sheet answers basic questions about HPV.

What is HPV?

HPV is the most common STI. There were about 43 million HPV infections in 2018, many among people in their late teens and early 20s. There are many different types of HPV. Some types can cause health problems, including genital warts and cancers. But there are vaccines that can stop these health problems from happening. HPV is a different virus than HIV and HSV (herpes).

How is HPV spread?

You can get HPV by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has the virus. It is most commonly spread during vaginal or anal sex. It also spreads through close skin-to-skin touching during sex. A person with HPV can pass the infection to someone even when they have no signs or symptoms.

If you are sexually active, you can get HPV, even if you have had sex with only one person. You also can develop symptoms years after having sex with someone who has the infection. This makes it hard to know when you first got it.

Does HPV cause health problems?

In most cases (9 out of 10), HPV goes away on its own within two years without health problems. But when HPV does not go away, it can cause health problems like genital warts and cancer.

Genital warts usually appear as a small bump or group of bumps in the genital area. They can be small or large, raised or flat, or shaped like a cauliflower. A healthcare provider can usually diagnose warts by looking at the genital area.

Does HPV cause cancer?

HPV can cause cervical and other cancers, including cancer of the vulva, vagina, penis, or anus. It can also cause cancer in the back of the throat (called oropharyngeal cancer). This can include the base of the tongue and tonsils.

Cancer often takes years, even decades, to develop after a person gets HPV. Genital warts and cancers result from different types of HPV.

There is no way to know who will develop cancer or other health problems from HPV. People with weak immune systems (including those with HIV) may be less able to fight off HPV. They may also be more likely to develop health problems from HPV.

How can I avoid HPV and the health problems it can cause?

You can do several things to lower your chances of getting HPV.

Get vaccinated. The HPV vaccine is safe and effective. It can protect against diseases (including cancers) caused by HPV when given in the recommended age groups. (See “Who should get vaccinated?” below.)

Get screened for cervical cancer. Routine screening for women aged 21 to 65 years old can prevent cervical cancer.

If you are sexually active:

  • Use condoms the right way every time you have sex. This can lower your chances of getting HPV. But HPV can infect areas the condom does not cover. So, condoms may not fully protect against getting HPV; and
  • Be in a mutually monogamous relationship – or have sex only with someone who only has sex with you.

Who should get the HPV vaccine?

CDC recommends HPV vaccination for:

  • All preteens (including boys and girls) at age 11 or 12 years (or can start at age 9 years).
  • Everyone through age 26 years, if not vaccinated already.

Vaccination is not recommended for everyone older than age 26 years. However, some adults age 27 through 45 years who are not already vaccinated may decide to get the HPV vaccine after speaking with their healthcare provider about their risk for new HPV infections and the possible benefits of vaccination. HPV vaccination in this age range provides less benefit. Most sexually active adults have already been exposed to HPV, although not necessarily all of the HPV types targeted by vaccination.

At any age, having a new sex partner is a risk factor for getting a new HPV infection. People who are already in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship are not likely to get a new HPV infection.

How do I know if I have HPV?

There is no test to find out a person’s “HPV status. ” Also, there is no approved HPV test to find HPV in the mouth or throat.

There are HPV tests that can screen for cervical cancer. Healthcare providers only use these tests for screening women aged 30 years and older. HPV tests are not recommended to screen men, adolescents, or women under the age of 30 years.

Most people with HPV do not know they have the infection. They never develop symptoms or health problems from it. Some people find out they have HPV when they get genital warts. Women may find out they have HPV when they get an abnormal Pap test result (during cervical cancer screening). Others may only find out once they’ve developed more serious problems from HPV, such as cancers.

How common is HPV and health problems that develop from HPV?

HPV (the virus): CDC estimates that there were 43 million HPV infections in 2018. In that same year, there were 13 million new infections. HPV is so common that almost every sexually active person will get HPV at some point if they don’t get vaccinated.

Health problems related to HPV include genital warts and cervical cancer.

Genital warts: Prior to HPV vaccines, genital warts caused by HPV affected roughly 340,000 to 360,000 people yearly.* About one in 100 sexually active adults in the U.S. has genital warts at any given time.

Cervical cancer: Every year, nearly 12,000 women living in the U.S. will have cervical cancer. More than 4,000 women die from cervical cancer—even with screening and treatment.

There are other conditions and cancers caused by HPV that occur in people living in the United States. Every year, about 19,400 women and 12,100 men experience cancers caused by HPV.

*These figures only look at the number of people who sought care for genital warts. This could be less than the actual number of people who get genital warts.

I’m pregnant. Will having HPV affect my pregnancy?

Pregnant people with HPV can get genital warts or develop abnormal cell changes on the cervix. Routine cervical cancer screening can help find abnormal cell changes. You should get routine cervical cancer screening even when you are pregnant.

Is there treatment for HPV or health problems that develop from HPV?

There is no treatment for the virus itself. However, there are treatments for the health problems that HPV can cause:

  1. Genital warts can go away with treatment from your healthcare provider or with prescription medicine. If left untreated, genital warts may go away, stay the same, or grow in size or number.
  2. Cervical precancer treatment is available. Women who get routine Pap tests and follow up as needed can find problems before cancer develops. Prevention is always better than treatment. For more information visit
  3. Other HPV-related cancers are also more treatable when found and treated early. For more information visit

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4 Signs You Might Have Sleep Apnea

4 Signs You Might Have Sleep Apnea | Johns Hopkins Medicine

Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes the airways to collapse or become blocked while you’re asleep. It can cause you to stop breathing for 20 to 30 seconds at a time, numerous times throughout the night.

Untreated apnea can increase the risk of a number of diseases, including high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, diabetes and some headache syndromes. Yet many people with sleep apnea don’t know they have it.

Could you be one of them? Watch out for these warning signs.

1. You’re a Noisy Sleeper

Snoring, snorting or gasping: Noisy sleep is a warning sign that your upper airway might be obstructed. Not all snorers have apnea, but the two often go hand-in-hand. As snoring gets louder, chances of having sleep apnea are greater and greater.

If you have apnea, your bed partner might notice that the snores are punctuated by pauses in breathing. Those are apnea episodes, and they can recur hundreds of times a night.

2. You’re Restless During Sleep

People with apnea often toss and turn and otherwise show signs of restless nighttime sleep. If you find yourself kicking, thrashing, jerking or waking up under a twisted pile of disheveled sheets, apnea might be a possible cause. When you’re struggling to breathe at night, your sleep becomes disrupted.

What Could It Be?

Sleep apnea is hardly the only issue that interferes with sleep. Experts have described more than 70 different sleep disorders. Other common culprits include:

  • Restless legs syndrome: RLS causes unpleasant sensations in the legs and an urge to move them for relief.
  • Narcolepsy: This disorder causes people to fall asleep suddenly during the day for periods of a few seconds to a number of minutes. It occurs regardless of how much sleep a person gets at night.
  • Insomnia: Some 60 million Americans regularly have trouble falling or staying asleep, for a variety of reasons.

If you're having trouble sleeping, you should learn when to talk to your doctor .

3. You’re Always Tired

If you’re getting a full night of sleep but still feel tired all day, apnea might be affecting the quality of your sleep. You might nod off when reading or in front of the TV. You might be more irritable, less productive and make more mistakes at work. You might even find yourself catching more colds, since poor quality sleep can interfere with the immune system. There are all kinds of spillovers from bad quality sleep into daytime activities.

4. You Fit the Profile

Some people are at greater risk of obstructive sleep apnea. Men are more likely to have apnea than women, though the risk for women increases after menopause. And being overweight or obese increases apnea risk markedly.

If you recognize any of these warning signs, talk to your doctor. He or she will probably recommend a sleep study. Sleep studies are done overnight in a specialized lab or, sometimes, in your own home. The sleep study is a way to characterize the breathing patterns while you’re asleep.


  • Airway Obstruction

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea

  • Sleep


  • Health Risks

    Do You Need Sleep Help?

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Wisdom from life experience

Municipalities Sabinsky municipal district Thematic sections It is interesting!!! Wisdom from life experience

  • Pain can make you stronger or burn you to ashes, the choice is yours.
  • Your path will always remain your path, you can take other people with you, but you cannot have someone else walk this path for you.
  • You can fall, but no one can stop you from getting up again and continuing on your way.
  • Moving towards your goal can be long and tiring, but the most important thing is that you are moving towards it.
  • Age creates wrinkles on the body, and the rejection of a dream creates wrinkles in the soul.
  • Watch your words, you can't take them back, they can hurt, and apologies may not be enough to heal.
  • True love can grow only on the provision of freedom and the ability to forgive.
  • Maturity comes not when we start talking about big things, but when we start to understand small things.
  • If someone can't accept your worst, they don't deserve your best.
  • Live as if someone spoke badly about you, but no one could believe them.
  • Don't label other people. They may not appear to be who they really are.
  • Don't let what doesn't matter cause you to lose what matters.
  • The one who complains about everything around and does not appreciate anything can be the most dangerous enemy of your success.
  • Don't be afraid to go slowly, be afraid to stand still - that's the worst thing you can do to yourself.
  • Tell the truth. She is like a boomerang, and like a lie, is able to come back.
  • People rarely notice when something is done for them, they notice it when they stop doing it for them.
  • Ninety percent of our worries are about what won't happen.
  • Success is the ability to move from failure to failure without losing enthusiasm.
  • If you have a choice between two people, then choose the second, because if you truly loved the first, then the second would not have appeared.
  • To find a new way, you need to get off the old road.
  • Only the actions of a person speak of his personality and his attitude towards you.

Don't believe the words, just watch and you will see the truth.

  • The rule to live by is to remain human in all situations.
  • We think God sees us from above, but he sees us from within.
  • If you find a person with whom you can behave as freely as you behave alone with yourself, then appreciate him as air.
  • A strong person is not one who defeats the weak, but one who helps the weak to become strong.
  • Accidents do not exist. Everything in this world is either a test, or a punishment, or a reward.
  • Life is not those days that have passed, but those that remain.
  • Where we are expected, we always turn out just in time.
  • If you want to be successful, you must look like you have it.
  • Those who read books will always control those who watch TV.
  • When you point your finger at others, see that the other three fingers are pointing at you.
  • The worst enemy is doubt. Because of him, we lose what we could have gained, but did not even try.
  • Do not be offended by words when you do not see the eyes.
  • Recipe for success: study while others sleep, work while others hang around, prepare while others play, dream while others wish.
  • Sometimes one touch can do more than you think.
  • In 20 years you will regret what you didn't do more than what you did.
  • If a person is looking for the meaning of life, he will not find anything. If a person seeks life itself, he will find its meaning.
  • Life is not a zebra of black and white stripes, but a chessboard. It all depends on your move.
  • It is better to act beautifully than to speak beautifully.
  • Wherever you go, start where you are.
  • Being lonely doesn't mean you're weak, it means you're strong enough to wait for what you deserve.
  • Be attentive to your thoughts, they are the beginning of actions.
  • The one who is guilty does not always ask for forgiveness. The one who cherishes the relationship asks for forgiveness.
  • Friends we choose ourselves, but time leaves the best of them.
  • Sometimes you have to fight for happiness with yourself, with laziness, with pride and attachments.
  • Most people spend their lives in captivity, because they live only in the future and the past, they deny the present. Although the present is where it all begins.
  • The true attitude towards a person does not depend on the mood and circumstances.
  • Love is a priceless gift. It's the only thing we can give, and yet we still have it.
  • Don't rely too much on anyone in this world, because your own shadow eats you when you're in the dark.
  • In this world, there is only one way to earn love - stop demanding it and start giving.
  • Speaking without thinking is like shooting without aiming.
  • Everyone wants to change the world, but no one wants to change himself.
  • Too many people break down without realizing how close they were to success at the moment they lost heart.
  • The most cruel thing is to leave without explanation, to leave silently, leaving a person alone with hundreds of razor-sharp questions in his head, to which only you can answer.
  • Our views are like our clocks - they all show different times, but everyone believes only their own.
  • The more you try to achieve a person who does not appreciate you, the more painful for you will be the blows of his indifference.
  • To be listened to, sometimes it is enough to switch to a whisper.
  • Choose a job you love and you won't have to work a single day in your life.
  • When I'm having a hard time, I always remind myself that if I give up, it won't get better.
  • Today people have ceased to perceive each other as actually people. They are interested in everything: how you dress, how much you earn, what car you drive, but not yourself.
  • There is no greater pleasure in life than the pleasure of overcoming difficulties on the way to success.
  • Life is a series of problems, and the choice is ours to either whine or solve them.
  • In this life it doesn't matter how you fall, what matters is how you rise.
  • To fly with eagles, do not graze with turkeys.
  • Never take the advice of people who do not live the way you want to live.
  • The only person you have to compare yourself to is you in the past. And the only person you should be better than is you right now.
  • Imagine how quiet it would be if people only spoke what they knew.
  • Take risks, if you win, you will be happy, and if you lose, you will be wise.
  • It is not difficult to believe people, it is difficult to believe again.
  • The only recipe for any business is to be sincere. When you are passionate, do something sincerely, then everything works out.
  • People spend their whole lives looking for something beautiful, but in the end they get what they deserve.
  • We are never deceived, we are deceived ourselves.
  • Each person is given at least 10 opportunities to change their life during the day.
  • We say the most important words in our lives in silence.
  • Ridiculous screaming in rage, but terrible silent in offense.
  • When communicating with a person, remember that he has a good opinion of himself.
  • Today is not an ordinary day, today is the day in which our future is created.
  • The more often you face fear, the less strength it has left.
  • Do not be afraid to love! Love wins and will win!
  • The main thing in fighting for each other is to believe in each other.

Last updated: Dec 6, 2021 9:38 AM

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Effect of varicocele on conception: is it possible to have children

Varicocele is an enlargement of the veins of the spermatic cords in men. Because of it, the blood stagnates in the scrotum and the formation of healthy spermatozoa is disrupted. Thus, varicocele often causes infertility. In 40% of men complaining of infertility, varicocele is responsible for it.

Causes of the disease

Varicocele is one of the most common diseases among men, it affects from 15 to 20% of the population. The risk group includes young people from 14 to 25 years old who lead an active lifestyle (sports, hard physical work).

In addition, a factor that contributes to the development of the disease may be an increase in venous pressure.

ICD-10 divides varicocele into three stages. During the first expansion of the veins can not be determined by palpation, and for the diagnosis it is necessary to do a special test - the Valsalva test. In the second stage, dilated veins are palpated, but they cannot be visually noticed. And, finally, at the last stage, varicose veins are perfectly visible to the naked eye, testicular atrophy occurs.

Initially, varicocele is asymptomatic, but after some time passes into an open phase and is accompanied by periodic pulling pain in the scrotum.

How varicocele affects infertility

Dilated veins interfere with proper blood flow in the groin area, which disrupts thermoregulation in the testicles. For the maturation of spermatozoa, a temperature is required below body temperature. Stagnation of venous blood leads to overheating, and germ cells develop poorly.

Another factor in the influence of varicocele on conception is the penetration of cells of the immune system into the testicle. They mark the sperm as foreign and begin to attack them. This leads not only to the destruction of germ cells, but also to the development of an autoimmune disease with inflammation and deterioration of well-being.

Is it possible to have children with varicocele

Of course, varicocele affects infertility, but not in 100% of cases. Depending on the stage of the disease, the quality of sperm may deteriorate, but it cannot reduce the chance of conceiving a child to zero. Is it possible to have children with varicocele? Yes, with a large number of attempts, there is a chance that the child will still be conceived.

Infertility with varicocele is reversible. There are several surgeries that eliminate varicose veins and restore normal blood circulation in the scrotum. After that, the testes begin to produce healthy sperm.

Is varicocele always the cause of infertility

Of course, varicocele is a factor that negatively affects sperm quality. However, it is far from the only one. There are many causes of infertility (genetic disorders, testosterone deficiency, psychotropic substances and a dozen more factors). Some of them can be combined with varicocele. Therefore, not always the operation to eliminate varicose veins of the spermatic cord will restore the fertility of a man. Spermogram can determine the cause of infertility.

After surgery to eliminate a varicocele, pregnancy can occur no earlier than 3-6 months. The operation helps to cure infertility in 30% of cases.

Learn more