Oppositional personality type
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Children
What is oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in children?
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a type of behavior disorder. It is mostly diagnosed in childhood. Children with ODD are uncooperative, defiant, and hostile toward peers, parents, teachers, and other authority figures. They are more troubling to others than they are to themselves.
What causes ODD in a child?
Researchers don’t know what causes ODD. But there are 2 main theories for why it occurs:
- Developmental theory. This theory suggests that the problems start when children are toddlers. Children and teens with ODD may have had trouble learning to become independent from a parent or other main person to whom they were emotionally attached. Their behavior may be normal developmental issues that are lasting beyond the toddler years.
- Learning theory. This theory suggests that the negative symptoms of ODD are learned attitudes. They mirror the effects of negative reinforcement methods used by parents and others in power. The use of negative reinforcement increases the child’s ODD behaviors. That’s because these behaviors allow the child to get what he or she wants: attention and reaction from parents or others.
Which children are at risk for ODD?
ODD is more common in boys than in girls. Children with the following mental health problems are also more likely to have ODD:
- Mood or anxiety disorders
- Conduct disorder
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
What are the symptoms of ODD in a child?
Most symptoms seen in children and teens with ODD also happen at times in other children without it. This is especially true for children around ages 2 or 3, or during the teen years. Many children tend to disobey, argue with parents, or defy authority. They may often behave this way when they are tired, hungry, or upset. But in children and teens with ODD, these symptoms happen more often. They also interfere with learning and school adjustment. And in some cases, they disrupt the child’s relationships with others.
Symptoms of ODD may include:
- Having frequent temper tantrums
- Arguing a lot with adults
- Refusing to do what an adult asks
- Always questioning rules and refusing to follow rules
- Doing things to annoy or upset others, including adults
- Blaming others for the child’s own misbehaviors or mistakes
- Being easily annoyed by others
- Often having an angry attitude
- Speaking harshly or unkindly
- Seeking revenge or being vindictive
These symptoms may look like other mental health problems. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is ODD diagnosed in a child?
If you notice symptoms of ODD in your child or teen, you can help by seeking a diagnosis right away. Early treatment can often prevent future problems.
A child psychiatrist or qualified mental health expert can diagnose ODD. He or she will talk with the parents and teachers about the child’s behavior and may observe the child. In some cases, your child may need mental health testing.
How is ODD treated in a child?
Early treatment can often prevent future problems. Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and health. It will also depend on how bad the ODD is.
Children with ODD may need to try different therapists and types of therapies before they find what works for them. Treatment may include:
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy. A child learns to better solve problems and communicate. He or she also learns how to control impulses and anger.
- Family therapy. This therapy helps make changes in the family. It improves communication skills and family interactions. Having a child with ODD can be very hard for parents. It can also cause problems for siblings. Parents and siblings need support and understanding.
- Peer group therapy. A child develops better social and interpersonal skills.
- Medicines. These are not often used to treat ODD. But a child may need them for other symptoms or disorders, such as ADHD.
How can I help prevent ODD in my child?
Researchers don’t know what causes ODD. But certain approaches can help prevent the disorder. Young children be helped by early intervention programs that teach them social skills and how to deal with anger. For teens, talk therapy (psychotherapy), learning social skills, and getting help with schoolwork can all help reduce problem behaviors. School-based programs can also help to stop bullying and improve relationships among teens.
Parent-management training programs are also important. These programs teach parents how to manage their child’s behavior. Parents learn positive reinforcement methods, and also how to discipline their child.
How can I help my child live with ODD?
Early treatment for your child can often prevent future problems. Here are things you can do to help:
- Keep all appointments with your child’s healthcare provider.
- Take part in family therapy as needed.
- Talk with your child’s healthcare provider about other providers who will be involved in your child’s care. Your child may get care from a team that may include counselors, therapists, social workers, psychologists, and psychiatrists. Your child’s care team will depend on his or her needs and how serious the disorder is.
- Tell others about your child’s conduct disorder. Work with your child’s healthcare provider and school to develop a treatment plan.
- Reach out for support. Being in touch with other parents who have a child with ODD may be helpful. If you feel overwhelmed or stressed out, talk with your child’s healthcare provider. He or she may direct you to a support group for caregivers of children with ODD.
When should I call my child’s healthcare provider?
Call your child’s healthcare provider right away if your child:
- Feels extreme depression, fear, anxiety, or anger toward him or herself or others
- Feels out of control
- Hears voices that others don’t hear
- Sees things that others don’t see
- Can’t sleep or eat for 3 days in a row
- Shows behavior that concerns friends, family, or teachers, and others express concern about this behavior and ask you to seek help
Call 911 if your child has suicidal thoughts, a suicide plan, and the means to carry out the plan.
Key points about ODD in children
- Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a type of behavior disorder. Children with ODD are uncooperative, defiant, and hostile toward peers, parents, teachers, and other authority figures.
- Developmental problems may cause ODD. Or the behaviors may be learned.
- A child with ODD may argue a lot with adults or refuse to do what they ask. He or she may also be unkind to others.
- A mental health expert often diagnoses ODD.
- Therapy that helps the child interact better with others is the main treatment. Medicines may be needed for other problems, such as ADHD.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child. Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important if your child becomes ill and you have questions or need advice.
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) - Symptoms and causes
Even the best-behaved children can be difficult and challenging at times. But if your child or teenager has a frequent and persistent pattern of anger, irritability, arguing, defiance or vindictiveness toward you and other authority figures, he or she may have oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).
As a parent, you don't have to go it alone in trying to manage a child with ODD. Doctors, mental health professionals and child development experts can help.
Behavioral treatment of ODD involves learning skills to help build positive family interactions and to manage problematic behaviors. Additional therapy, and possibly medications, may be needed to treat related mental health disorders.
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Sometimes it's difficult to recognize the difference between a strong-willed or emotional child and one with oppositional defiant disorder. It's normal to exhibit oppositional behavior at certain stages of a child's development.
Signs of ODD generally begin during preschool years. Sometimes ODD may develop later, but almost always before the early teen years. These behaviors cause significant impairment with family, social activities, school and work.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, lists criteria for diagnosing ODD. The DSM-5 criteria include emotional and behavioral symptoms that last at least six months.
Angry and irritable mood:
- Often and easily loses temper
- Is frequently touchy and easily annoyed by others
- Is often angry and resentful
Argumentative and defiant behavior:
- Often argues with adults or people in authority
- Often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults' requests or rules
- Often deliberately annoys or upsets people
- Often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior
- Is often spiteful or vindictive
- Has shown spiteful or vindictive behavior at least twice in the past six months
ODD can vary in severity:
- Mild. Symptoms occur only in one setting, such as only at home, school, work or with peers.
- Moderate. Some symptoms occur in at least two settings.
- Severe. Some symptoms occur in three or more settings.
For some children, symptoms may first be seen only at home, but with time extend to other settings, such as school and with friends.
When to see a doctor
Your child isn't likely to see his or her behavior as a problem. Instead, he or she will probably complain about unreasonable demands or blame others for problems. If your child shows signs that may indicate ODD or other disruptive behavior, or you're concerned about your ability to parent a challenging child, seek help from a child psychologist or a child psychiatrist with expertise in disruptive behavior problems.
Ask your primary care doctor or your child's pediatrician to refer you to the appropriate professional.
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There's no known clear cause of oppositional defiant disorder. Contributing causes may be a combination of inherited and environmental factors, including:
- Genetics — a child's natural disposition or temperament and possibly neurobiological differences in the way nerves and the brain function
- Environment — problems with parenting that may involve a lack of supervision, inconsistent or harsh discipline, or abuse or neglect
Oppositional defiant disorder is a complex problem. Possible risk factors for ODD include:
- Temperament — a child who has a temperament that includes difficulty regulating emotions, such as being highly emotionally reactive to situations or having trouble tolerating frustration
- Parenting issues — a child who experiences abuse or neglect, harsh or inconsistent discipline, or a lack of parental supervision
- Other family issues — a child who lives with parent or family discord or has a parent with a mental health or substance use disorder
- Environment — oppositional and defiant behaviors can be strengthened and reinforced through attention from peers and inconsistent discipline from other authority figures, such as teachers
Children and teenagers with oppositional defiant disorder may have trouble at home with parents and siblings, in school with teachers, and at work with supervisors and other authority figures. Children with ODD may struggle to make and keep friends and relationships.
ODD may lead to problems such as:
- Poor school and work performance
- Antisocial behavior
- Impulse control problems
- Substance use disorder
Many children and teens with ODD also have other mental health disorders, such as:
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
- Conduct disorder
- Learning and communication disorders
Treating these other mental health disorders may help improve ODD symptoms. And it may be difficult to treat ODD if these other disorders are not evaluated and treated appropriately.
There's no guaranteed way to prevent oppositional defiant disorder. However, positive parenting and early treatment can help improve behavior and prevent the situation from getting worse. The earlier that ODD can be managed, the better.
Treatment can help restore your child's self-esteem and rebuild a positive relationship between you and your child. Your child's relationships with other important adults in his or her life — such as teachers and care providers — also will benefit from early treatment.
By Mayo Clinic Staff
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How to become an oppositionist (Part 2) –
How to become an oppositionist (Part 2)
In the first part of this essay, using the biographies of Russian oppositionists of the 19th and 20th centuries as an example, we compiled a classification of the most prominent and significant types of personalities of opponents of power and tried to answer the question of what circumstances formed such types of personalities. In this part of our essay, we will try to answer some related questions. In particular, why exactly these types are expressed among the oppositionists? Do the factors indicated as the reasons for the formation of a person as an opposition always form the corresponding behavior? Is the transition to opposition different for men and women? What other classifications of oppositionists can be distinguished? So, let's begin.
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The first of these questions is why exactly these types are most pronounced in real opposition movements and always exist in them?
The answer lies in the fact that the leading positions in the opposition movements are occupied by precisely these types, they are also peculiar ideals. The more a person corresponds to them, the more chances he has to get to the corresponding positions within the opposition movement. Of course, there are also other types of oppositionists, but they do not reach prominent or leading positions for the reasons that the set of their personality traits does not contribute to this, also, access to resources plays the most important role - to the media, physical proximity to the capital, financial assets.
What other types of opposition exist? For example, such: "objective analyst", "ordinary technical worker", "active organizer" and others. Why do we not consider these additional types of oppositionists? Because we, as the goal of our essay, have set the study of the most prominent or leading types of oppositionists, their psychology and biography. In addition, we have described only those types that are always there, which are, as a rule, “ideals” and role models for other oppositionists (despite the dislike of their leaders within the opposition organizations for each other). Perhaps, the rank-and-file workers of the opposition often do not have that “psychic peculiarity” or “peculiar personality” that the most prominent “passionaries” have.
But then why do people with the same mental uniqueness and biography become not only supporters of the opposition, but also supporters of the authorities or just ordinary people who do not interfere in politics? The answer is that in the social sciences there are statistical patterns that fix causality only with a certain probability. This means that these features of biographies (reason) lead to opposition only with some probability. But this does not change anything, because it is these causes that lead to the effect with a high probability, that is, they lead to the effect with a greater probability than any other factors. So they retain the status of causes.
But these causes are valid only under certain conditions. What are these conditions? Firstly, the crisis and weakness of the state, secondly, the weakness of the system of suppression of the opposition, thirdly, the transitional state of society (for example, the industrial revolution), fourthly, the presence of a relatively nearby richer state, attractive and strong.
We have finished describing the main types of oppositionists. It is necessary once again to turn to the analysis of this personality trait - "mental originality". In reality, this originality is rather expressed in the form of some personal autism. This does not mean autism as a disease, but rather a deep conviction in one’s own, established judgments, a refusal to accept alternative information, isolation in one’s intellectual world, and hence progressive incompetence, an increase in misunderstanding of the world around. This is what ultimately leads to the fact that these people begin to follow some fixed idea, for example, the idea of democracy can act as such. At the same time, often rejecting everything else, it means that the idea opposes life, reality.
Such personalities, as a result of life, reach wisdom. Mind and striving for a self-sufficient idea destroy wisdom. Intellectuals and oppositionists in our country often claimed that they “experience in their fate and actions the fate of the entire motherland, they worry about all of Russia, for all of humanity.” But this is already dangerous - the feeling of one's own importance quite easily turns into an idea of oneself as a carrier of absolute truth, which means that all other people and the country turn into an object of application of these "true ideas".
Now here's an interesting question: does the transition to opposition differ between men and women? In most cases, as I understand it, no. But women often have some kind of milder version of the “transition to dissidence”, mainly those who have not had a chance to experience serious disasters. Such a person is naturally smart, gets a good education and absorbs the ideas of freedom, equality, justice or something like that. But at some point in his life, about twenty or twenty-five years old, this person quickly develops self-consciousness and a clear (as he sees it) understanding of the world. He sees a contradiction between the ideal and reality and becomes a dissident. It doesn’t even matter whether this happened during the USSR or is happening in modern times. In other words, the transition to oppositionality is associated with the construction in a person's head of an "image of an ideal world" and a refusal to accept reality. Of course, we are not talking about mental disorders, but about a certain type of personality. But here's what is important: such a transition to dissidence, as described above, is possible only if the personalities of such people were initially somewhat unstable, precisely unstable, or have not yet been formed.
Above is a classification of types of opposition figures. But there are two more types of individuals who do not actively work in the opposition system, but become opponents of the authorities only when they find themselves in the West, or when power in Russia is shaken.
Let's call the first such type "sofa freedom lover". These are mostly people with great ambitions and demands for life and the environment, but not for themselves. They may not be smart people at all and not have a good education, but they are cunning and resourceful. Having broken free, they consider themselves better than the rest. At the same time, they themselves did not earn enough money and the persons did not achieve anything, they are served and fed by others. Ambition and undemanding to themselves - these are their main personality traits. Often such people fully agree that it is supposedly good if Russia were to be conquered in due time by some, as they believe, “more developed people”, led, for example, by Napoleon Bonaparte or Woodrow Wilson. They would quite agree that any non-Western people could be subjugated by any Western people. How does it appear, for what reason is such a socio-psychological type of people formed? In any country there is a type of people for whom their own welfare is above everything in general. These people are mostly uncultured and poorly educated. More precisely, their cultural needs are rather low, although it would probably take a lot of money to satisfy them (a yacht, a new car, etc.).
The second such type, which becomes a dissident only when it is safe and profitable, is the “pragmatic dissident”. Who is this? These people make up a narrow stratum in society, directly participating in public and political life, directly or indirectly. Their goal is to obtain benefits and profits by any means. Basically, they make a career according to the rules adopted in a given country, use its benefits, but when the country itself begins to collapse, they sharply and publicly change their socio-political orientation. An example of this is shown as the loyalist pro-monarchist intellectuals of the early twentieth century in Russia, who suddenly abruptly became democrats and liberals during the revolution in February 1917
Concluding our discussion about the oppositionists, we note a few more important ideas that have not found a place in the narrative above. First of all, in the Russian tradition, the Russian oppositionist is a liberal intellectual. But the opposition can be like the military, for example, the Decembrists. The bottom line is that among all types of opposition of all times and peoples, there are all these five types, or rather, someone plays the role of each of them. Further, a very part of the opposition makes it more radical that at a young age they were poor. This adds to the aggressiveness. In addition, opposition appears more easily if there is some external supporting structure, another country, or an idea (liberalism, socialism - it doesn’t matter) that you can focus on. Further, oppositionists often deny not just the system of power, but also religion, worldview and other parts of the culture of their own country, because they deny power. If there is a binary worldview in society, then the opposition is more radical. The peculiarity of oppositional thinking and behavior, such as division into friends and foes, good and evil, is the norm for them.
~ ~ ~
How did the author come up with the idea to write this essay? In one scientific institute of the SB RAS, on the information board, among job announcements and schedules, the author saw a poster written by one of the institute's employees. The poster contained an obituary dedicated to the American chess player Bobby Fischer, written in extremely laudatory tones. The author of this essay was embarrassed that someone paid such great respect to an American chess player, one of the two who could win the world chess crown from Soviet chess players. Fischer beat Boris Spassky at 1972 year. The second, by the way, was Max Euwe, who was considered the champion from 1935 to 1937. Fischer held the chess crown from 1972 to 1975. Thus, from 1927 to 1993, world champions were almost always from the USSR. Is that really such a respect? Why are there no laudatory reviews about Soviet chess players who have always been stronger than American ones? There is clearly some kind of intellectual opposition, love for the West and dislike for the USSR. Why is opposition still so strong among the intelligentsia, and not even to the modern Russian government, but to the Soviet Union? This means that there are some mechanisms and psychological and biographical features in the environment of the intelligentsia class, which make it in many ways oppositional. Strictly speaking, this essay is an attempt to answer the question of what kind of biographical and social reasons form the opposition. It is a pity that few people in Russian sociology do this.
It should be said that Russian social knowledge lags far behind the world. Therefore, we need works that do not just copy the classics of Western psychology and sociology. We need large-scale research at the frontiers of sciences, discovering something new. Perhaps, by conducting such, we will get out of scientific backwardness.
Political party - types, scheme, structure, functions
Concept, functions, signs of political parties
Political party is an organized group of like-minded people that expresses the interests of specific social strata and at the same time strives to achieve power in the state. Examples of such goals are the conquest of state power or participation in its implementation.
Elements that form the structure of the party: party leader, party apparatus, rank and file members, party supporters.
Main functions of political parties:
- struggle for power in the state and influence on state policy;
- participation in the exercise of power;
- participation in the formation of the political system of the state;
- formation of public opinion;
- expression of interests of social groups;
- political education;
- training and promotion of political personnel;
- protection of the interests of various social groups.
Distinguishing features of political parties:
- focus on gaining and exercising power;
- the presence of a political program - a document that formulates the goals and objectives of the party;
- the presence of an organization - governing bodies, membership, party charter;
- the presence of an extensive network of local organizations, the core of which is formed by volunteer activists;
- the presence of a certain ideology or a special vision of the world and man.
Let's move on to the most important thing - the main types of political parties.
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Classification of political parties
Political parties can be classified into types and types according to different criteria.
By type of ideology:
- Liberal parties are aimed at minimal state interference in society, freedom of economic and political life.
- Conservative parties are aimed at maintaining the current order and rejecting the ideas of serious reform.
- Social Democratic parties are oriented towards state participation in the life of society and state regulation of the economy while maintaining fundamental freedoms.
- Communist parties are in favor of complete equality.
- Nationalist parties build their activities on the basis of ideas about the advantage of a certain nation in the life of the country.
- Clerical parties are aimed at strengthening the influence of the church and religious ideas.
- Green parties aim to protect the environment.
- Fascist parties are based on the idea of the suppression of the individual, the elimination of freedom.
- Monarchist support the existence of monarchies and sole power.
In relation to social reality:
- Revolutionary parties are aimed at the radical transformation of society with the help of means of struggle.
- Reformist parties strive for the gradual transformation of society through legal means.
By the nature of membership:
Personnel parties are based on a small, free membership, while relying on professionals and active work during the election period.
Mass parties are based on numerous masses of the people, aim at political education, have a branched structure and systematically participate in political life.
Centralized parties are based on a system of mass membership and strict discipline, which requires the performance of certain functions by each member of the party.
Types of political parties in relation to power:
- The ruling are in power at a certain moment.
- Opposition (legal, illegal) seek power.
By place in the political spectrum:
- Leftist parties are in favor of reform, state regulation of the economy and the exclusion of the private sector, social protection of workers and radical revolutionary methods of carrying out transformations. This group includes the socialist and communist parties.
- Center parties are based on a balance between social equality, social hierarchy and resistance to political change both to the left and to the right.
- Right-wing parties stand for the idea of a strong state, the stability of social life, and the protection of private property. These include liberal and conservative parties.
According to the source of occurrence:
- Independent arise as a result of citizens' initiative.
- Pro-government are created on the initiative of the state during the election period.
- Associations of social groups created on the basis of .
According to the position in the governing structure:
- Parliamentary implement their policy through the parliament. Their main goal is to get the maximum number of votes and seats in elected bodies.
- Avant-garde do not consider participation in elections a key activity. Actively participate in public life.
Types of political parties by organizational structure:
- Classical - with a clear organizational structure and permanent membership.
- Movement - formal membership is typical.
- Political clubs - characterized by free membership.
Now we know the activities of various political parties.
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The concept of the party system
The party system is a set of parties that participate in the formation of legislative and executive power structures.
Depending on how many parties exercise political power, one-party, two-party and multi-party systems are distinguished.
Consider the types of party systems in the table.
|Party system name||Essence|
|One-party system|| |
One political party is active in the society, the power of which is enshrined in legislation and is undeniable. Formed under authoritarian and totalitarian regimes. At the same time, the leading role of a single party often receives constitutional consolidation.
Examples of countries with a one-party system: USSR, Cuba, India, China, North Korea.
|Two-party (binary) system|| |
In society, there are two strong parties that periodically come to power, replacing each other as a result of elections. Other parties do not have enough popularity to come to power and influence political life.
Examples of countries with a two-party system: USA (Republican and Democratic parties), Great Britain (Labor and Conservative parties).
|Multi-party system|| |
There is competition in society between several influential parties. However, none of them have clear advantages over others. Formed in developed democratic societies.
Examples of countries with a multi-party political system: France, Italy, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Israel.
A party can come to power democratically, as well as during a revolution or military coups. In Bhutan, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the activities of political parties are officially prohibited.
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The system of political parties in the legislation of the Russian Federation
The exact legal definition of a political party is enshrined in the legislation of each particular country. These definitions may vary depending on local political and legal traditions.
The Federal Law of the Russian Federation "On Political Parties" states that a political party is a public association that was created for the participation of citizens of the Russian Federation in the political life of society through the formation and expression of their political will, participation in public and political actions, in elections and referendums, as well as for the purpose of representing the interests of citizens in state authorities and local self-government bodies.
A political party in the Russian Federation must meet the following requirements:
- Have regional branches in more than half of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, while only one regional branch of this party can be created in a constituent entity of the Russian Federation.
- Consist of at least fifty thousand members, while in more than half of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation the party must have regional branches of at least five hundred members. In the remaining regional branches, the number of each of them cannot be less than two hundred and fifty party members.
- The governing and other bodies of a political party, its regional branches and other structural subdivisions must be located on the territory of the Russian Federation.
- A regional branch of a political party is understood to mean its structural subdivision, which was created by decision of its authorized governing body and operates on the territory of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation.
- In a subject of the Russian Federation, which includes one or more autonomous districts, a single regional branch of a political party may be created. Other structural subdivisions of the party (local and primary branches) are created in the cases and in the manner prescribed by its charter.
The goals and objectives of a political party are set out in its charter and program. The main goals of the party are:
- formation of public opinion;
- political education and upbringing of citizens;
- expression of opinions of citizens on any issues of public life, bringing these opinions to the attention of the general public and public authorities;
- nomination of candidates (lists of candidates) in the elections of the President of the Russian Federation, deputies of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, to the legislative (representative) bodies of state power of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, elected officials of local self-government and to the representative bodies of municipalities, participation in these elections, and also in the work of elected bodies.