Long term ptsd symptoms

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - Symptoms and causes


Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that's triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event.

Most people who go through traumatic events may have temporary difficulty adjusting and coping, but with time and good self-care, they usually get better. If the symptoms get worse, last for months or even years, and interfere with your day-to-day functioning, you may have PTSD.

Getting effective treatment after PTSD symptoms develop can be critical to reduce symptoms and improve function.

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Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may start within one month of a traumatic event, but sometimes symptoms may not appear until years after the event. These symptoms cause significant problems in social or work situations and in relationships. They can also interfere with your ability to go about your normal daily tasks.

PTSD symptoms are generally grouped into four types: intrusive memories, avoidance, negative changes in thinking and mood, and changes in physical and emotional reactions. Symptoms can vary over time or vary from person to person.

Intrusive memories

Symptoms of intrusive memories may include:

  • Recurrent, unwanted distressing memories of the traumatic event
  • Reliving the traumatic event as if it were happening again (flashbacks)
  • Upsetting dreams or nightmares about the traumatic event
  • Severe emotional distress or physical reactions to something that reminds you of the traumatic event


Symptoms of avoidance may include:

  • Trying to avoid thinking or talking about the traumatic event
  • Avoiding places, activities or people that remind you of the traumatic event

Negative changes in thinking and mood

Symptoms of negative changes in thinking and mood may include:

  • Negative thoughts about yourself, other people or the world
  • Hopelessness about the future
  • Memory problems, including not remembering important aspects of the traumatic event
  • Difficulty maintaining close relationships
  • Feeling detached from family and friends
  • Lack of interest in activities you once enjoyed
  • Difficulty experiencing positive emotions
  • Feeling emotionally numb

Changes in physical and emotional reactions

Symptoms of changes in physical and emotional reactions (also called arousal symptoms) may include:

  • Being easily startled or frightened
  • Always being on guard for danger
  • Self-destructive behavior, such as drinking too much or driving too fast
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Irritability, angry outbursts or aggressive behavior
  • Overwhelming guilt or shame

For children 6 years old and younger, signs and symptoms may also include:

  • Re-enacting the traumatic event or aspects of the traumatic event through play
  • Frightening dreams that may or may not include aspects of the traumatic event

Intensity of symptoms

PTSD symptoms can vary in intensity over time. You may have more PTSD symptoms when you're stressed in general, or when you come across reminders of what you went through. For example, you may hear a car backfire and relive combat experiences. Or you may see a report on the news about a sexual assault and feel overcome by memories of your own assault.

When to see a doctor

If you have disturbing thoughts and feelings about a traumatic event for more than a month, if they're severe, or if you feel you're having trouble getting your life back under control, talk to your doctor or a mental health professional. Getting treatment as soon as possible can help prevent PTSD symptoms from getting worse.

If you have suicidal thoughts

If you or someone you know has suicidal thoughts, get help right away through one or more of these resources:

  • Reach out to a close friend or loved one.
  • Contact a minister, a spiritual leader or someone in your faith community.
  • Call a suicide hotline number — in the United States, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (1-800-273-8255) to reach a trained counselor. Use that same number and press 1 to reach the Veterans Crisis Line.
  • Make an appointment with your doctor or a mental health professional.

When to get emergency help

If you think you may hurt yourself or attempt suicide, call 911 or your local emergency number immediately.

If you know someone who's in danger of attempting suicide or has made a suicide attempt, make sure someone stays with that person to keep him or her safe. Call 911 or your local emergency number immediately. Or, if you can do so safely, take the person to the nearest hospital emergency room.

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You can develop post-traumatic stress disorder when you go through, see or learn about an event involving actual or threatened death, serious injury or sexual violation.

Doctors aren't sure why some people get PTSD. As with most mental health problems, PTSD is probably caused by a complex mix of:

  • Stressful experiences, including the amount and severity of trauma you've gone through in your life
  • Inherited mental health risks, such as a family history of anxiety and depression
  • Inherited features of your personality — often called your temperament
  • The way your brain regulates the chemicals and hormones your body releases in response to stress

Risk factors

People of all ages can have post-traumatic stress disorder. However, some factors may make you more likely to develop PTSD after a traumatic event, such as:

  • Experiencing intense or long-lasting trauma
  • Having experienced other trauma earlier in life, such as childhood abuse
  • Having a job that increases your risk of being exposed to traumatic events, such as military personnel and first responders
  • Having other mental health problems, such as anxiety or depression
  • Having problems with substance misuse, such as excess drinking or drug use
  • Lacking a good support system of family and friends
  • Having blood relatives with mental health problems, including anxiety or depression

Kinds of traumatic events

The most common events leading to the development of PTSD include:

  • Combat exposure
  • Childhood physical abuse
  • Sexual violence
  • Physical assault
  • Being threatened with a weapon
  • An accident

Many other traumatic events also can lead to PTSD, such as fire, natural disaster, mugging, robbery, plane crash, torture, kidnapping, life-threatening medical diagnosis, terrorist attack, and other extreme or life-threatening events.


Post-traumatic stress disorder can disrupt your whole life ― your job, your relationships, your health and your enjoyment of everyday activities.

Having PTSD may also increase your risk of other mental health problems, such as:

  • Depression and anxiety
  • Issues with drugs or alcohol use
  • Eating disorders
  • Suicidal thoughts and actions


After surviving a traumatic event, many people have PTSD-like symptoms at first, such as being unable to stop thinking about what's happened. Fear, anxiety, anger, depression, guilt — all are common reactions to trauma. However, the majority of people exposed to trauma do not develop long-term post-traumatic stress disorder.

Getting timely help and support may prevent normal stress reactions from getting worse and developing into PTSD. This may mean turning to family and friends who will listen and offer comfort. It may mean seeking out a mental health professional for a brief course of therapy. Some people may also find it helpful to turn to their faith community.

Support from others also may help prevent you from turning to unhealthy coping methods, such as misuse of alcohol or drugs.

By Mayo Clinic Staff


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The Long-Term Impact of PTSD

Post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD is a mental health condition that can develop after a person experiences or witnesses something traumatic. The symptoms can include nightmares, flashbacks, severe anxiety, and uncontrollable frightening thoughts about the event. Symptoms may get worse and can last for years, disrupting everyday functioning. It is crucial to get treatment for PTSD to reduce symptoms and improve your quality of life.

Symptoms of PTSD

Sometimes the manifestations of PTSD may not appear after the traumatic event has transpired. It can take months or years before you experience symptoms of PTSD. The symptoms can have a significant effect on your life, including your health, relationships, and daily routine, among others. Family members and loved ones of patients with PTSD can also be affected.

Experiencing PTSD varies from person to person. The following are the symptoms of PTSD:

  • Reliving the traumatic event. A person who has PTSD may have constant flashbacks, nightmares, and recurring memories of the event. They can experience emotional distress and intense physical reactions when something reminds them of the traumatic incident.
  • People who have PTSD may avoid conversations, activities, people, and places that evoke their memory of the event.
  • Negative mood and thoughts. People who have PTSD may feel hopeless and be unable to maintain close relationships. They may be emotionally numb, have trouble expressing feelings, and lose interest in activities they once enjoyed.
  • Intense physical and emotional reactions. They may exhibit reckless or aggressive behavior and get easily frightened or startled.

The intensity of PTSD symptoms varies for each patient. You could experience more PTSD symptoms if you do not receive any guidance or treatment.

Long-Term Effects Of PTSD

PTSD may have a long-term impact on a patient’s overall health. The following are the long-term impacts of PTSD in people’s lives:


People with PTSD often struggle with extreme feelings of fear and nervousness. They may feel in danger and act aggressively to maintain their safety. These strong emotions may lead them to rely on harmful coping mechanisms such as drug or alcohol abuse. The resulting anxiety and its complications can significantly impact mental and physical health and work performance.

Social Withdrawal

People with PTSD may alienate themselves from family and friends. They may reject companionship and society in general. This behavior can stem from their feelings of helplessness and detachment from people and their environment. They may also feel unsafe when they’re with other people. It can affect their health further and worsen existing medical conditions.

Insomnia and Other Sleep Disturbances

People with PTSD experience difficulties in sleeping, which can lead to insomnia. They may find it hard to fall or remain asleep. Due to this, they don’t feel energized when waking up and may lead to daytime fatigue and other symptoms.

Insomnia can create significant distress in a person’s life, and patients may find it hard to perform everyday tasks. Likewise, long-term sleep disturbance can negatively impact your physical health. It increases your risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and healthy weight maintenance.

Shame or Guilt

People who develop PTSD after enduring traumatic events may feel shame or guilt. It often stems from thinking they could have done things differently to change the outcomes of the event.

They may also experience survivor’s guilt, which is common in those who survive while others involved in the event did not. They may blame themselves and feel they did something wrong. Such shame and guilt may lead to depression, anxiety, or thoughts of suicide.

Chronic Pain

People who encountered a traumatic event such as physical or sexual assault, psychological abuse, vehicle accident, war, or a natural disaster may experience chronic pain. The pain may serve as a reminder of the traumatic event, which can make PTSD symptoms worse.

PTSD Treatment In Connecticut and New York City

PTSD is a severe condition and must be immediately dealt with to prevent further complications. Fortunately, the effects of PTSD do not have to last a lifetime. Consult with a professional right away if you think you or your loved one may be suffering from it.

At Psy-Visions, we will make sure you receive the quality treatment you or your family member need. We treat PTSD cases with care and will continue to guide patients until they regain control of their lives. If you want to set up an appointment with us, you may call (203) 405-1745 or request an appointment online. You may also send Dr. Stracks a secure message.


Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) | English translation

However, most people realize what happened after a few weeks, sometimes a little longer, and then their symptoms will begin to disappear.

Research shows that certain groups of people are at increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder. The risk of developing PTSD is reduced when a person has:

Any traumatic event can cause PTSD, although the more severe the shock, the more likely it is to develop PTSD. For example, PTSD is more likely to develop if the event:

  • is a sudden and unexpected
  • lasts a long time
  • , it happens when you get into a trap from which
  • could not get out by people
  • brings many deaths
  • leads to injuries
  • include children

if you are still stressed and in an uncertain state, this will make it difficult to get rid of the symptoms of PTSD.

How do I know that I have overcome a traumatic experience?

You may have already gotten over the traumatic event if you can:

  • think about it without worrying
  • not feel like you are under constant threat
  • not think about it all the time

Why is PTSD not always diagnosed?

There are a number of reasons why a person with PTSD may not be diagnosed.

Stigma and misunderstanding

People with PTSD often avoid talking about their feelings to avoid thinking about the traumatic event.

Some people believe that the symptoms they are experiencing (such as avoidance or emotional numbness) help them cope and do not realize that they are caused by PTSD.

When people are very ill, it is difficult for them to believe that they are able to feel the way they did before the traumatic event. This may discourage them from getting help.

There is also a common misconception that only military personnel suffer from PTSD. In fact, PTSD can happen to anyone, and any experience of PTSD is real.


Some people with PTSD may be misdiagnosed with conditions such as anxiety or depression. Some people have other mental and physical health problems that make PTSD go unnoticed.

They may also experience medically unexplained symptoms such as:

  • gastrointestinal disorders
  • pain syndromes
  • headaches

These symptoms may mean that their PTSD goes unnoticed.

Other difficulties

Some people with PTSD may also have other problems, such as difficulties in human relationships or addiction to alcohol and drugs. They may be caused by post-traumatic stress disorder, but these problems will manifest themselves more clearly than PTSD itself.

Can children develop PTSD?

PTSD can develop at any age. In addition to the symptoms of PTSD common to adults, children may also experience:

  • Nightmares - In children, these dreams may or may not reflect an actual traumatic event.
  • Repetitive play - some children act out a traumatic event during play. For example, a child who has been in a serious traffic accident may recreate the accident with toy cars.
  • Physical symptoms - they may complain of abdominal pain and headaches.
  • Fear of imminent death - they may find it hard to believe that they will live long enough to become adults.

What treatments are available for PTSD?

There are a number of different treatments for PTSD, including trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), eye movement desensitization and processing (EMDR), and medications.


Psychotherapy for PTSD will focus on the traumatic experience, not your past life. They will help you:

  • Acceptance - learn to accept the fact that although you cannot change what happened, you can think differently about the event, the world around you and your life.
  • Memory of the event - remembering what happened, you will not feel fear or anxiety. You will be able to think about what happened when you yourself want it, and not through obsessive thoughts or memories.
  • Explaining your experiences in words - by saying out loud what happened, your mind can push the memories away and do other things.
  • Finding a sense of security - helps you to better control your feelings. This will make you feel more secure and eliminate the need to avoid memories.

All psychotherapy must be administered by a properly trained and accredited professional. Sessions are usually conducted by the same therapist at least once a week, with a total duration of at least 8-12 weeks.

Sessions usually last about an hour, sometimes they can last up to 90 minutes.

Therapy for PTSD includes:

Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

A form of talking therapy that can help you change the way you think. Over time, this can help you feel better and behave differently. It is usually done individually, although there is evidence that CBT for trauma can also be done in groups.

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

A technique that uses eye movements to help the brain process traumatic memories.

You will be asked to remember the traumatic event and what it made you think and feel. While you do this, you will be prompted to move your eyes or receive other "two-way stimulation" such as tapping your hand. It turns out that this reduces the emotional burden experienced in connection with the traumatic memory and helps to cope with the trauma.

The GERD must be carried out by a qualified person. EPDH usually requires 8-12 sessions, lasting from 60 to 90 minutes.

Some other forms of talking therapy may be useful for treating certain symptoms (eg, poor sleep) in people for whom EMRT or CBT have not been effective for trauma.


If you have tried various treatments for PTSD and find that they do not work for you, your doctor may prescribe antidepressants for you.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressants that can help reduce symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. They can also help you if you are suffering from depression.

If SSRIs are not working for you, you may be offered other drugs, but this should usually be done on the advice of a mental health professional.

Which treatment is more effective?

There is evidence that Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Trauma and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing are the best first line treatments. Medication can help those who refuse talking therapy or cannot easily access it.

Which treatment should I take first?

Trauma-focused psychological therapy (TF-CBT or EMBT) should be offered prior to medication, to the extent possible. This is in line with the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines.

How can I help myself?

There are some things you can do to help you get better if you develop PTSD. Your therapist will help with this and make sure you apply them in a timely manner:

Stick to your daily routine - As far as possible, try to return to or maintain your normal daily routine. By continuing to lead a life as normal as possible, you can gain a sense of support.

Talk to someone you trust - Although you shouldn't feel like you need to talk to everyone about what happened, talking to someone you trust can help you sort out your feelings in a safe environment. It can also help to talk to someone who has gone through the same thing as you, or someone who has gone through something similar before, as long as it doesn't hurt you.

Try relaxation exercises - Try self-meditation and other relaxation exercises. Relaxing with PTSD can be challenging, so talk to your therapist about exercises or activities that can help you.

Return to work or school - if you feel empowered, it can help you return to work, school or university by giving you a sense of routine. However, you should try to avoid situations in which you may be subjected to further injury or severe stress. It is usually best to work in a supportive, low-stress environment before starting treatment.

Eat and exercise regularly - Try to eat at regular times, even if you don't feel hungry. If you feel fit, try to exercise regularly. It can also help you feel tired before bed.

Spend time with others - Spending time with the people you care about will help you feel supported.

Expect to get better - Concentrating on thoughts that you will feel better over time will be useful for your recovery. Remember that you should not strain yourself in an attempt to recover faster.

Go back to where the traumatic event happened - If you feel you can do it, you may want to go back to where the traumatic event happened. Talk to your therapist or doctor if you are considering this so they can support you through this step.

There are also some things you should avoid while recovering. However, doing the "right things" can be very difficult, and you shouldn't feel guilty if you find yourself doing any of the following:

Self-criticism - PTSD symptoms are not a sign of weakness. This is a normal reaction to violent experiences.

Keep your feelings to yourself. If you have PTSD, don't feel guilty about sharing your thoughts and feelings with others. Talking about how you are feeling can help your recovery.

Expect things to get back to normal quickly - PTSD can take some time to heal. Try not to demand too much of yourself in a short amount of time.

Stay away from other people. Spending a lot of time alone can increase your sense of isolation and make you feel less well.

Drink alcohol or smoke. While alcohol can help you relax, and coffee and nicotine can act as stimulants, they can make you feel worse over time if you're experiencing symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder.

Overwork. Post-traumatic stress disorder can make it difficult to sleep, but as much as possible, try to stick to your regular sleep schedule and stay up late, as this can make you feel worse. You can learn more about good sleep in our resource.

Finally, you should be careful while driving. After a traumatic episode, people may have more accidents.

What is complex PTSD?

Some people develop complex post-traumatic stress disorder, caused by an experience or series of events that is extremely threatening or terrifying. These events can occur in childhood or adulthood.

Often such events are difficult or impossible to avoid. For example:

  • torture
  • slavery
  • genocide
  • living in war zones
  • prolonged domestic violence
  • repeated sexual and physical abuse

In addition to symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, people with complex post-traumatic stress disorder may also:

  • emotions and emotional reactions
  • have difficulty maintaining relationships and feelings of closeness with other people

How do I recover from complex PTSD?

People with complex post-traumatic stress disorder are characterized by a lack of trust in other people and in the world at large.

Emotional stabilization

During the stabilization phase, you will learn to trust your therapist and to understand and manage feelings of distress and alienation.

As part of stabilization, you can familiarize yourself with the work with supports - "grounding techniques". This can help you focus on familiar physical sensations and remind you that you are living in the present, not the past.

Stabilization can help you "unplug" your feelings of fear and anxiety from the memories and the emotions they evoke, helping to make those memories less frightening.

The goal of stabilization is so that you can eventually live your life free from anxiety or memories.

Sometimes stabilization may be the only help needed.

Trauma Focused Therapy

Trauma Focused Therapy, including EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Processing) or Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, can help you deal with traumatic experiences. Other types of psychotherapy, including psychodynamic psychotherapy, may also be helpful. For complex post-traumatic stress disorder, care must be taken as these treatments can make things worse if not used properly.

Reintegration and recovery

Reintegration into normal life can help you adjust to the real world at a time when you have emerged from the dangerous situation you were in before. This can help you begin to see yourself as a person with a choice.

Reintegration can help you:

  • be compassionate towards yourself and others
  • restore trust in yourself and others
  • renew friendships, intimate relationships, and activities that promote your health and well-being


As with PTSD, antidepressants or other medications may be used along with psychotherapy. Medication may also be used if psychotherapy does not help or is not available to you. It would also be helpful to have a mental health professional help you oversee your medication.

Self Help

If you develop complex PTSD, it may be helpful to try to do ordinary things that have nothing to do with your past traumatic experience.

They can include:

  • Bring friends
  • Stuck work
  • to engage in regular physical exercises
  • Learn to relax
  • Find a hobby
  • to start domestic animals

These things can help you gradually start trusting the world around you . However, this can take time, and there is no need to be ashamed that at first these things will seem difficult to you or you will not be able to do them right away.

How do you know if someone has PTSD?

If you know someone who has just experienced a traumatic event, there are a few things you should be aware of. These moments can be signs that a person is not coping:

  • Changes in behavior - low productivity at work, lateness, sick leave, minor accidents.
  • Changes in emotions - anger, irritability, depression, lack of interest and lack of concentration.
  • Changes in thought - preoccupation with threats or fears, negative outlook on the future
  • Unexpected physical symptoms such as shortness of breath, nervousness or abdominal pain.

If you think a person may be showing signs of PTSD, you can suggest that they talk to their doctor. If you don't feel close enough to him for such a recommendation, talk to someone in his family or friends who could do it for you.

They may also find it helpful to refer to information about PTSD, such as this resource, to help identify the difficulties they face.

How can I help someone who has experienced a traumatic event?

For those who have experienced a traumatic event, the following actions may help:

  • Be there - invite people to be with them. If they refuse, you can reassure them that you will be with them if they change their mind. Should not be imposed, but try to convince them to accept your help.
  • Listen - try not to pressure people if they don't want something. If they want to talk, try to listen without interrupting or trying to share your own experience with them.
  • Ask general questions - When you ask questions, try to keep them general and non-judgmental. For example, you might ask, "Have you talked about this with anyone else?" or “Can I help you find more help?”
  • Offer real (practical) help - Some people may have difficulty taking care of themselves or doing daily activities. Offer help, such as cleaning the house or preparing meals;

Try not to tell people:

  • That you know how they feel - even if you have experienced something like this, people experience situations differently. Comparing your experience with that of others is not always helpful;
  • How lucky they are to be alive - people who have experienced traumatic events often don't think they are "lucky". Often they feel guilty about the fact that they survived while others died;
  • Belittling the significance and seriousness of the experience - try not to tell people that things could be much worse, even if you do it out of good intentions and thereby try to help them. Such statements can make people feel that their experiences are not being taken seriously by others;
  • Giving inappropriate advice - Try not to give advice or suggestions, even if it has helped you in the past. All people are different and often they have already tried what you offer.


This information was prepared by the Public Engagement Editorial Board of the Royal College of Psychiatrists (PEEB). It reflects the best available evidence at the time of writing.

Special thanks to PTSD UK for kindly providing feedback on this resource.

Expert Editor: Prof. Neil Greenberg

Full links to this resource are available upon request.

Translated by Elena Fage Senior Psychiatrist Intern

Translated by Elena Fage, Specialty doctor in CAMHS

ᐈ PTSD Diagnosis ~【Post Traumatic Stress Disorder】

Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is a severe mental condition that progresses as a result of a single or recurring event that has a negative impact on a person's mental health. Symptoms of PTSD can appear immediately or several months after the injury.

The likelihood of developing post-traumatic stress disorder is the same for patients of different age groups. The main risk factor is the severity of the injury, the initial state of the psyche, psychological and biological predisposition.

Vidkriti Zgornuti


Modern classification distinguishes 4 types of post-traumatic syndrome:

Appears in the first days after a stressful situation. Symptoms appear very brightly within 2-3 months.

Characterized by a gradual increase in signs of pathology, exhaustion of the nervous system, changes in character and interests.

Manifested in patients with a long-term chronic mental disorder. Progress leads to the formation of phobias, neuroses, feelings of anxiety.

The clinical picture becomes apparent 3-6 months after the injury. Various external stimuli can provoke the progress of PTSD.

There are also 3 stages of PTSD: acute, chronic and delayed.

In the first case, this is the period of the beginning of an extreme situation. The state is saved until it ends. Characterized by excessive anxiety for one's own life, lethargy, confusion.

A chronic condition occurs after the trigger has been removed if the patient feels restless. It is possible that the clouding of the mind persists, the person does not understand what happened. Often there are changes in speech and motor functions.

In some cases, with PTSD, the stages of such a plan are not observed, a delayed form appears, that is, the characteristic symptoms appear after a few months, and before that the patient feels normal.

This medical problem also varies in severity. With a mild course of post-traumatic syndrome, the patient's state of health remains unchanged, the ability to work professionally and the ability to communicate with other individuals is preserved. With a severe degree of damage, chronic mental disorders are diagnosed, schizophrenia is possible. With prolonged progress, PTSD leads to malfunctions of the brain, affects the functioning of the endocrine and nervous systems.

Post-traumatic syndromes are characterized by diverse signs, depending on which division into clinical types is provided:

  • asthenic - the nervous system is exhausted, interest in life is lost, the patient begins to feel his own inferiority;
  • dystrophic - isolation, patients try to avoid others, inexplicable aggression often appears;
  • somatoform - manifests itself against the background of delayed PTSD, accompanied by malfunctions in the cardiovascular, nervous systems, gastrointestinal tract.
  • When detecting post-traumatic stress disorder, the main task of a specialist is to correctly differentiate the diagnosis by establishing the type and type.

    Vidkriti Zgornuti

    The main causes of PTSD

    The main factor that provokes post-traumatic stress disorder is a tragic event, a traumatic situation.

    The causes of PTSD include:

    • combat clashes and armed conflicts;
    • terrorist acts, natural and man-made disasters;
    • physical and psychological abuse;
    • attacks, beatings, torture, robberies;
    • kidnapping;
    • incurable diseases found in the patients themselves and their immediate relatives;
    • death of loved ones;
    • miscarriages or premature births in women.

    A psychologically healthy person can face PTSD, but the course of the disease will be easier for him than for a person with a shaken psyche. In all cases, the syndrome has an undulating course, often leading to a permanent change in personality. There is a reassessment of one's own ideals, one's importance in life, a change in old ideas.

    Vidkriti Zgornuti

    Clinical symptoms of PTSD

    The list of symptoms of PTSD includes the following changes:

    • phobic anxiety states;
    • constant immersion in the events of the past;
    • intrusive memories;
    • memory and sleep disorders;
    • apathy, unwillingness to live;
    • feeling of tension and anxiety;
    • antisocial behavior;
    • any signs of CNS depletion;
    • dulling of emotions;
    • constriction of consciousness;
    • lack of pleasure, joy of life;
    • social alienation.

    Vidkriti Zgornuti

    PTSD in children: features

    According to statistics, the disease in children is detected no more often than in adults, but experts in the field of psychotherapy assure that the disorder in children progresses faster. Children are a risk group due to an increased predisposition to post-traumatic stress syndrome, impressionability and sensitivity. The reasons for the development of the problem in children are psychological trauma, unfavorable social conditions and individual developmental characteristics.

    Pathology is diagnosed by a child psychiatrist. The doctor determines what traumatic event occurred and what changes in the nervous system it provoked. During the diagnosis, the patient's reaction to the impact of stimuli is assessed, the presence of memories reproduced in a dream, during a game or in stories is clarified. A consultation with a child psychologist will allow you to establish the type of disorder, determine the scheme of influence and establish a prognosis for recovery.

    Treatment of PTSD in children is a long-term work with a child psychologist or psychotherapist. Complex therapy requires the combined use of several techniques. The patient is shown cognitive-behavioral correction, psychotherapy and drug treatment aimed at stabilizing the work of the central nervous system.

    Vidkriti Zgornuti


    The diagnosis of PTSD should not be ignored. Over time, the problem can worsen and lead to irreversible complications. Only acute disorders can be corrected, after the transition to a chronic form, therapy is complicated, a pathological change in personality is observed. A person manifests pronounced narcissistic qualities, the development of alcoholism and drug addiction is not excluded. Together, these factors are unfavorable signs, and therefore aggravate the prognosis for recovery.

    Vidkriti Zgornuti


    Post-traumatic stress disorder is established on the basis of the patient's complaints about psychological trauma, tragic events in the past. Diagnosis of PTSD is provided with the help of special questionnaires confirming the presence of criteria similar to the disease.

    Self-testing for PTSD is not always accurate because some factors may be hidden. Often the psychiatrist recommends an additional consultation in the presence of relatives or people from close circle. This allows you to differentiate the diagnosis and exclude the presence of other, symptomatically similar diseases.

    Vidkriti Zgornuti


    The treatment of PTSD is determined individually, taking into account the characteristics of the patient, the type of pathology and the presence or absence of concomitant disorders. The most effective are cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy. According to the indications, psychotherapy is combined with medication. Treatment of PTSD often requires the use of adrenergic blockers, antidepressants, tranquilizers, neuroleptics. As auxiliary methods, therapeutic massage is used.

    Vidkriti Zgornuti

    Prevention of PTSD

    A rehabilitation doctor or psychotherapist can help prevent the development of serious problems. The main task is to start the impact immediately after the injury, to work out the event in a quality manner in order to prevent the problem from becoming chronic. Also, to prevent the development of post-traumatic stress disorder will help:

    • proper nutrition;
    • creation of comfortable living conditions;
    • abstinence from alcohol and drugs.

    The doctor should explain to the patient that an acute reaction to stress is normal for the human body. Another prevention of PTSD is to avoid possible stress and maintain mental balance.

    Vidkriti Zgornuti

    The article is for informational purposes only. Please remember: self-medication can harm your health.

    Vidkriti Zgornuti


    • Ministry of Health of Ukraine
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    • Medscape

    Vidkriti Zgornuti

    The author of the article:

    Shulika Elena Valerievna

    Psychotherapist, psychiatrist

    Which doctor treats PTSD?

    If a problem is found, the patient should contact a psychiatrist. If signs of PTSD are found in a child, consultation with a child psychiatrist or psychologist is necessary. The consequences of PTSD can be irreversible, so it is very important to undergo a full examination, determine the type of pathology, establish the cause and work out a treatment regimen.

    Specialists of the MEDICOM clinic working with the latest techniques will help you to undergo high-quality diagnostics and treatment of PTSD in Kyiv. You can seek help and take a test for PTSD at the clinic's subdivisions located in Obolon and Pechersk. Mental health requires careful attention, so it is better to turn to professionals!

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    23.10.2021 18:14


    To the author. Definitely, PTSD is really serious. Skoda, which doctors know, do not outperform neither sick nor relatives. I broke my ankle for 3 years: 4 operations, then 3 fates in the police, fear that I would become disabled, depression, and the pressure of my relatives simply made me crazy. I don’t show how self-tapping can come in. Obov'yazkovo idit to the psychologist.

    11.09.2021 20:40

    Galina Andriivna Sinyavska

    She licked on the wet bed near the kitchen. I had a compression fracture of the ridge, I wanted to die. I had to visit a psychologist. Without її help, I would not have run into it. The psychologist gave a reason to overcome fears and come to the solution of the problem.

    07/30/2021 10:47


    Thank you majesty, that important article was written with grace. I learned a lot of new things. At once, I’ll lie on the knight with a fracture, I’ll be respectful to the new. I would not have thought before that about the mental state of a person after a serious injury, you also need to be turbulent.

    15.06.2021 18:26


    Thank you for the information and help. Kulik Maria Sergeevna is a very good specialist. So far, we have come to the consultation without the child, in order to reconnoiter the situation, so to speak. The doctor was very friendly, asked a lot of questions, then gave recommendations on how to behave with our son after being beaten by classmates at school. He is very closed, and we are slowly slipping into despair. Now the only hope is for Maria Sergeevna.

    05/22/2021 11:55


    I thank Kulik Mariya Sergievna for help. We have fired houses, it became late at night. Thank you to relatives from Kiev, who gave them a seat. Alesina became unrecognizable. The axis of infection from Sergiyk seems to be a psychologist, who at night finds uncontrollable panic on him, and it is unrealistic to calm down. Already after the third session, I remembered the progress.

    05/01/2021 12:21

    Mikhailo Valentinovich

    Thank you for the information. Children are especially susceptible to mental trauma at a time. Recently, my team died of cancer, I can’t know the language of the child, although earlier we were closer. At the nearest future, I will turn to her for help to a psychologist.

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