What causes paranoid schizophrenia
Causes - Schizophrenia - NHS
The exact causes of schizophrenia are unknown. Research suggests a combination of physical, genetic, psychological and environmental factors can make a person more likely to develop the condition.
Some people may be prone to schizophrenia, and a stressful or emotional life event might trigger a psychotic episode. However, it's not known why some people develop symptoms while others do not.
Schizophrenia tends to run in families, but no single gene is thought to be responsible.
It's more likely that different combinations of genes make people more vulnerable to the condition. However, having these genes does not necessarily mean you'll develop schizophrenia.
Evidence that the disorder is partly inherited comes from studies of twins. Identical twins share the same genes.
In identical twins, if a twin develops schizophrenia, the other twin has a 1 in 2 chance of developing it, too. This is true even if they're raised separately.
In non-identical twins, who have different genetic make-ups, when a twin develops schizophrenia, the other only has a 1 in 8 chance of developing the condition.
While this is higher than in the general population, where the chance is about 1 in 100, it suggests genes are not the only factor influencing the development of schizophrenia.
Studies of people with schizophrenia have shown there are subtle differences in the structure of their brains.
These changes are not seen in everyone with schizophrenia and can occur in people who do not have a mental illness. But they suggest schizophrenia may partly be a disorder of the brain.
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that carry messages between brain cells.
There's a connection between neurotransmitters and schizophrenia because drugs that alter the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain are known to relieve some of the symptoms of schizophrenia.
Research suggests schizophrenia may be caused by a change in the level of 2 neurotransmitters: dopamine and serotonin.
Some studies indicate an imbalance between the 2 may be the basis of the problem. Others have found a change in the body's sensitivity to the neurotransmitters is part of the cause of schizophrenia.
Pregnancy and birth complications
Research has shown people who develop schizophrenia are more likely to have experienced complications before and during their birth, such as:
- a low birthweight
- premature labour
- a lack of oxygen (asphyxia) during birth
It may be that these things have a subtle effect on brain development.
Triggers are things that can cause schizophrenia to develop in people who are at risk.
The main psychological triggers of schizophrenia are stressful life events, such as:
- losing your job or home
- the end of a relationship
- physical, sexual or emotional abuse
These kinds of experiences, although stressful, do not cause schizophrenia. However, they can trigger its development in someone already vulnerable to it.
Drugs do not directly cause schizophrenia, but studies have shown drug misuse increases the risk of developing schizophrenia or a similar illness.
Certain drugs, particularly cannabis, cocaine, LSD or amphetamines, may trigger symptoms of schizophrenia in people who are susceptible.
Using amphetamines or cocaine can lead to psychosis, and can cause a relapse in people recovering from an earlier episode.
Research has shown that teenagers and young adults who use cannabis regularly are more likely to develop schizophrenia in later adulthood.
Want to know more?
- Mind: How can recreational drugs affect mental health?
- Mind: What causes schizophrenia?
Page last reviewed: 11 November 2019
Next review due: 11 November 2022
Schizophrenia - Symptoms and causes
Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder in which people interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions, and extremely disordered thinking and behavior that impairs daily functioning, and can be disabling.
People with schizophrenia require lifelong treatment. Early treatment may help get symptoms under control before serious complications develop and may help improve the long-term outlook.
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Schizophrenia involves a range of problems with thinking (cognition), behavior and emotions. Signs and symptoms may vary, but usually involve delusions, hallucinations or disorganized speech, and reflect an impaired ability to function. Symptoms may include:
- Delusions. These are false beliefs that are not based in reality. For example, you think that you're being harmed or harassed; certain gestures or comments are directed at you; you have exceptional ability or fame; another person is in love with you; or a major catastrophe is about to occur. Delusions occur in most people with schizophrenia.
- Hallucinations. These usually involve seeing or hearing things that don't exist. Yet for the person with schizophrenia, they have the full force and impact of a normal experience. Hallucinations can be in any of the senses, but hearing voices is the most common hallucination.
- Disorganized thinking (speech). Disorganized thinking is inferred from disorganized speech. Effective communication can be impaired, and answers to questions may be partially or completely unrelated. Rarely, speech may include putting together meaningless words that can't be understood, sometimes known as word salad.
- Extremely disorganized or abnormal motor behavior. This may show in a number of ways, from childlike silliness to unpredictable agitation. Behavior isn't focused on a goal, so it's hard to do tasks. Behavior can include resistance to instructions, inappropriate or bizarre posture, a complete lack of response, or useless and excessive movement.
- Negative symptoms. This refers to reduced or lack of ability to function normally. For example, the person may neglect personal hygiene or appear to lack emotion (doesn't make eye contact, doesn't change facial expressions or speaks in a monotone). Also, the person may lose interest in everyday activities, socially withdraw or lack the ability to experience pleasure.
Symptoms can vary in type and severity over time, with periods of worsening and remission of symptoms. Some symptoms may always be present.
In men, schizophrenia symptoms typically start in the early to mid-20s. In women, symptoms typically begin in the late 20s. It's uncommon for children to be diagnosed with schizophrenia and rare for those older than age 45.
Symptoms in teenagers
Schizophrenia symptoms in teenagers are similar to those in adults, but the condition may be more difficult to recognize. This may be in part because some of the early symptoms of schizophrenia in teenagers are common for typical development during teen years, such as:
- Withdrawal from friends and family
- A drop in performance at school
- Trouble sleeping
- Irritability or depressed mood
- Lack of motivation
Also, recreational substance use, such as marijuana, methamphetamines or LSD, can sometimes cause similar signs and symptoms.
Compared with schizophrenia symptoms in adults, teens may be:
- Less likely to have delusions
- More likely to have visual hallucinations
When to see a doctor
People with schizophrenia often lack awareness that their difficulties stem from a mental disorder that requires medical attention. So it often falls to family or friends to get them help.
Helping someone who may have schizophrenia
If you think someone you know may have symptoms of schizophrenia, talk to him or her about your concerns. Although you can't force someone to seek professional help, you can offer encouragement and support and help your loved one find a qualified doctor or mental health professional.
If your loved one poses a danger to self or others or can't provide his or her own food, clothing, or shelter, you may need to call 911 or other emergency responders for help so that your loved one can be evaluated by a mental health professional.
In some cases, emergency hospitalization may be needed. Laws on involuntary commitment for mental health treatment vary by state. You can contact community mental health agencies or police departments in your area for details.
Suicidal thoughts and behavior
Suicidal thoughts and behavior are common among people with schizophrenia. If you have a loved one who is in danger of attempting suicide or has made a suicide attempt, make sure someone stays with that person. Call 911 or your local emergency number immediately. Or, if you think you can do so safely, take the person to the nearest hospital emergency room.
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It's not known what causes schizophrenia, but researchers believe that a combination of genetics, brain chemistry and environment contributes to development of the disorder.
Problems with certain naturally occurring brain chemicals, including neurotransmitters called dopamine and glutamate, may contribute to schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies show differences in the brain structure and central nervous system of people with schizophrenia. While researchers aren't certain about the significance of these changes, they indicate that schizophrenia is a brain disease.
Although the precise cause of schizophrenia isn't known, certain factors seem to increase the risk of developing or triggering schizophrenia, including:
- Having a family history of schizophrenia
- Some pregnancy and birth complications, such as malnutrition or exposure to toxins or viruses that may impact brain development
- Taking mind-altering (psychoactive or psychotropic) drugs during teen years and young adulthood
Left untreated, schizophrenia can result in severe problems that affect every area of life. Complications that schizophrenia may cause or be associated with include:
- Suicide, suicide attempts and thoughts of suicide
- Anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
- Abuse of alcohol or other drugs, including nicotine
- Inability to work or attend school
- Financial problems and homelessness
- Social isolation
- Health and medical problems
- Being victimized
- Aggressive behavior, although it's uncommon
There's no sure way to prevent schizophrenia, but sticking with the treatment plan can help prevent relapses or worsening of symptoms. In addition, researchers hope that learning more about risk factors for schizophrenia may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment.
By Mayo Clinic Staff
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Paranoid schizophrenia - symptoms, causes, stages
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder that is characterized by impaired mental activity. Patients with schizophrenia experience difficulties with thought processes, emotional reactions and perception of reality. The debut of the disease usually occurs at a young, active age (16-30 years).
Psychiatrists distinguish several types of this disease, depending on the predominance of one or another symptomatology. nine0003
Paranoid schizophrenia (ICD-10 code F20.0) is the most common type of schizophrenia, in which delusions and hallucinations are the key symptoms of the disease.
People with paranoid delusions are irritable, aggressive, hostile, and unreasonably suspicious of others. Because of this, it is difficult for them to build personal and social relationships.
The condition is usually diagnosed during the first acute psychotic episode (psychosis), when the person suddenly develops what are called positive symptoms (paranoia, delusions, and hallucinations). At this stage, the patient, as a rule, goes to a psychiatric hospital for treatment. nine0003
Symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia
Positive symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia include:
- Crazy ideas. These are firmly rooted beliefs that are not supported by objective facts and have the features of paranoia. There are many types of delusions, but the most common are:
- delusions of control - the belief that a person's actions are controlled by someone;
- delusions of grandeur - belief in the presence of special or exceptional powers and abilities; nine0022
- delusions of jealousy - the belief that a spouse or partner is cheating;
- delusions of persecution - the belief that someone is persecuting a person;
- delusion of insertion of thoughts - the assertion that other people's ideas are put into the mind.
- hypochondriacal delusions - irrational ideas about your body and its condition.
- hallucinations. This is a false sensory perception that can affect any of the five human senses (hearing, sight, smell, touch, taste). The most common auditory and visual hallucinations in paranoid schizophrenia are:
- voices coming from an external source, for example, from the speaker of a tape recorder;
- commanding voices within the mind;
- sounds of music, buzzing, whistling, laughter;
- images of people, situations or events.
- Disorganized thoughts and speech. These are ways of thinking or speaking that are strange or illogical.
- suicidal activity.
Negative symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia include: nine0003
- Asociality. Decreased interest or motivation to form close relationships with other people.
- Decreased ability to experience pleasant emotions.
- Deterioration of emotional expression. For example, a monotonous conversation with no change in facial expression (smile or frown).
- Affective disorders (mania, depression, etc.).
Cognitive signs of paranoid schizophrenia appear as: nine0003
- Violations of attention and memory.
- Tendency to jump to conclusions.
- Difficulty understanding the mental state of others (for example, people with paranoid schizophrenia misidentify a neutral facial expression as angry).
Positive symptoms in paranoid schizophrenia are more pronounced than negative and cognitive ones.
Causes of paranoid schizophrenia
Scientists do not know the exact causes of paranoid schizophrenia. However, they identified a number of factors that increase the risk of developing this disorder: nine0003
- genetic predisposition. Schizophrenia can be inherited, so if one of the parents has this condition, there is a high chance that the child will also develop schizophrenia.
- Biological factors: the negative impact of viral infections (including intrauterine), traumatic brain injury, autoimmune diseases.
- Structural and functional changes in the brain. During neuroimaging of the brain in patients with schizophrenia, functional differences in the work of its lobes, as well as degradation of the gray matter, are revealed. nine0022
- psychosocial factors. Acute emotional stress, abuse, physical or sexual abuse can also trigger schizophrenia.
- Abuse of alcohol and psychoactive substances. It is known that some medications, while not directly causing schizophrenia, may increase the risk of developing the disorder. For example, cocaine and amphetamines lead to psychosis and can cause relapse in people with schizophrenia.
- Violation of the metabolism of brain neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and others). nine0022
Pathogenesis of paranoid schizophrenia
The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of paranoid schizophrenia, characterized by the disintegration of thought processes, are complex. There are a number of theories attempting to explain the relationship between biogenic amine metabolism disorders and schizophrenia.
One of the most common is the dopamine hypothesis. She suggests that excessive activation of dopamine receptors is responsible for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. nine0003
The interest of scientists is also focused on another brain neurotransmitter that directs neurons to transmit impulses - glutamate and its role in the development of the disease. Abnormally low levels of glutamate receptors have been found in the brains of people with schizophrenia. In addition, it has become known that certain substances that block glutamate receptors (eg, ketamine) can mimic the symptoms and cognitive problems associated with schizophrenia.
In the course of research, neurophysiologists also found various structural changes in the brain of patients with this disorder. Namely: the degradation of gray matter, a decrease in the lipid layer, changes in the corpus callosum and the internal capsule of the brain. nine0003
Stages of paranoid schizophrenia
There are three main stages of paranoid schizophrenia:
- Initial (prodromal) stage. Characterized by changes in behavior and mood. A person becomes secretive, distrustful and withdrawn. There are mood swings, depressive states, neurosis (anxiety, anxiety, obsessive thoughts). This stage can sometimes be accompanied by psychopathic disorders, such as depersonalization, hypochondria, senestopathy. Surrounding people notice all these changes, but, as a rule, write them off as the complexity of the character. This period lasts from 10 years or more. nine0022
- The acute stage (manifestation) is distinguished by the brightness of symptoms. There is a psychosis, manifested in the form of delusional ideas, hallucinations, arousal. Usually at this stage, the patient first enters a psychiatric hospital and is diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia.
- Residual stage. Mental activity is destroyed, its fragmentation occurs, problems arise with self-awareness. This degree of paranoid schizophrenia is otherwise also called the stage of formation of a schizophrenic personality defect. nine0022
Paranoid schizophrenia can have several types of course.
- In the episodic type, periods of exacerbation alternate with remissions. Their quality depends on how well the treatment is chosen.
- With a continuous type of paranoid schizophrenia, the disease progresses incrementally, without qualitative remissions.
Classification of paranoid schizophrenia
There are the following types of paranoid schizophrenia:
- Paranoid type. It is considered a mild form of the disorder. The first symptoms are systematized delusions of an interpretive nature (delusions of persecution, grandeur, etc. ). Quite often, patients have delusional beliefs about their spouse's infidelity, a belief in a non-existent serious illness. Hallucinations, as a rule, do not happen.
- Paranoid type of schizophrenia. It includes delirium of an unsystematized nature, a strong conviction in one's delusional ideas, hallucinations, the Kandinsky-Clerambault syndrome. A person feels the unnaturalness of his own thoughts and actions, claims that someone is speaking and thinking instead of him. Gradually, the circle of crazy ideas expands. nine0022
- Paraphrenic type. With this type of paranoid schizophrenia, the patient has delusional ideas of a fantastic nature, a feeling of power and greatness, confidence that he can influence the fate of the world and even the universe.
Complications of the disease
Paranoid schizophrenia causes many problems in the social, personal, educational, professional and other areas of a person's life.
The main negative consequences of paranoid schizophrenia include: nine0003
- reduction in life expectancy;
- disability, the occurrence of chronic diseases;
- alcoholism and drug addiction;
- increased anxiety, restlessness, depression;
- decrease in the social standard of living, unemployment, homelessness;
- causing physical harm to yourself and others;
- suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts.
Paranoid schizophrenia is a progressive disorder, which means that if left untreated, symptoms worsen over time. Early diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia increases the chances of a successful recovery. nine0003
Therefore, if you find symptoms of schizophrenia and psychosis in your loved ones, you should immediately contact a psychiatrist.
Diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia
Diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia in the acute stage rarely causes difficulties, since its symptoms are quite specific, and the manifestations are vivid.
The diagnosis is made by a psychiatrist after examining the patient, taking an anamnesis, talking with relatives, psychosocial assessment, and conducting a clinical interview. nine0003
The patient must have the following major syndromes of paranoid schizophrenia:
- disorganized thoughts and speech.
To rule out organic brain diseases (tumors), the doctor may prescribe an MRI or CT scan.
A psychiatrist will make a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia only after it is established that the symptoms are not caused by another illness or substance abuse. nine0003
Treatment of paranoid schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a chronic and incurable mental disorder. However, with the right therapy, it can be successfully controlled.
According to clinical guidelines, the following methods are used in the treatment of paranoid schizophrenia :
- Medical therapy. First-line drugs are antipsychotics (neuroleptics). They affect neurotransmitters in the brain, including serotonin and dopamine, and are prescribed to reduce acute psychotic symptoms. Treatment with antipsychotics for schizophrenia is important to start as soon as possible after the first acute psychotic episode. Antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs are used in cases of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders, but they do not treat the main symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia. nine0022
- Hospitalization in a hospital. Exacerbation of paranoid schizophrenia may include agitation, attempts at self-harm, inability to take care of oneself, overwhelming fear or paranoia, and sometimes aggressive behavior. In these cases, hospitalization to a medical facility may be required. In this case, it will be possible to achieve an improvement in the condition and removal of psychosis much faster and safer. The patient will be under round-the-clock medical supervision, as well as receive infusion therapy. nine0022
- Psychosocial methods of treatment. Various psychotherapies, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, help patients better cope with negative and cognitive symptoms that are not affected by antipsychotics. During the sessions, the doctor helps the patient learn new social interaction skills, alleviate the symptoms of the disease, and also prevent relapses.
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Prevention of paranoid schizophrenia is to minimize the impact of adverse factors: nine0003
- frequent stress, psychotraumatic situations;
- physical and nervous exhaustion;
- leading an unhealthy lifestyle;
- alcohol and psychoactive substance abuse.
Persons with a genetic predisposition to the disease, in cases of even a slight manifestation of symptoms, are recommended to consult a psychiatrist.
- V. N. Krasnov. Diagnosis of schizophrenia // Psychiatry: a national guide / ed. T. B. Dmitrieva, V. N. Krasnova, N. G. Neznanova, V. Ya. Semke, A. S. Tiganova. — M.: GEOTAR-Media, 2011.
- Yu. V. Popov, V. D. Vid. Modern clinical psychiatry. - M .: Expert Bureau-M, 1997.
- A. S. Tiganov, A. V. Snezhnevsky, D. D. Orlovskaya et al. Paranoid schizophrenia // Guide to psychiatry in 2 volumes / Ed. Academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences A. S. Tiganov. — M.: Medicine, 1999.
Paranoid schizophrenia, causes, treatment, prevention of schizophrenia no
Paranoid schizophrenia is the most common form of schizophrenia, which is characterized by delusions, hallucinations, delusions and limited social contacts. The reasons for the development of the disease are not exactly known, they speak of a combination of factors, including heredity, prenatal pathologies, severe stress suffered in childhood. In old age, the disease can develop against the background of Alzheimer's disease. nine0003
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Paranoid schizophrenia is the most common form of schizophrenia and is dominated by paranoid or paraphrenic delusions and hallucinations, as well as affective flattening and incoherent speech. During illness, a person loses touch with reality, but the ability to think is preserved, unlike other forms of schizophrenia. During remission, a person is capable of self-care. According to statistics, the incidence of paranoid schizophrenia is about 1% of the total population. The debut, or the first vivid episode of the manifestation of the disease, occurs before the age of 30 years. It is important to understand that concomitant symptoms and signs can be observed for a long time before the first attack, but they must be recognized and classified in a timely manner. Schizophrenia itself appears without any external reasons for that - it is believed that the hereditary factor plays a big role in this case. Paranoid schizophrenia significantly affects the daily functioning, communication with others, personal life and work status of the patient. nine0003
Symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia
The main symptom of paranoid schizophrenia is delusions that distort the world around you. Thus, the patient may feel that he is being persecuted, or that he belongs to some ancient royal family. If we talk about hypochondriacal delirium, then in this case it cannot be associated with real sensations. For example, such patients are sure that they have installations in their bodies, thanks to which UFOs monitor their behavior and the functioning of the body. Often there is also a love delirium, when it seems to patients that this or that person is in love with them. Often such people suffer from hallucinations - auditory and visual. The clinical picture of paranodal schizophrenia is:
- emotional inadequacy;
- social isolation;
Paranoid schizophrenia, causes of occurrence
Functional disorders of the brain are considered the main, however, by no means the only factor in the development of paranoid schizophrenia. In addition to a violation of the functional activity of the brain, the causes of the onset of the disease can be a viral disease of the mother during pregnancy, severe stress, lack of a balanced diet during pregnancy, taking psychotropic drugs during puberty, Alzheimer's disease (in old age). Symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia:
- Delirium - obsessive suspicions, thoughts, manias, delusions. The most common delusion of influence occurs when the patient believes that they want to poison, kill, harm or delusion of persecution, when it seems to the patient that he is being followed by special services, aliens, etc. Also, delusions of grandeur often occur, the patient sincerely considers himself to be some outstanding person (president, Napoleon, Superman, etc.) and behaves accordingly, but if reasonable attempts are made to convince him of the opposite, aggression arises. nine0022
- Hallucinations - a violation of the perception of reality, when it seems to a person that he hears voices, they can give him commands, criticize, mock, provoke the patient to action. Sometimes hallucinations become so strong that the patient is talking with imaginary interlocutors, arguing or swearing with them.
- Disturbances in thinking, attention or inability to concentrate are extremely rare in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and should not prevail. nine0022
- Irritability, anger, phobias.
The development of paranoid schizophrenia
The first signs of paranoid schizophrenia usually appear at the age of 25, but sometimes even earlier. At first, the disease develops slowly and often unnoticed by others. The first signs can be manifested in an increase in the level of anxiety, suspicion, isolation, rigidity. This period can last from several months to several years. Further, the disease manifests itself, and symptoms appear in the form of hallucinations, delusions, or mixed states. Depending on the type of course of the disease, paranoid schizophrenia is divided into chronic and episodic. Gradually, in the course of the development of the disease, hallucinations and delusions become less pronounced, weaken and are replaced by long meaningless monologues. To any, the simplest question, the patient embarks on lengthy discussions, this is how irreversible changes in the psyche or a schizophrenic defect manifest themselves. In addition to monologues, a person develops emotional callousness, interest disappears, and depression develops. It is impossible to prevent the development of a schizophrenic defect, it can only be slowed down, this requires timely and qualified treatment in Israel. nine0003
Paranoid schizophrenia, treatment
Only a professional doctor can diagnose paranoid schizophrenia. This is a complex, chronic disease that needs to be treated as early as possible. At IsraClinic, a comprehensive program is selected for each patient to prevent the development of symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia and its treatment, depending on the degree of development of the disease, as well as the individual characteristics of the patient's personality. Paranoid schizophrenia is a chronic disease, and its treatment depends on the period of the course of the disease. nine0003
- Active therapy is used during exacerbations of the disease, its main task is to relieve the productive symptoms of the disease. The duration of treatment in this phase usually takes about a month. Depending on the prevalence of symptoms (hallucinations or delusions) and their severity, antipsychotics are usually prescribed, which quickly stop the symptoms. In the course of active treatment of psychopathic schizophrenia, specialists of the IsraClinic center also use atypical antipsychotics, which effectively combat the productive symptoms of the disease and, in addition, slow down the development of a schizophrenic defect, and the release of drugs in various dosages makes it possible to choose an individual, therapeutic dose. nine0022
- Stabilizing therapy, used after the removal of acute manifestations of the disease. At this stage, the treatment regimen is reviewed. The dosage of the drugs used is reduced. The duration of treatment on stabilizing therapy is up to six months.
- Maintenance therapy is aimed at maximizing remission and fixing the achieved result, as well as preventing relapse.
Unfortunately, today there are no methods to completely cure, just as there are no methods for the prevention of paranoid schizophrenia. However, thanks to highly professional specialists and modern drugs, the development of the disease can be significantly slowed down, and the patient can be brought into a long-term remission, during which he can lead a normal life. nine0003
Methods for the treatment of paranoid schizophrenia
As already mentioned, the main treatment methods are drugs from the group of neuroleptics. Depending on the phase of the disease and the therapy strategy (active, stabilizing, supportive), different dosages of drugs are used in various combinations. At the stage of stabilizing and supportive therapy, psychotherapy can be connected. As a rule, we are talking about supportive psychotherapy, the purpose of which is to give the patient psychological tools with which he can integrate into society, perform feasible work, and lead the most normative way of life in his case. Also, psychotherapy is designed to teach the patient to recognize the deterioration of the condition, to take timely measures in order to prevent exacerbation. Note that the success of treatment depends on how timely paranoid schizophrenia is detected. The earlier the disease is detected, the less likely it is that a schizophrenic defect can exert its negative impact. nine0003
Paranoid schizophrenia: prevention
There is no universal prevention against schizophrenia, since this disease does not develop from external causes.