Should you ghost someone

7 Times It’s Perfectly Acceptable To Ghost Someone | Tinder

Certain offenses definitely deserve a swift cold shoulder.

Being ghosted is a pretty terrible thing to endure… for those who don’t deserve it, anyway. Those who do are another story. It’s safe to say that there are indeed certain offenses that definitely deserve a swift cold shoulder, and according to the experts we asked, those offenses are numerous. So the next time you start to see any of these red flags, feel free to start preparing to disappear in a cloud of smoke, leaving your potentially problematic counterpart on read for all eternity. Ahead, a guide to ghost-worthy scenarios, co-signed by our panel of relationship experts.

Inconsistent Or Unreliable Communication

“In the world of dating, it’s OK to ghost someone who has repeatedly shown inconsistency with communication or interest in hanging out,” says certified life coach, Tori Autumn. It’s all too common for people to lack initiative in either starting or actively continuing a conversation digitally, and that usually translates to whether or not they’re proactive in making plans to actually meet up. Autumn recommends ghosting early on in this scenario in order to conserve your own time and energy: “Resist the urge to continue a meaningless conversation.”

Disregard For Consent And/Or Personal Safety

Consent is key in all dating situations, no matter the scenario or circumstance. As is personal safety — a date or potential partner should never make you feel unsafe in any way, shape, or form. If they begin to show even the slightest threat on either front, shut it down without a word. “If someone seems aggressive in any way, be it through pressuring you, being inappropriately argumentative, or is hot-tempered and easily triggered, retreat and delete,” says personal coach and dating expert, Michelle Baxo. “Consider this an act of self-love and healthy boundaries.”

Choosing ghosting over transparency or confrontation here is a smart move for your safety. Carla Marie Manly, Ph.D., a clinical psychologist specializing in relationship safety, clarifies. “Confronting an angry or abusive person may do far more harm than good. Ghosting an abusive or chronically angry person doesn’t mean you are weak; it means you are smart and strong.”

When They Just Can’t Take A Hint

“As many times as you’ve tried explaining, it’s fine to ghost someone who just doesn’t get that you’re not interested in them,” says Autumn. Manly agrees. “When a partner refuses to get the message that a relationship is over, even after repeated attempts have been made to clarify that the relationship is over, ghosting is sometimes the only logical option.”

Possible Catfishing

This is a big one. Catfishing — when someone poses as someone else online — is a real problem. “If the person you’re messaging online never wants to chat on video, starts asking for money for weird reasons, or comes up with excuses on why they can’t meet up in real life, move on and ghost them,” recommends Johnny Santiago of Social Catfish, an identity verification platform. So what are some other less obvious signs to look out for? “Catfish usually upload many different images to their profile to make it seem believable, but they do it all at once,” he says. “Another sign that you may not catch on to is that they have many interests or hobbies. The average person usually lists one or two hobbies, but catfish may have an unusual amount of pastimes or hobbies, and they keep their interests broad to attract as many people as possible.”

There’s no better option here than ghosting, according to Santiago. “The more a victim talks to a catfish, the more control the catfish gets,” he says. “The most effective way to remove yourself from the situation is to cut off all communications with them; don’t open any doors for them to potentially harm you.”

Signs of Lying, Cheating or Dishonesty

“If you feel that someone is lying to you — and you see a pattern of dishonesty — ghosting can be a very smart way out,” Manly says. “If you try to have an open and honest conversation with a deceitful person, their strategies may leave you feeling as if you are the problem. Thus, ghosting may be the only safe tactic.” This is a textbook example of a form of psychological abuse known as gaslighting, which should never be brushed off or ignored.

“If you are being manipulated into doing things that don’t feel right to you, ghosting may be the move that keeps you safe,” Manly continues. “A manipulative person will generally not respond well to heart-to-heart talks about what you are experiencing; a conversation with a manipulator will often leave you more confused and second-guessing yourself. As such, ghosting a manipulator can be a very smart tactic.”

General Unease

Sometimes you just can’t put your finger on why a person’s behavior is bothersome, and that’s OK. You don’t have to justify a gut feeling — trusting your instinct is key when a date makes you feel uncomfortable, and if they’ve done so, you don’t owe them an explanation as to why you’d like to end things. If someone’s entire being makes you feel uneasy, cutting things off for your own good may make more sense than saying, “You generally suck as a person.”

If You’re Feeling Used

“If someone is only messaging you when they need something, that’s a perfectly good reason to ghost them,” says Justin Lavelle, who is the Chief Communications Officer at PeopleLooker, a U. S. background check database. “If you have asked someone to stop contacting you and they refuse to respect that, ghost them.” It’s not worth your energy to dance around the fact that this person is making you feel like you’re being taken advantage of — whether it’s conscious on their part or not, nothing changes what you feel in your gut. As a preventive measure, Lavelle recommends documenting your communication: “It is smart to save screenshots before you do this so you have proof of harassment if it continues to escalate.”

Ghosting Someone? Here's What to Do Instead

Leave the ghosting antics to Halloween. Here's why people ghost out on relationships, the effects on both parties, and ways to end things that'll be healthier—for you both. (Plus: the one scenario when it's OK to ghost.), Getty Images (2)

Ghosting someone: What it means

“One day we were fine, texting about the next movie we wanted to watch together. The next day I never heard from him again,” says Lyla Pratt, 24, of Minneapolis, MN. “Not only did he stop texting, but he blocked me on social media, too.”

The “he” she’s referring to was her boyfriend of six months. The couple had met through a dating app and hit it off immediately, quickly becoming exclusive. “We talked or hung out nearly every day, even through Covid, so it was a huge shock when he ghosted me in November [2020],” she says. “He just stopped answering my texts and calls.”

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Why would a guy who had given her a ring with their initials as a birthday present—and whom she was sleeping with regularly—suddenly cut off all communication? “I have literally not a single clue,” she says, adding that the couple hadn’t fought or even had a disagreement prior to his disappearance. “That’s the worst part: I will never have any closure, I’ll never know why he left me, and that really hurts,” she says.

What’s ghosting? Ghosting happens when one person disappears from the relationship without any explanation, no longer responding to or initiating communication. Here, mental health specialists weigh in on what this avoidant way of dealing with a relationship can do to both people involved. Plus, some expert tips on how to have a healthier breakup.

How to Move on from a Relationship

What is ghosting?

Ramani Durvasula, PhD, is a licensed clinical psychologist, professor of psychology at California State University, Los Angeles, and an author. “Ghosting is exactly what it sounds like: it’s quietly disappearing from someone’s life, like a ghost,” Dr. Durvasula says. “And it can be incredibly hurtful.”

“Ghosting” is a term that largely emerged in the era of digital dating, says Claire Postl MA, LPCC, licensed professional clinical counselor and certified sex therapist at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center.

Ghosting is a term almost always employed to describe a breakup in a romantic relationship, but it can also happen in friendships or other non-romantic connections.

9 Red Flags in a Relationship That Can Mean Trouble

Why do people ghost?

Why would someone choose to go incommunicado rather than simply break up? The short answer, according to Postl: it’s easy. Many of us fear confrontation so much that we’ll do anything to avoid it.

After all, it’s so much easier to just stop talking than it is to have a real conversation and get into all the messy, complicated feelings that come with relationships—especially if you’ve already mentally moved on. “Many people weren’t taught what healthy adult communication looks like in relationships, so they default to the easiest way out—ghosting,” Dr. Durvasula says. “For some people, it becomes a dysfunctional pattern.” Knowing how to communicate effectively is one of the characteristics of a healthy relationship.

In a time when meeting someone new is as easy as swiping your screen, she adds, it makes sense that many people would want breaking up to be as simple.  In fact, ghosting after a first or second date—or even after just chatting through an app or texting—is so common that it’s often the expected way to end the interaction now. But, Dr. Durvasula says, just because it’s common doesn’t mean it’s OK, especially when you use ghosting to end longer-term relationships with no explanation. (Believe your relationship still has hope? Here’s how to fix a broken relationship.)

Effects of being ghosted

Being ghosted, even by someone you’ve only seen a couple of times, can hurt. If you were in a longer relationship with them and developed real feelings, the experience of being ghosted can be intensely painful…and it can last for awhile.

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Ghosting makes you doubt your self-worth

At best, ghosting leaves you feeling confused, self-conscious, and concerned. At worst, it makes you doubt and question your self-worth, leaving you with a lot of unanswered questions that you may then ruminate over, Postl says. (Some people use “breadcrumbing,” where they give you tiny bits of attention, instead of totally ghosting.)

“It can feel like you’re being ‘discarded’ or thrown out,” says Dr. Durvasula. “That’s one of the most painful things a person can experience.”

Ghosting triggers negative feelings

“We all have doubts and vulnerabilities, and being ghosted can bring up all those insecurities,” Postl says. “It’s those unanswered questions that do the damage. People wonder, ‘What did I do wrong?’ ‘Did something happen to them, are they in trouble?’ ‘Do I need to do something different for someone to like me?’ ‘Are they angry at me?’ which increases self-doubt.”

Gaslighting is another toxic communication pattern that creates self-doubt. (Here are the gaslighting phrases to know about this type of emotional abuse.)

The effects of ghosting someone else

It’s not just the person who was ghosted who’s left with emotional work to do, Dr. Durvasula says.

Ghosting can leave you emotionally stunted

Dr. Durvasula says people who have a habit of ghosting can keep stay stuck in immature relationship patterns, unable to establish lasting connections with others.

Ghosting can lead to a lack of empathy and understanding

Another problem is that when you ghost someone, you don’t see the other person’s reactions and feelings. “That may sound like a good thing, but it’s not. It’s a lie you are telling yourself—you are pretending like someone is not hurt when they really are,” Postl says. “Our feelings are what make us human, and it is a very powerful thing to sit with someone who is hurting or in emotional pain.”

Relationships are about the good and the bad. If you’ve participated in a relationship on any level, it’s a responsibility to be present when that person is sad or angry, as well as when they’re happy. “If this is something you don’t feel you can do, then you need to ask yourself, ‘Should I be in a relationship right now?'” Dr. Durvasula says, adding that she suggests therapy as a way to learn healthier relationship patterns.

7 Things That Happen to Your Body After You Go Through a Breakup

What to do instead of ghosting someone

Ending a relationship with a disappearing act isn’t the most evolved approach. “Breaking up using direct communication is difficult, but necessary,” Postl says, adding that this is true whether it’s been one date or 100. “Even when casually dating online, letting someone know that you are no longer interested or that you have met someone else will provide the person with a sense of close or finality,” she says.

Easier said than done? Here’s an expert primer on how to break up without ghosting:

Break it off in person

Having a two-way conversation is important so both people feel heard, Dr. Durvasula says. The best way to do this is in person but if you can’t physically get together, a phone call is the next best thing. Texting isn’t a great way to break up but it’s still better than ghosting.

Do it at an appropriate, respectful time

Choose a time to talk (or preferably meet) that is respectful of the other person and how this news will impact them, Dr. Durvasula says. For instance, don’t dump them right before they’re going away to visit family, or when they’re on their way to work.

Practice ahead of time

Knowing what you want to communicate and having it come out of your mouth that way can be hard, especially if your emotions are running high. One way to combat that is to practice breaking up with a friend, Dr. Durvasula says.

Another way to keep your thoughts clear is to write it down and read it to them, she adds.

Use “I” statements

Dr. Durvasula suggests you frame your thoughts in a way that makes them about you, rather than the other person. So instead of saying “You’re moving too fast and stressing me out,” try saying, “I feel stressed out and worried this is moving too fast for me, so after a lot of thought, I need to end our relationship.

Offer direct but kind feedback

Giving the other person feedback during a breakup isn’t necessary, but it can provide a sense of closure. If you decide to answer the person’s questions about what went wrong, provide the feedback in a tactful and kind way designed to help them in future relationships. Do not make them feel bad about this one, Postl says.

Accept that it will hurt—and that’s OK

“Breaking up is, by nature, painful, and it’s best to acknowledge that and prepare for it,” Dr. Durvasula says. After all, that’s why ghosting happens—to avoid these painful feelings. But a breakup hurts either way, and doing it in a clear, straightforward way can minimize the hurt overall. “Know that the other person will feel hurt, but it’s not your responsibility to fix that,” she adds.

Block out some time to care for yourself afterward, as well. Even if you’re the one who initiated the breakup, it can still be painful.

7 Essentials for a Cozy Mental Health Night at Home

The one time you

should ghost someone

There is one specific time when you should absolutely ghost someone: that’s if you’re ending a relationship worried that your partner will react in a violent or abusive way, Dr. Durvasula says. Put your safety first—in the case of abuse, ghosting is often the best and safest option.

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Who are ghost people and why do they disappear from your life without explanation

November 13, 2020 Relationship

What is ghosting and why parting by SMS is not the worst thing.

Perhaps this has happened to you. You meet a person for a couple of months, and everything seems to be fine: you are in love, relationships develop as usual, there are no conflicts or misunderstandings between you.

But then he suddenly disappears from the radar. No appointments, no calls, no texts. The "disappeared" person also does not react in any way to your attempts to contact him: beeps in the receiver, messages remain unread. It seems that the person has disappeared or something bad has happened to him. But no. He just turned into a "ghost" and began to visit you. nine0003

Who are ghost people? All these people continue to live their lives, simply delete their acquaintances from it, without explaining anything. In another way, ghosting can also be called ignoring or avoiding.

Ghost in English - a ghost, and the person who "guests" you becomes invisible, like a ghost. The word appeared in dictionaries at the beginning of the 2000s, but became popular in English-language media and social networks after 2015: unexpectedly, journalists and bloggers began to use it very actively. Perhaps this new term is chosen in order to look at the situation with humor and reduce the degree of seriousness and tragedy of what is happening. "He's visiting me" still doesn't sound as sad as "he's avoiding me. " nine0003

According to the study, at least 25% of those surveyed have at least once become a victim of ghosting, and 21% themselves turned into ghosts and ignored romantic partners or friends. By the way, yes, you can visit not only a passion, but also a friend or even colleagues and companions. However, the seriousness and depth of the relationship is important here.

As a rule, those with whom you have known for a short time and with whom you have little or no common friends and affairs “disappear”.

However, a guy or girl who does not call you back after the first and only date is not considered a "ghost". And of course, if a person is running from a toxic, abusive relationship that threatens his mental and physical health, he is also not a “ghost” at all and has every right to disappear without any explanation. nine0003

Why they disappear without explanation

A person who is faced with such a sudden and completely inexplicable disregard, of course, painfully wants to know why they did this to him. There are several reasons.

They have attachment problems

Back in 1987, psychologists Cindy Hazan and Phillip Shaver concluded that attachments are formed in childhood under the influence of the family. And its type determines how we build relationships already in adulthood.

People with avoidant attachment are distrustful, afraid of close relationships, believe that others are not interested in them.

Psychologists Tara Collins and Omri Gillat of the University of Kansas studied different strategies for breaking up relationships and found that it was "avoidant" people who preferred "indirect" methods. That is, they part by e-mail or SMS, and in general, whatever, just not to speak honestly and openly with a partner.

Whether a person can be blamed for such behavior is a moot point. After all, the avoidant type of attachment is formed in those people whose parents rejected them in childhood, did not respond to their needs and calls. nine0003

They are afraid of conflicts

Breaking up with a person or even just expressing dissatisfaction with him for some reason is quite scary. After all, he will ask uncomfortable questions, be offended, scream, look like a wolf, cry, slam doors. It takes a certain amount of courage to endure all this.

It's much easier to just disappear, hide in a house and sit there until they forget about you.

People who are terribly afraid of open confrontation think something like this. This fear is considered one of the signs of social anxiety. And it doesn't just lead to relationship problems. Such people do not know how to defend their rights, seek justice and demand the best for themselves - these are just those about whom they say "yes, everyone rides it." In general, nothing good. nine0003

They believe in fate

Surely you have heard the theory more than once that somewhere in the world there is your ideal soul mate, a soul mate destined for you by fate or the universe. The researchers believe that romantics who believe this tend to visit their partners more than skeptics. Simply because they are waiting for some special spark and believe that the true soul mate will be recognized immediately. And since this did not happen, the relationship is doomed, and you need to stop them with the least consequences. nine0003

They think it's okay

Of course, people have avoided each other at all times. But now, when a significant part of our life is spent online, it has become much easier to do this.

The Internet gives us the illusion of impunity.

It is because of her that people troll and poison each other on the Web, write nasty things that they would never dare to say in person, violate agreements or disappear from the radar.

If you met a person on the Internet and you do not have mutual friends, a common job or any connections, it will be quite easy for him to disappear from your life. And he will not bear any responsibility for this. So, hosting, of course, is a very old phenomenon, but thanks to social networks and dating sites, it has gained impressive proportions. nine0003

Why disappearances hurt so much

As a rule, "ghosts" are not spouses or childhood friends, but those with whom you met not so long ago. Therefore, it would seem that there is no particular reason to worry if such people suddenly cut off communication with you. And yet, those who have experienced ghosting feel disgusting. And that's why.

We feel pain

And in this case, this is not a metaphor or an exaggeration. Scientists have found that our brain reacts to rejection in the same way as if we were physically hurt. This is one of the reasons why it is so hard when we get rejected, when we are ignored, or when no one likes our photos on Instagram*. nine0003

We are tormented by incompleteness

If a person broke off a friendship or romantic relationship with you, you are likely to feel disgusting.

But at least you will know that the relationship is over and you need to move on.

You may even be told the reasons, and you can cry, eat, drink or dance your sadness to your heart's content.

And when a friend or someone you like disappears without explanation, he leaves you in limbo, ridiculous, incomprehensible and even humiliating. You don’t understand what happened, you can’t figure out the reasons and you don’t know at all what to do: wait patiently for the “ghost” to return, try to find it and find out what’s wrong, or come to terms with the fact that the relationship has come to an end. Because of this, it is easy to fall apart, lose self-confidence and drown in anxiety and guilt. nine0003

What to do if you are avoided

This is a very unpleasant experience. That's what psychologists advise to do.

1. Understand that you are not to blame for anything

When a person visits you, this does not mean that something is wrong with you. On the contrary, it means that your "ghost" has problems that he needs to sort out. You are not responsible for the actions of another person. Unless, of course, you insulted him or her, humiliated or used physical or emotional abuse. nine0003

2. Accept that the relationship is over

Even if it's ridiculous. If a person wanted to meet or be friends with you, he would not hide. And since he is hiding, it means that he broke up with you, he is simply afraid to say so. Try to do what you would have done if the break had gone according to the rules. Burn a joint photo, throw away gifts, cry to friends or diary pages, listen to sad music.

3. Burn your bridges

Try to completely eliminate the "ghost" from your life. Delete his number, block him on social networks, delete photos and videos. In a word, do everything in order to remember him less. At least for the first time. nine0003

4. Move on

Don't let this experience undermine your self-confidence. Live your normal life and don't be afraid to seek friendship or romance.

What if the "ghost" is you

According to the statistics mentioned above, at least a quarter of the respondents visited someone at least once. So, if you periodically disappear from someone's life without explanation, you are not alone. But that doesn't mean it's the right thing to do. Yes, you yourself probably feel guilty and understand that you are hurting other people. nine0003

Unfortunately, there is no easy way to deal with this. You will have to figure out why you avoid people and are afraid of conflict. And then work through your problems with a psychotherapist.

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*Activity of Meta Platforms Inc. and its social networks Facebook and Instagram are prohibited in the territory of the Russian Federation.

Ghosts in the photo: a hoax story

Image credit: Thinkstock

As photographic technology has advanced, more and more images have appeared featuring enigmatic figures—ghosts, some believe. A BBC Future correspondent found out that they are even found in photographs from smartphones.

February 2015, Hampton Court Palace, London. Holly Hempshare, 12, takes out her iPhone to take a picture of Cousin Brooke as she walks alone through the majestic royal apartments. Click. Ready. nine0003

But the next day, the cousins ​​discover that Brooke is not alone in the photo. A gray image moves behind her - a tall woman in a cape. In the next picture, this anomaly is no longer there.

What was that? A unique documentary photo of a tormented soul, unable to find peace in any way? Or something that lends itself to a completely rational explanation?

Photo credit, The SunNews Syndication

Photo caption,

Ghosts still appear in photos today - like this "gray lady" from Hampton Court Palace; in fact, this is an artifact of the functioning of the iPhone 9 camera0003

The answer, as we shall see, is not to be found in the other world. This ghost is just one of the newest characters in the history of haunted photography. Such mysterious shadows have appeared in photographs since the invention of the first cameras. With each new breakthrough in photographic technology, new types of "ghosts" arose - and sometimes they were added to the pictures on purpose.

"I'm skeptical about this and I'm speaking from the perspective of a photographer and someone who doesn't believe in ghosts. I don't think these 'ghosts' are something that couldn't be achieved with different photography techniques," says Michael Pritchard, Director General of the Royal Photographic Society in Britain. nine0003

Mind and sixth sense

"Ghost photo" has its roots in the 19th century. In the 1850s and 60s, many photographers experimented with special effects such as stereoscopic imaging and double exposure. But some unscrupulous photo artisans soon realized that these techniques could be used for enrichment.

American amateur photographer William Mumler in the 1860s is supposed to have been the first person to capture a "spirit" in a photograph. nine0003

In that famous photograph, you could make out the ghost of his late cousin. Whether he actually came to him or not remains a mystery, but Mumler's ability to capture the ghosts of the deceased (usually relatives) in photographs soon brought him a clientele.

Image copyright, Lincoln Financial Foundation Collection Allen Country Public Library

Image caption,

Photographs such as this one (with the "ghost" of former US President Abraham Lincoln) have accused Mumler of fraud

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Golovna Tizhnya, Yaku explain our magazine


POPSISTIONS OF PACSTIONS OF PACLETS OF PACLENS. And the amateur gradually became a professional: more and more people came to him who wanted to get an otherworldly picture with relatives who died in the American Civil War.

Mumler seems to have achieved this effect by inserting a glass plate with a ready positive image of the deceased into the camera in front of the photosensitive glass plate on which the client's photograph was taken. Due to such a double exposure, a picture was obtained not only of the customer, but also of a "ghostly" image from an additional plate.

In one of Mumler's famous photographs, the "ghost" of Abraham Lincoln appeared in a photo of his wife, Mary Todd Lincoln. The list of the photographer's clients grew, but so did the number of his critics. nine0003

One of the most vehement was the American showman P.T. Barnum, who claimed that these ghost photos were simply exploiting the gullibility of heartbroken families and individuals. There were also accusations that Mumler allegedly broke into houses to steal photographs of dead relatives, and that some of the "spirits" in his photographs were said to have continued to live successfully and in good health.

Mumler stood trial for fraud and Barnum testified against him. The highlight of the trial came when a deliberately falsified photograph was shown in the meeting room to demonstrate how easy it was to take a Mumler-style picture. In the photo, Barnum himself was shown along with Abraham Lincoln. It looked like the ghostbusters had finally gotten their hands on the photographer. nine0003

Photo copyright, Doug GelserFlickCC BY 2.0

Photo caption,

With a good imagination, it's easy to see blurry shapes in fuzzy photos

Despite the evidence, Mumler was cleared of the fraud charge, but the damage to his reputation had already been done and his career photographer "spirits" came to an end. The techniques he used were perfected by his followers at the end of the 19th century, when the demand for ghost photographs grew, but these magicians of the negative also could not get rid of criticism in their address. nine0003

English clergyman and medium William Stainton Moses was one of the earliest explorers of the subject. Here is what Alan Murdy, chairman of the Ghost Club (founded in 1862 and considered the world's oldest organization for the study and investigation of the paranormal), says about him: in his opinion, among them there were no more than a dozen of those who, with a stretch, could be considered an example of something supernatural. And he added: "There are people who, even in a mop and a rag, are ready to recognize their untimely deceased relative."0003

But more and more people got cameras for themselves, and more and more, accordingly, became a "ghost photo". "By the 1880s, anyone could pick up a camera and take pictures, which opened the way for charlatans who were willing to deceive people and play on their emotions," says Pritchard.

Image copyright, Sybell Corbett

Photo caption,

The so-called "appearance of Lord Combermere" was taken using a long exposure, during which a person entered the frame only long enough to be partially reflected in photo

Around the same period, one of the most famous "ghost" photographs was taken. In 1891, Sibell Corbet photographed in the library of Combermere Abbey in the English county of Cheshire. In the chair in the foreground of the frame was a man, or rather, the light outlines of his head, collar and right hand. It was claimed that this is the spirit of the late Lord Combermere - he died riding a horse shortly before the picture, and at the time the photograph was taken, his funeral was taking place. The exposure of the photo was a whole hour, and therefore skeptics considered that during such a long exposure, a servant simply entered the room and sat down in a chair for a while. However, most of the servants said that they were at the funeral of their lord at this time. nine0003

After the war

By the beginning of the First World War, spiritualism and ghost photography had a number of notable supporters - including the writer Arthur Conan Doyle, a member of the "Ghost Club". The sense of loss that gripped the population of many countries after the war led to a desire to somehow reunite with lost relatives and friends. The Englishman William Hope, who already has a corresponding reputation, willingly offered his services in this area.

Like Mumler, Hope was plagued by allegations of fraud. In his respect at 19In 22, an investigation was conducted by the commission of the Society for Supernatural Research, which was headed by a well-known expert on such issues, Harry Price. He studied the case and found out that Hope really cheated, using two glass plates - one with a ghostly silhouette, the other light-sensitive, on which images of the "ghost" and the subject appeared simultaneously. But, unlike Mumler, after this revelation, Hope still continued to work as a medium and "spirit photographer", supported by his many zealous supporters. nine0003

Image copyright, National Media Museum

Image caption,

William Hope passed off double exposure footage as haunted

More than a decade later, Price was investigating a case that was far less clear. In 1936, two employees of Country Life magazine were photographing at the foot of the stairs at Raynham Hall in the English county of Norfolk. Photographer Captain Hubert Provant and his assistant Indre Shira were just about to take a photograph of this staircase when Shira suddenly saw a "vapor form gradually taking on the shape of a woman" and descending the stairs towards them. A few seconds later, the photographers hurriedly took the picture. It was published in Country Life magazine and was called "The Brown Lady". Some believed it was the figure of Lady Dorothy Townshend, who was said to have haunted the estate after her mysterious death in 1726. nine0003

Price believed that no attempt was made to falsify the picture in this case. "I must say right away that I was impressed. I was told a very simple story: Mr. Indre Shira saw a ghost coming down the stairs, just at the moment when Captain Provan's head was under a black veil. Just a shout of warning - and the cap was removed from the lens ", the flash went off, and now we all see the results of this. I cannot discard their story and have no right not to believe them. If this is a fake, then it can only be the result of collusion between these two men. And the negative itself cannot lie "Price said. nine0003

But there were also people who were more skeptical. In 1937, the Society for Supernatural Research determined that the cause of the "ghost" in the image was accidental camera movement during the six-second exposure. "I thought there was something about the Brown Lady of Raynham Hall until I read the Society's original report," admits Murdy.

Image copyright, Captain Provand

Photo caption,

"The Brown Lady of Raynham Hall": this "ghost" may have been caused by camera shake during long exposure

Like many other researchers on the subject, Murdy himself has seen countless photographs that were claimed to be ghosts. "It seems to me that very few photographs can really be considered illustrations of some kind of paranormal phenomena," he says.

Ghost in the digital

Modern digital cameras can create a fake "ghost" just as easily. The appearance of the "gray lady" from Hampton Court, with whom this article began, is almost certainly due to the technological features of the camera with which the photo was taken. nine0003

Unlike film cameras, phone cameras usually take a picture gradually - in much the same way that a scanner scans a page of text. This is a slightly longer process - especially in low light, when the phone camera takes longer to remember enough visual information to produce an acceptable quality photo. This process, known as "image smoothing", can cause moving objects in the frame to appear distorted. nine0003

Photo copyright, Bob MicalFlickrCC BY 2.0

Photo caption,

Slenderman, aka Skinny Man, became the subject of movies a character that is sometimes added to shots for dramatic effect.

Despite the fact that we are well aware of the techniques of computer manipulation with images, there are still many people who believe that spirits can be photographed.

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