Quiet the power of introverts chapter summary

Quiet (Susan Cain) - Book Summary

Quiet (Susan Cain) - Book Summary

Quiet – The Power of Introverts delves into the strengths and needs of both introverts and extroverts. The following summary will clarify the states in which they feel comfortable and can maximize their potential.

This book is suitable for

  • Those who want to understand more about introverts;
  • Team leaders who want to connect introverts and extroverts;
  • Anyone who wants to know the source of the power of introverted souls.

Susan Cain, the famous introverted writer, is also a graduate of Princeton University and Harvard Law School. Her works delve deeply into exploiting the hidden strengths of introverted souls in modern society.

Chapter 1. Extroverts often need a clear motivation, a competitive environment to strive for, while introverts always want to withdraw in their own space to reflect.

We often only judge people's nature by whether they are introverted or extroverted. In theory, this is pretty simple. Extroverts are very sociable and liberal, they always want to go out to make friends and be the center of attention. For them, social status is directly expressed through relationships, so make friends with as many people as possible, the number of people interested in social networks must be as much as possible.

In terms of success, extroverts are usually very optimistic and liberal. They gather knowledge from those around them and always try to burn the stage to succeed. For example, after losing a sum of money on the stock exchange, they do not hesitate to reinvest a larger amount to compensate.

Introverts, on the other hand, often try to stay calm and think carefully after each mistake. For example, if they lose money on the stock exchange, they will sit and analyze. Careful thinking and sensibility helps introverts do well in calculated jobs, like securing profits in the stock market in times of crisis. Throughout history, many important landmarks have been built by this type of person, notably Schindler's List or Theory of Relativity.

They can do that because they always work independently or with a small group, from which they can talk more about personal or social issues. Contrary to the sociable personality, who likes to make a lot of new friends, even if they are just social friends of extroverts, introverts focus on only a few relationships but are very close and profound.

Chapter 2. Most introverts are very sensitive to their surroundings.

Sensitivity is the next characteristic feature of the introverted personality. They often receive information from people around in an unusually thorough manner. For example, if they're playing a jigsaw puzzle, they'll spend their time looking closely at other things related to the picture.

Therefore, introverts always prefer to spend time in conversations about true values ​​instead of some small talk about their classmates' vacations. When extroverts chat in a few polite sentences, introverts talk about earth's climate change.

Taking information too carefully is also a characteristic manifestation of the fragile, gentle personality of introverts. Negative events or words have a great influence on them, so they are very sensitive and easily affected by daily judgments from people around them. As a result, they are always afraid of the court of their own conscience, they are acutely aware of the consequences their actions will have on others.

Introverts are very concerned about whether people around them see them in a positive way, this is also the reason why they are afraid to make friends and do not want to be asked too many questions. It can be concluded that this type of person is very emotional, sensitive to changes and sensitive to images, sounds, sadness and stimulants such as coffee or alcohol.

From here, we can also distinguish between introverts and shy people. If shy people are afraid of negative comments from people around, introverts just need a quiet space to think. For example, Bill Gates is an introvert, but he never seems to care about other people's prejudices about him. Meanwhile, Barbra Streisand is the lively and outgoing type, but she has a severe stage fright, which is called the "shy extrovert" type.

Chapter 3. Introverts' brains are more sensitive to outside influences.

Everyone's preferences are different. There are people who feel most comfortable and focused when sitting in a quiet library. For them, going to noisy and bustling spaces and bars is extremely strange and confusing. On the contrary, there are people who find such crowded places to feel like home, so they will go crazy if they are forced to sit in the library all afternoon.

Why is that?

To answer this question, scientists performed an experiment on infants. They put an alcohol-soaked cloth under the children's noses, and while playing recordings of balloons exploding, they reacted very differently. In which, 20% of them began to cry loudly and move their limbs very strongly. In contrast, up to 40% of babies lying still did not respond.

These responses are controlled by the brain's emotional control system, called the amygdala. This is where the senses first pass data, then it decides how to process this data. Those with sensitive amygdala, they are always responsive to all changes around them, so places with a quiet space are the ideal destinations for them. Conversely, people who are not too sensitive, such as the indifferent and calm children above, will prefer to go to noisy places.

Chapter 4. Introverted children are like orchids, they can only thrive in the right environment.

It is not only biological characteristics or genetics that determine human nature. Experiences, especially childhood experiences, also have a very strong impact on that.

If extroverted children are like dandelions, which can easily grow or move anywhere, then orchids are the right comparison for introverted children. They can only bloom under the right conditions, otherwise, their whole life will be just plain and faded grass.

So how can parents build the right environment if their child is an introvert? Appreciate, sympathize and give them a perfect start. It is important for parents to recognize their children's introverted personality first, and then find out why they feel uncomfortable under certain circumstances, especially in crowded places. people.

After knowing the situations that children are afraid of, the best way is for parents to regularly expose children to such situations. For example, if your child is afraid of public speaking, you can practice getting your child to speak in front of a few trusted people at first, then gradually increase the number of listeners. Gradually, we realize that we are completely capable of public speaking.

If raised in the right environment, introverted children will be confident in themselves and comfortable expressing their abilities. On the contrary, if they are put under pressure, they are easily bored, scared and may even develop some breathing disorders.

Chapter 5. Westerners often favor extroverts.

Do you appreciate someone who is lively, attention-grabbing, fun-loving, or someone who sits quietly in a corner and listens? In the West, the answer is clear and obvious, extroverts are intelligent and talented, not only because of their sociability but also in their interestingness and connection.

Extroverts are often more attractive and energetic, while introverts are gloomy, boring, and a bit odd, some even look as if they come from the planet. other crystals. Therefore, Westerners often appreciate extroverts. The author felt this very well when he attended a seminar by inspirational speaker Tony Robbins. They rank extroverts at the top, which indicates that this trait is key to one's victory in this competitive world.

That's also why professors at the Harvard Business School consider it an important task to turn all their students into extroverts. Programs always include going to seminars and working in groups, even hanging out with friends of the opposite sex is also a mandatory task.

Contrary to this context, most students in Korea or Japan would rather bury their heads in books than go to bars with friends. At seminars, they listen attentively and focus on taking notes, freedom of speech is considered disrespectful, impolite, arrogant and ignorant.

Chapter 6. Extroversion was a “trend” 150 years ago.

Dale Carnegie lived in a small town in Missouri in the early twentieth century. At that time he had the typical look of an introvert: thin, weak and always shy, far from the image of a famous speaker. Everything changes when a speaker from the adult education center moves to town and realizes Dale's talent.

Actually, Dale is a very ambitious person, he always tries his best to develop his skills. As time went on, he became a master speaker and became popular throughout the school. Later, as a soap and bacon marketer, he won over all customers with his friendly smile and trusting handshake. Finally, Dale founded the Dale Carnegie Center with the aim of helping entrepreneurs overcome their anxieties and insecurities about themselves. Unexpectedly, his "life-changing" process very realistically reflects a transition from rural to urban ethos of twentieth-century America.

In the nineteenth century, Americans lived in small communities and people were bound together. As long as you work hard, behave properly and stand up for others, people will know you by themselves. However, as the economy boomed and disrupted the social structure then, more and more people moved from the countryside to crowded, bustling and competitive cities, where a fixed belief existed. In order to be successful, you must know how to “market” yourself. Since then, people often admire those who are always full of energy and charisma.

Chapter 7. Introverts can sometimes become extroverts.

Through many experiences, ambitious introverts will eventually be cornered into some situation where it is imperative to act like extroverts. For example, as a teaching professor, how can an introvert and shy person like her convey all her knowledge and enthusiasm to the students? This was when she was forced to put her introverted nature aside. The professor behaved like a true extrovert: She strode into the lecture hall with long, confident strides, her voice clear and precise, her posture completely natural and relaxed. As a result, the students were completely absorbed in the lecture, constantly asking her for advice, and the session was successful beyond imagination.

After accomplishing the goal of giving students interesting and effective lectures, the professor returned to being himself as usual, still loving the silence and completely relaxing with the reading time. alone in the corner of the library. Of course, being extroverted is hard work for some people. However, the case of the female professor above demonstrates that introverts can completely extrovert for a short time if it is imperative for them to achieve their goals.

Chapter 8. Companies should not build a work environment suitable only for extroverts.

Many leaders strive to create a dynamic and competitive work environment, suitable for extroverts in the belief that it will be the best place to grow. As a result, most employees work in an open environment, in the form of group discussions and presentation of work results through Powerpoint presentations.

So how will introverts manage in those group meetings? Surrounded by aggressive colleagues, a series of challenges piled on top will engulf them in pressure. Will they be able to reveal and develop their potential in such an environment?

Many great achievements of the world in the last few decades have proven the effectiveness of teamwork, such as the operating system of Wikipedia or Linux. It's possible that a good team is behind the success of these achievements, but people have overlooked one key point: ideas for discussion will not arise in the open work environment or in the public domain. meetings, which came about when the owner sat alone in front of the computer screen in the office.

In fact, great ideas often come when people work independently. Steve Wozniak invents Apple's first personal computer in his personal office. JK Rowling wrote the Harry Potter classic series completely independently.

A workspace designed for extroverts will most likely cause the company to squander the desirable potential of introverts. Steve Wozniak emphasizes that he knows a lot of great inventors who are artists, and they only show their talent most when working independently. As a leader, if you are lucky enough to have such people, don't try to force them into noisy group discussions, create a space for them to develop their own big ideas.

To solve this problem, create a workspace that is flexible for both types of people: giving them the opportunity to exchange ideas, as well as suitable private workspaces. The movable partition is an ideal suggestion, when needed, the partition can be pulled down to exchange ideas with people around.

Chapter 9. A true leader is one who has the ability to combine the strengths of both types.

How can managers tap into the two distinct strengths of introverts and extroverts? To answer this question, the scientists asked several groups of students to do a simple task, folding t-shirts, under the direction of an introvert or extrovert.

For groups with extroverted instructors, although they follow the rules very accurately and quickly, they do not go overboard with individual recommendations for faster and more efficient folding solutions. In contrast, groups with introverted instructors may not be too active, the morale of the members is not enhanced, but they always respect each individual's opinion, trying to do everything possible to make the most of it. good ideas.

It can be concluded that, in the workplace, the extroverted leadership style is suitable for simple tasks that need to be solved quickly and accurately. As for those who want to contribute their own personal ideas, the introverted leadership style is the right style for them.

Another difference between the two leadership styles was evident during the 2008 financial crisis. Extroverted leaders make quick decisions based on scant information. Many of them venture capital with their own capital. When everything fell apart, they had to pay a very heavy price for that recklessness. In contrast, introverted leaders often gather and research a lot of information before making a decision, they are especially careful with their capital investment. So their company is less affected by the economic downturn.

It can be said that if you need to make a quick and decisive decision, go to an extrovert, but in cases that require carefulness, it is best to listen to an introvert. In addition, extroverts also need to appreciate the unique values ​​of their introverted colleagues, because both types of people have strengths that are worth learning.

Chapter 10. Both types of people can maximize their results through cooperation.

The interactions between two opposing types of people are often misunderstood. When conflict breaks out, extroverts tend to be angry, loud, and dominant. Introverts will often admit to losing in arguments, simply because they're not interested in it. Only when the two sides are willing to open their hearts and stand on the other's position to think, the problem will be resolved.

Franklin D.Roosevelt, the American president during World War II, is a typical extrovert. He was lively and energetic, enjoying socializing with many friends and partying all night. His Lady Eleanor, on the other hand, was an introverted woman who was always timid and somewhat eccentric, always enjoying conversations about big affairs and trying to get out of parties as soon as possible.

However, the power couple uses that huge difference to make up for each other's shortcomings. Eleanor made a liberal like Franklin begin to care about children who were being tortured by hunger and racism. When the lady discovered that Marian Anderson, a black singer, was not allowed to perform at Constitution Hall, she and her husband used political power to get her the right to perform in front of the Lincoln Memorial on the holiday. Easter.

It can be concluded that, both personality traits can complement each other perfectly. Sometimes, extroverts need deep conversations rather than a few jokes. On the contrary, their abundant and youthful energy will be a new source of energy instead of making the quiet, gloomy world of introverts more colorful. This is exactly what leaders need to do, the outstanding features of the two personality traits when combined will bring unexpected effects.


Through the book, the author wants to emphasize that both introverts and extroverts have their own characteristics, which can bring value to the people around them. And whoever they are, they need the right environment to realize and develop their potential.

Besides, the book also answers the question:

“What is the difference between introverts and extroverts?”

First, extroverts prefer a dynamic and motivating environment, while introverts prefer to sit quietly alone and reflect;

A lot of introverts are overly sensitive to fluctuations happening around them;

Introverted children are very much like orchids, only able to thrive in a truly suitable environment.

“Why do extroverts often have more advantages?”

Westerners attach great importance to extroverts;

The preference for extroverts has existed for 150 years;

“How can both types of people reach their full potential?”

Companies should not build a work environment only suitable for extroverts;

A good leader will know how to reconcile these two types of people when working in groups;

Both types of people can develop their talents if they can be combined.

The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking Summary & Study Guide

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Study Guide

Susan Cain

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Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking Summary & Study Guide includes comprehensive information and analysis to help you understand the book. This study guide contains the following sections:

This detailed literature summary also contains Topics for Discussion on Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking by Susan Cain.

The following version of this book was used to create the guide: Cain, Susan. Quiet: The Power of Introverts. Broadway Books, 2013.

Cain begins her narrative with the compelling story of Rosa Parks, who launched the Civil Rights movement with the power of one quietly spoken word--"no"--when a white bus driver asked her to give up her seat on a segregated Montgomery, Alabama bus in 1955. Cain uses Parks to embody the quiet reserves of strengths that characterize introverts. However, according to Cain, the U.S. has been plagued by what she calls the "extrovert ideal" since around the beginning of the 20th century. She writes that extroverts, who seek their stimulation from the outside world, have been regarded more highly in a culture in which movement and urbanization required fast associations and the ability to sell oneself. The author cites the rise of Dale Carnegie, a poor son of pig farmers in Missouri, as an example of the newfound belief in the Cult of Personality over the previous Cult of Character. The talent to talk became the most important way to get ahead.

Cain asks whether nature or nurture leads people to become introverts, seeking their excitement from inner resources, and she journeys to the lab of Harvard developmental psychology professor Jerome Kagan to find her answer. There, Kagan tells her about his research, which has shown that some babies are more to be more reactive to external stimuli. These babies tend to grow up into people who are more cautious and inner-directed--classic introverts. Even as adults, their amygdalae--the part of their brain that takes in information and sends it to other parts of the brain--is more reactive to novelty and to what is unknown. Cain cites studies that show that these sensitive people are more reactive to both bad and good parenting as children, a theory known as the Orchid Hypothesis. Introverted children are like orchids who can even thrive or suffer, depending on whether they have supportive or unsupportive upbringings.

The author describes the perils of relying only on extroverts. She travels to Harvard Business School and to the Saddleback Church, a large evangelical church in California. In both places, she finds that introverts, despite their good ideas and cautious attention to detail, are drowned out in a sea of extroverts. The church even conveys that God was an extrovert. The author believes that the 2008 financial crisis in banking was, however, in part a result of having too many extroverts at the table. Such situations tend to lead to what she calls groupthink and to blocking out good ideas, as well as to privileging risk taking over caution.

In search of a culture that prizes introversion, the author goes to Cupertino, California, where the high school is 77% Asia. There, top students are prized, and scholarly, quiet people are lionized. However, when people leave that culture, which has more of the Asian emphasis on introversion, they tend not to advance. There is even a school for adults near Cupertino that teaches people to be more assertive to get ahead in business. The author includes several case studies of introverts who have been quite forceful, including Eleanor Roosevelt and Gandhi, by following introverted tenets of compromise, caution, and conscience.

The author concludes her book with several chapters that provide advice to introverts. She writes that people can change their personality for short periods of time, following the Rubber Band Theory that states that people can stretch their personalities but always return to their core selves. It is particularly compelling for introverts to act extroverted in the service of meaningful pet projects. However, they have to give themselves time to restore themselves and return to form. She also provides advice about how extroverts and introverts, who often can form meaningful partnerships in love and work, can communicate better and how the parents and teachers of introverts can raise them in ways that respect their ways of being and encourage their talents.

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"The Power of Introverts" - The book in brief in 15 minutes - Review and 2 reviews

The book "The Power of Introverts" . This material is a subjective attempt by the creators of the "Read Fast" project to highlight the main thing from Sylvia Leuken's book "The Power of Introverts. How to use your oddities to your advantage. Read the summary - Decide whether or not to read the entire book.

Title: The power of introverts
Author of the book:


Genre: Self-development, Psychology
Publishing house: Eksmo
9000 9000

Sociable introvert
Personality definition
Power source
Time alternation
Living alone
Family hearth

Sylvia Löcken - guide of introverts in the world of extroverts what is wrong with her in the world of extroverts.

And when I realized, I wrote a book on the power of introverts, how to use their oddities to the benefit of the cause.

Introverts have a hard time in everyday life. To be successful, you need communication skills and an active life position. Sylvia Leken's book will help introverts appreciate the strengths of their character, realize themselves as a person, build a successful career and happy relationships. The story teaches the reader how to turn the flaws of the psychotype into tools to achieve goals.

But they say she, Sylvia Lequin, wrote almost the first book of its kind, which will help introverts not only to find peace of mind and harmony, but also to break out into people in this terrible world. Whether Sylvia succeeded, let's see.

“The Power of Introverts” very briefly 🙂

The whole book in two sentences

In general, it must be said that the whole book is built on the thesis that extroverts have taken over the world - they are noisy, noisy, sociable and cheerful, and poor introverts do not know how to to be, what to do and where to sail. There is an interesting illustration about the example of swimming in the preface, which suggests that all books on self-development and pumping soft skills are not suitable for introverts, because for the most part they are written by extroverts and for extroverts. That is, trying to learn and develop according to them is the same as, according to the author, teaching an eagle to swim according to the instructions written by a duck.

Year of publication: 2017

Volume: 320 pages

Reading time: 21 hours

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Let's try to understand the 10 facts and 3 tasks of the power of introverts and find out how to use your oddities to your advantage.

Book review of The Power of Introverts

In this 21-minute 10 Facts, 3 Problems from an Interesting Book review, you'll find out what Sylvia Löcken thinks about the noisy world of extroverts and how to truly fit into it introverts. It's all in The Power of Introverts.

10 facts from the book "The Power of Introverts"

Sociable introvert

Introverts are considered to be reserved individuals who prefer solitude. Sylvia considers such thinking to be stereotypical. You can relate to this psychotype, but be an open and sociable person. The main difference between an extrovert is that he draws inspiration from noisy companies, and an introvert - in silence. According to the author, the desire to be alone with yourself is a sign of fatigue.

Definition of Personality

Lequesne claims that there are no people who are endowed with exclusively introverted or extroverted character traits. The psychotype is determined by the predominance of qualities. However, unexpressed properties can manifest themselves in certain situations that lead out of the comfort zone. A person is able to adapt to them.

Source of power

The difference between Intro and Extra lies in the method of recovery. People of both psychotypes relieve stress and fatigue in different ways. Extroverts are energized by being around people, while introverts are energized by being alone. The need for solitude for Intro is nothing more than a desire to relax. To stay in tune with yourself, Sylvia recommends asking yourself: “What do I really need now?”. She advises following the inner voice when the need arises to be alone.

Alternating time

Since introverts need to recuperate for contact with people, they need to learn how to properly manage their time. The writer suggests taking breaks in communication. Time out will bring inspiration, allow you to lead an active social life in the future.


Intros tend to analyze their actions. Thanks to self-criticism, they set the bar high, they know what they want to achieve. The other side of the coin is a decrease in self-confidence. Too deep introspection can lead to suppression of the personality.


Extroverts tend to evaluate Intro's calm behavior as passivity. According to Sylvia, this feature does not interfere with moving towards the goal. On the contrary, less energy consumption contributes to the systematic achievement of goals. Introverts can calculate how much effort is needed in a given situation.


Silent people diligently do their work. They are able to concentrate, to cope with a large number of tasks. The noble restraint of the Intro allows you to successfully negotiate and plan the budget.


Developed intuition enables Intro to feel the interlocutor. Thanks to empathic abilities, they perfectly understand other people. The conclusions made in the process of observing the surrounding world are used for communication. Introverts are interested listeners, so people are drawn to them. The trust and favor of the interlocutor can be used to your advantage.

Living alone

Introverts are not always ready for a relationship. The writer claims that there are such ways to diversify life without a partner:

  • communication with interesting people;
  • a hobby that brings joy;
  • friendship support;
  • helping other people;
  • search for like-minded people.

Family hearth

For harmonious coexistence in a couple, introverts need an equal relationship. The partner must understand that sometimes the soulmate needs to be alone. This will require personal space. The intro should set the boundaries of the comfort zone that the partner should respect.

Despite the condescending tone and pretentiousness, even in the title “how to use your oddities to your advantage” is a noteworthy attempt to understand the inner world of introverts. It will be especially useful for extroverts who cannot build relationships with an introverted boss, a girl-boyfriend or just a loved one.

Three tasks from the book "The Power of Introverts" by Sylvia Lequin

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Our goal: more well-read and conscious people. Read books. Listen to mom.

📖 Book 9 questions and answers0068

📕 What are the advantages of introverts?

1. Caution. The introvert avoids risky actions, considers the consequences of
in advance. 2. Content. Intros are capable of learning. They structure the accumulated knowledge,
consistently present information, they are able to highlight the main thing. 3. Ability to listen. A silent person is attentive to the interlocutor, delves into the essence of the problem. 4. Independence. Introverts are independent, obey internal principles, live in harmony with themselves.

📗 How to read the book "The Power of Introverts" in an hour?

There are three ways: 1. Read our review in text format. 2. Listen to a podcast with a review on YouTube. 3. Master fluent reading and read a book in an evening. You can start learning speed reading with our workbooks.

📘 What is the weakness of Intro?

1. Fear. Self-doubt and timidity interfere with free communication. 2. Meticulousness. Introverts pay close attention to the smallest details, so they often forget about the big picture. 3. Evasiveness. When a situation or task brings unpleasant sensations, the introvert tries to avoid it. 4. Self-sacrifice. Thanks to empathy and compassion, Intros often forget about their own interests and needs.

📙 Why do introverts prefer social networks?

They find it easier to communicate in writing. Before expressing an idea, they carefully consider it
. Introverts prefer to communicate online.
's written communication skills enable them to compose meaningful emails. There are many
opportunities open for Intro in terms of professional growth. They can effectively plan projects,
distribute tasks, and coordinate goals.

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📝 Reviews of the book "The Power of Introverts" by Sylvia Lequin

Do not hold back and use the comment form below to tell everything that you liked or did not like about the book. Do you recommend reading? Or maybe stay away from her? 🙂

⬇ ⬇ ⬇

"Introverts" in 45 minutes. Summary of Kane's book

Our life is also determined by character - along with race, gender and other factors that we do not choose. One or another type of temperament affects the choice of a profession (and success in an already chosen one), friends, behavioral tactics, determines the ability to be a leader, take risks, engage in certain physical exercises ... All this depends on the individual characteristics of the nervous system.

Both extroverts and introverts have always been, and not only among people - examples of different temperaments can be found in the animal world. However, extraverted personality traits are much more socially approved than introverted ones. Studies show that introverts make up between a third and a half of the entire population - however, many of them, being dependent on the approval of society, are forced to disguise themselves as extroverts. Their fate is reminiscent of the fate of women in the patriarchal world - and what is happening just as neuroticizes people, if not completely breaks their fate, forcing them to live a “not their own” life. They are accused of stupidity, laziness, boringness... At the same time, it is obvious that without introverts, humanity would lose a huge part of culture, science, social achievements: from the theories of gravity and relativity to Paradise Lost and Harry Potter, from Google and Indian independence to Schindler's List and Chopin's nocturnes.

The author, who knows firsthand the problems that introverts face (she has gone through many of them herself), argues that introverts are not weaker, dumber, lazier, and potentially no less successful than extroverts; it is only necessary not to break their own nature.

1. Introversion - what is it?

1.1. The terms "extraversion" and "introversion" became popular thanks to Carl Jung and his monumental work "Psychological Types", published in 1921.

According to Jung, extroverts are mainly focused on the world around them, they are quickly included in the events taking place around them, and if events and communication with people are not enough for them, they feel discomfort.

Introverts are focused mainly on the inner world, on thoughts, experiences, they tend to first comprehend the events taking place, and to restore strength they need to be alone.

Now, scientists do not have a single concept regarding extraversion-introversion: not everyone adheres to Jung's theory. However, experts agree that the difference between these two types is in the degree of comfort for them from external influences.

1.2. Introverts and extroverts work differently.

Extroverts are more likely to get to work right away, make quick (though not always correct) decisions, multitask, are not afraid to take risks, are more oriented towards money and status.

Introverts usually do not start working immediately, but they act more thoroughly, monotask, they are perfectly able to concentrate on their work; fame and fortune mean less to them.

1.3. Introverts and extroverts interact differently in society.

Extroverts are usually self-confident, talkative (sometimes excessively), easy to engage in dialogue, tend to rather dominate the company. They are not afraid of conflicts - but depressing loneliness.

Introverts, as a rule, quickly get tired of intense communication, prefer to spend time with close friends and relatives. They are listeners rather than speakers, and express their thoughts better in writing than orally. They do not like conflicts and “light”, non-committal conversations, preferring a deep discussion of the topic.

1.4. "Introversion" is not synonymous with "shyness," although the two can be combined in the same person. An extrovert can also be shy.

To determine whether you are an extrovert or an introvert, the author offers a questionnaire - you must answer “true” or “false” for each of the items:

- I prefer face-to-face conversations to interacting with groups of people.
I am better at expressing myself in writing.
- I enjoy being alone.
- I think that wealth, celebrity and social status are of less interest to me than my peers.
- I don't like to talk about trifles, but I enjoy deep discussions about things that interest me.
I am often told that I am a good listener.
- I don't like to take big risks.
- I like to immerse myself in work, and I can't stand being interrupted.
- I prefer to celebrate my birthday with a few close friends or relatives.
- I am considered a calm and gentle person in communication.
- I don't like to discuss my affairs before they are completed.
- I don't like conflicts.
- I work best alone.
— I usually think about my words before speaking.
- I feel exhausted from long stays at all kinds of events, even in a comfortable atmosphere.
- I often do not answer calls, giving a chance to communicate with the answering machine.
- On the weekend, I would rather do nothing than spend time actively.
- I don't like doing many tasks at the same time.
- I can concentrate without difficulty.
— In my studies I prefer lectures to seminars.

If you answered “true” to most of the questions, you are an introvert; if “false”, you are an extrovert. If the answers “true” and “false” are approximately equal, then you are an ambivert.

1.5. Many introverts are sensitive - that is, highly sensitive to certain environmental cues, both pleasant and unpleasant: such people get more pleasure from beautiful music and are much more vulnerable to injustice. They were often shy in childhood, and even as adults they are extremely embarrassed by the situation where they are judged in one way or another.

2. How extraversion became a cultural ideal

2.1. The United States was originally an agricultural society. The life of people measuredly passed on secluded farms and in small towns, among those whom they had known since childhood.


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