Personality type systems

Personality Systems Compared - Personality Lingo

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One of the most notable contributions in history was in 460 BC by Hippocrates (often referred to as the “father of western medicine”). He observed that people in general seemed to have one of four humors, or approaches to life. This discernment of four groupings is a common theme that connects many of the most predominant personality theories.

Today there exist many different systems for categorizing personality traits into meaningful patterns. Many of these various systems use special vocabulary such as colors, letters or other terms to describe the same thing- your personality or “temperament”.

Whether you are brand new to personality training or intimately familiar with a favorite system- the power of knowing your personality is undeniable. Our personality affects everything we do – from how we take in and process information to personal preferences and life decisions. Modern scientific studies claim to have found proof that our temperament is coded into our DNA, giving even more validity to this time tested theory.

Countless times my clients have explained a communication quandary they have experienced. For example, one major corporation’s HR director shared that they had trained their upper management in the Myers/Briggs system because they liked the detailed descriptions and in-depth clarification of the different functions (ENFP, INTJ…). The supervisors in the same corporation had been previously trained in DISC and were used to those specific terms (Dominance, Influence…). However, the general staff was trained in “the Colors” because they found it simple to remember and use. The staff spoke to each other in a “color” lingo. Even though the entire corporation had been trained in some kind of personality theory, they still could not communicate between the ranks because they were not speaking the same language!


Hippocrates was perhaps the first to reference color in connection with his four humors. Over the years there have been numerous systems that have carried on with this approach and attached a color label to a particular personality: Personality Dimensions, Don Lowry’s True Colors, Real Colors and many more. The table below reviews a sampling of those systems and how they relate to Personality Lingo:

Personality Lingo® Connector Thinker Planner Mover
Don Lowry’s True Colors BLUE GREEN GOLD ORANGE
Personality Dimensions BLUE GREEN GOLD ORANGE
Spectrum Temperaments BLUE GREEN GOLD ORANGE
Personality Resources BLUE GREEN GOLD ORANGE

The most popular letter systems for Temperament  identification are the Myers-Briggs and Keirsey systems. The chart below shows how Myers-Briggs and Keirsey relate to Personality Lingo:

Personality Lingo® Connector Thinker Planner Mover
Myers – Briggs  ENFJ, INFJ
Keirsey Temperament NF NT SJ SP

Dating back to the ancient Greeks there is a long linage of  adding  descriptive adjectives (or labels) to each of the four personality styles. The chart below shows how these systems relate to Personality Lingo:

Personality Lingo® Connector Thinker Planner Mover
Ancient Greeks  Fire Water Earth Air
Galen Phlegmatic Choleric Melancholic Sanguine
Carl Jung Intuition/Feeling Intuition/Thinking Sensing (/Judging*) Sensing (/Perceiving*)
Seasons Summer Winter Autumn Spring
Keirsey Idealist Rational Guardian Artisan
Keirsey/Bates Apollonian Promethean Epimethean Dionysian
Diet Styles Diet Feeler Diet Thinker Diet Planner Diet Player
Inner Hero Helper Thinker Planner Doer
Helen Fisher Estrogen/Oxytocin Testosterone Serotonin Dopamine
Helen Scully Facilitator Innovator Organizer Liberator
Character Champions Blue Dolphin Green Owl Gold Ant Orange Wolf

*Carl Jung does not explicitly mention a judging or perceiving attitude. The “Judging” and “Perceiving” terms are listed here to make a clear distinction between the Planner and Mover temperaments as they relate to Carl Jung’s classifications.

Personality Lingo Mover/Thinker Connector/Mover Planner/Connector Thinker/Planner
COLORS Orange/Green Blue/Orange Gold/Blue Green/Gold

Don’t see your favorite personality system on the above lists? Email us at info@PersonalityLingo. com and let us know that you would like to be included!

Myers & Briggs' Personality Typing, Explained

Personality typing is a system of categorizing people according to their tendencies to think and act in particular ways. Personality typing attempts to find the broadest, most important ways in which people are different, and make sense of these differences by sorting people into meaningful groups.

The most popular and well-known system of personality typing was developed by Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katharine Briggs, in the 1960's. Myers and Briggs built on the personality theories of Swiss psychiatrist Dr. Carl Jung as outlined in his book, Psychological Types, and developed one of the world's most popular personality assessments, the Myers Briggs Type Indicator®, or MBTI®.

The History of the MBTI® Assessment

From early in her life, Katharine Cook Briggs was captivated by Jung’s theory of psychological types. However, she recognized that the theory as Jung explained it was too diffuse and complex for use by regular people. She therefore set out to convey Jung’s ideas in a simple way so that anyone would be able to recognize personality types in action in everyday life. She felt passionately that through understanding personality types, people would be better able to use their own strengths and appreciate the diverse gifts of others.

Katharine's work was picked up by her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers, who became interested in the theory as a way to help with the war effort during WWII. Isabel clarified the theory her mother had developed and used it as the basis of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator®, a psychological assessment designed to sort people into one of sixteen personality types. She created detailed descriptions of each of the 16 types, and explored applications of her theory in academics, business, and personal development.

The Basics of Myers & Briggs' Personality Theory

The Myers-Briggs system describes a person’s personality through four opposing personality functions, variously known as dichotomies, preferences or scales. The first three preferences are based on the writings of Jung; Katherine Cook Briggs added the final preference, Judging versus Perceiving, based on her own observations.

  • Extraversion vs. Introversion: How do you gain energy? Extraverts like to be with others and gain energy from people and the environment. Introverts gain energy from alone-time and need periods of quiet reflection throughout the day.
  • Sensing vs. Intuition: How do you collect information? Sensors gather facts from their immediate environment and rely on the things they can see, feel and hear. Intuitives look more at the overall context and think about patterns, meaning, and connections.
  • Thinking vs. Feeling: How do you make decisions? Thinkers look for the logically correct solution, whereas Feelers make decisions based on their emotions, values, and the needs of others.
  • Judging vs. Perceiving: How do you organize your environment? Judgers prefer structure and like things to be clearly regulated, whereas Perceivers like things to be open and flexible and are reluctant to commit themselves.

The choice of preference is either/or—in Myers and Briggs' system, you’re either an Introvert or an Extravert, a Judger or a Perceiver.

Once you have decided which style you prefer on each of the four dichotomies, you use these four preferences to create a four letter code which sums up your personality type. For example, someone with a preference for Introversion, Intuition, Feeling and Judging would have the code “INFJ" (an Intuition preference is signified with an N to avoid confusion with Introversion). There are 16 possible combination, or personality types.

Many people find their type by taking a personality test, however it is also possible to discover your personality type simply by studying the preferences and your own behavior.

Myers and Briggs' 16 Personality Types

Myers and Briggs outlined 16 personality types based on the four personality preferences. Each personality type is designated with a four-letter code, with each letter signifying one of the personality preferences.

Isabel Briggs Myers stressed that each personality type was more than the sum of its parts, and her descriptions of each type were intended to explain how all four of the personality preferences came together to interact, synergize, and form a cohesive type. This gives Myers and Briggs' personality type descriptions the advantage of showing us how to conceptualize various combinations of personality traits—for instance, the difference between someone who is extraverted, kind and compassionate, and a similarly extraverted person who is more logical and emotionally detached. Other personality systems, such as the Big Five, typically talk about personality traits in isolation, which is often less helpful when trying to conceptualize a person as a whole.

Briggs Myers' personality types are described in detail in her book Gifts Differing. Further research illuminated differences among the types in career selection, work style, and approaches to relationships. Below is a quick snapshot of each of Briggs Myers' sixteen personality types. You can click on each type code to explore a type in more depth.


The Commander

Strategic leaders, motivated to organize change


The Mastermind

Analytical problem-solvers, eager to improve systems and processes


The Visionary

Inspired innovators, seeking new solutions to challenging problems


The Architect

Philosophical innovators, fascinated by logical analysis


The Teacher

Idealist organizers, driven to do what is best for humanity


The Counselor

Creative nurturers, driven by a strong sense of personal integrity


The Champion

People-centered creators, motivated by possibilities and potential


The Healer

Imaginative idealists, guided by their own values and beliefs


The Supervisor

Hardworking traditionalists, taking charge to get things done


The Inspector

Responsible organizers, driven to create order out of chaos


The Provider

Conscientious helpers, dedicated to their duties to others


The Protector

Industrious caretakers, loyal to traditions and institutions


The Dynamo

Energetic thrillseekers, ready to push boundaries and dive into action


The Craftsperson

Observant troubleshooters, solving practical problems


The Entertainer

Vivacious entertainers, loving life and charming those around them


The Composer

Gentle caretakers, enjoying the moment with low-key enthusiasm

Myers and Briggs were careful to point out that no one type is any better than another; each has their own equally valuable gifts, strengths, and contributions. It is also important to understand that while certain types tend to gravitate naturally towards particular behavior styles, a person's type cannot absolutely predict their behavior or what they will be good at. For instance, while ENTJs are often considered to have qualities we associate with leadership, an individual ENTJ may not be a particularly good leader if he or she has not developed related skills. Personality type may predispose a person to being a certain way, but the ultimate outcome depends on many more factors.



MBTI® Manual

Katherine and Isabel: Mother's Light, Daughter's Journey

  • Key Principles of Myers & Briggs' Personality Typing ›


Myers-Briggs® and MBTI® are registered trademarks of the MBTI Trust, Inc., which has no affiliation with this site. Truity offers a free personality test based on Myers and Briggs' types, but does not offer the official MBTI® assessment. For more information on the Myers Briggs Type Indicator® assessment, please go here.

The Five Love Languages® is a registered trademark of The Moody Bible Institute of Chicago, which has no affiliation with this site. You can find more information about the five love languages here.

Personality types: main differences and their characteristics

Contents of the article

All people are different: someone likes to lead an active lifestyle and communicate a lot, it is easier for someone not to stand out among others, someone is prone to sensitivity and excessive self-criticism. Since ancient times, scientists and philosophers have been interested in the topic of personality classification, many theories have been developed, some of which have become part of modern psychology. In this article, we will briefly analyze the psychological types that the Soviet scientist A.E. Lichko developed while observing adolescents. It is in adolescence that individual character traits and psychological characteristics are quite strongly manifested, which are smoothed out during growing up, but can manifest themselves at a moment of crisis. Even more types of personality classifications can be found in the free online course "Typology of Personality" on the platform "Russia - a country of opportunities". nine0003

Asthenoneurotic type

People with a weak nervous system who are characterized by low stamina, irritability and overwork. They get tired more from psychological stress than from physical exertion. When working for a long time, they need frequent breaks, in general they like to work at their own pace. Such people are hard to switch from one activity to another, it is better not to distract them from the process once again. Any unforeseen situations cause them irritability and anxiety. But these people are very careful and disciplined, they can spend hours doing monotonous work that does not require speed. nine0003

Unstable type

Complex personality type, which is characterized by irresponsibility, idleness and addiction, for example, from alcohol, drugs, games. Such people strive for pleasure, they want to constantly relax and have fun. They often have problems with work, they do not want to study and grow professionally. This type of personality can be called a real hedonist who sees entertainment and enjoyment as the main goal of his life. The positive features include openness and sociability. nine0003

Conformal type

People who strive to live like everyone else and do not want to stand out from the crowd once again. The opinion of others is very important to them, they try to earn the praise and approval of others. Basically, the way of life of such people directly depends on the society in which they live. If there are religious people around them, then the conformist will be a believer to the point of fanaticism. It is also difficult for them to change something in their lives, it is difficult to pull them out of their comfort zone. Positive features include low conflict, friendliness, devotion and diligence. nine0003

Labile type

Empathic people who can feel the mood and feelings of others well. They often make outstanding psychologists and social workers. They are open and always ready to help and support with a kind word. But this type is very sensitive and touchy, does not tolerate criticism in his address, cannot stand loneliness and changes in life.

Cycloid type

People who are prone to sudden mood swings experience strong emotions - either they are overly happy, or they feel sad on the verge of depression. They cope with internal experiences for a long time, they are distinguished by excitability and irritability, sometimes aggressiveness. The positive traits include sociability and friendliness. nine0003


People with excessive impressionability, vulnerability and openness. They can get excited about simple things that most people don't notice. They also keep pleasant and unpleasant memories for many years, which flash in memory as if in reality. This type of personality is difficult to tolerate public criticism, is very afraid of being ridiculed. Positive traits include increased morality, compassion and sociability.

Psychasthenic type

People who are prone to introspection and reflection like to delve into themselves and criticize for shortcomings. They have an excellent memory, so they remember their mistakes well and often engage in self-flagellation. Hence, they have a lack of confidence in their abilities, they take too long to make decisions, doubt and are afraid to stumble again. The positive features include loyalty and reliability, they will never betray loved ones and will always stand up for their own.

Schizoid type

Closed and unsociable people who do not know how or do not want to build close relationships with others. But they do a great job of maintaining business relationships. They have a rich inner world, into which they prefer not to let anyone in. Many people have high intelligence and out-of-the-box thinking. But they practically do not know how to recognize other people's emotions. nine0003

Epileptoid type

The most complex type of people, prone to breakdowns, aggression and pedantry. They seek to subjugate everyone, to win an authoritarian position. Such people do not know how to build friendly relations at all, they can vent evil on others, they are very scrupulous about the work of employees. But personalities of this type can be strong leaders.

Hysterical type

Personality type requiring increased attention to oneself. They need constant admiration and reverence. Indifference to their person is the worst scenario for them. Such people are prone to fantasy and lies in order to create a vivid image for themselves. However, they make excellent actors and presenters. nine0003

Hyperthymic type

Active and cheerful people who are almost always in high spirits. They are sociable, a little frivolous, generally do not tolerate monotony and monotony, often prone to unjustified risk.

Types of human personality - classification and examples

Such sciences as psychology, sociology, socionics and even computer science are engaged in the definition of different types of personalities.


  1. Personality types by temperament
  2. Social personality types
  3. Personality types in socionics
  4. Holland personality types
  5. Personality types in conflict situations

Each of the presented sciences has its own concepts and classifications for establishing one or another type of personality.

In general, it should be understood that psychological typology is a system of individual attitudes and behavioral stereotypes, formed to explain the difference between people. nine0003

Let's consider the most important personality types that will be of interest not only to fans of psychology, but also to everyone who is fond of self-development.

Human personality types

After numerous experiments, it became clear that there are no clear distinctions between human personality types.

To make the most accurate conclusion, you need to find out which of the characteristics of personality types prevail in this or that person, and then on this basis you can draw some conclusions. nine0003

Classification of people by temperament

Few people know that the founder of the definition of personality types is the famous ancient Greek physician and philosopher Hippocrates. Being the foremost physician of his time, he conducted many interesting experiments.

Since Hippocrates was a supporter of materialism, he tried to find a connection between temperament and the amount of content in the body of one of the 4 fluids: lymph, blood, yellow and black bile.

As a result, he presented 4 main types of temperament:

  • choleric;
  • phlegmatic;
  • melancholic;
  • sanguine.

According to Hippocrates, yellow bile predominated in the body of choleric people, black bile in melancholic people, lymph in phlegmatic people, and blood in sanguine people.

For obvious reasons, modern medicine cannot take these conclusions of the famous ancient Greek doctor seriously, who left no explanation as to how he managed to identify such patterns. nine0003

An interesting fact is that Hippocrates compared a person's character with his physical health. He believed that in our body, thoughts, the state of organs and emotions are inextricably linked.

In modern medicine and psychology there is such a direction as psychosomatics. Psychosomatics ("psyche" - the soul and "soma" - the body) studies the influence of psychological factors on the occurrence and course of somatic (bodily) diseases. By correctly approaching the solution of this issue, many people managed to get rid of various ailments associated with psychosomatics. nine0003

Types of temperament

Let's take a brief look at each type of temperament and give it a corresponding characteristic.


Of the 4 personality types, melancholics are the "weakest". They have weakly expressed both inhibitory and excitatory processes, which makes them very sensitive.

Melancholic people can get excited even by something insignificant. They are often depressed and more prone to depression. Among them, one can often meet neurasthenics who carefully hide their emotions. nine0003

For this reason, mental and nervous disorders can develop in melancholics, which in turn can cause diseases of the stomach, cardiovascular system, and liver.


Cholerics by their nature are the exact opposite of melancholics. They are unbalanced and firm in nature.

An interesting fact is that people with this type of personality are more likely than others to suffer from diseases of the liver and gallbladder. They find it difficult to control their emotions, resulting in irritability, outbursts of anger and often rage. nine0003

As a rule, choleric people find it difficult to get along with people. They are very impulsive, fussy and mobile in conversations with the interlocutor.

Sanguine people

Sanguine people are the most "live" personality type. They are strong, balanced, active and often take the initiative. As a rule, sanguine people are prone to work, as a result of which they are afraid of not being able to do something or making a mistake.

They are demanding not only to themselves, but also to others, which sometimes leads them to stress or depression.

People with this type of personality most often suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system. They are also prone to strokes and heart attacks.

Phlegmatic people

Phlegmatic people belong to the “calm” personality type. They are distinguished by prudence and balance. They are very difficult to get rid of.

This type of personality is not difficult to identify in a crowd of people: in the process of any unrest or general panic, they remain calm and try to stay away from ongoing events. nine0003

Phlegmatic people prefer not to get upset over trifles, trying not to take everything to heart. Despite this, it is they who suffer from stomach ulcers more often than other types.

Read more about temperament types here.

Eysenck Circle

Social personality types

In sociology, personality types are interconnected with historical, economic, social and cultural events that have a direct impact on them.

Here, as in psychology, you can meet a variety of personality types. According to Max Werber, people must be divided according to their degree of rationality.

Taking into account this factor, there are two types of personality:

  • rationalists;
  • irrationalists.

In turn, Erich Fromm proposes to divide people into 3 types:

  • receptive (passive) - ready to obey others;
  • exploitative - those who use other people's labor; nine0058
  • drives are prone to market relations.

Sociology divides people into the following types of personalities:

  • traditionalists;
  • realists;
  • idealists;
  • hedonists;
  • frustrated type.

Traditionalists are prone to order and discipline. They try to live by the law and do not strive for self-improvement.

In contrast, realists, on the contrary, try to realize themselves in life. In addition, they try to keep their emotions under control and not fall into hysterics. nine0003

Idealists are those who strive for independence and fight against established rules.

Hedonists are not at all interested in what is going on in society. Most of all, they want to receive satisfaction from life, which is manifested in material values ​​​​and sensual pleasures.

The frustrated personality type is characterized by low self-esteem. They feel superfluous in society, as a result of which such people often become outcasts or homeless people.

Personality types in socionics

In the 1970s, on the basis of Jung's typology and Kempinski's theory of informational metabolism, socionics arose - a new concept of personality types and relationships between them.

In socionics, personality types are considered depending on how the following features are combined in an individual:

  • introversion and extroversion;
  • logic and ethics;
  • rationality and irrationality;
  • sensorics and intuition.

Briefly consider socionic personality types. nine0003

INTROVERTS - self-interest is the driving force. These are closed personalities with problems in the field of communication, completely guided by their inner world. Characterized by the orientation of life inward.

EXTRAVERTS - external factors are the driving force. Extroverts are open and ready to communicate people who are not always capable of independence. They are characterized by an outward orientation of life. Learn more about extroverts and introverts here.

RATIONALISTS put in the first place the mind with the principles and traditions established in the society. nine0003

IRRATIONALISTS try to improve themselves and are constantly striving for innovation. They have out-of-the-box thinking and creativity.

Personality types according to Holland's theory

In 1970, an American scientist, psychology professor John Holland developed a theory of six personality types, which has not lost its popularity to this day. Let's consider them.

Personality types in conflict situations

The real essence of a person can be clearly seen only in a conflict situation. In this regard, there are the following personality types:

  • demonstrator;
  • rigid personality;
  • uncontrollable personality;
  • ultra-precise personality.

DEMONSTRATIONERS present life as a theater in which they are actors. They try different ways to get people's attention. An interesting fact is that they are completely indifferent to what others think or say about them, as long as they discuss it.

A person of this type often becomes a provocateur, an extremist or an instigator of some kind of conflict. Demonstrators are present at rallies and like to participate in some unrest. nine0003

RIGID PEOPLE are very suspicious and suspicious. They often come into conflict only because they can suspect someone of something. They have very high self-esteem, so they like to be praised.

It is worth noting that rigid people are grateful to those who show them friendly relations.

UNGOVERNED PERSONS find it very difficult to control their emotions and actions. They are prone to open aggression and hostility. In the event of a conflict, they easily lose their temper and can harm not only themselves, but also other people. nine0003

SUPER ACCURATE PERSONALITIES are attentive and cautious. They have excellent leadership abilities, since they can control not only themselves, but also control the masses. However, such people are very difficult to experience any failure.

An interesting fact is that along with conflict types there is also conflict-free type . However, this does not mean at all that such people are generally not prone to conflicts.

It's just that they are especially timid, and as a result they tend to avoid any unpleasant situations. It is difficult for them to defend their point of view and rights, as a result of which they prefer to remain unnoticed.

Learn more