Attachment style questionnaire pdf

10 Attachment Style Tests Used to Measure Attachment Styles

Have you ever wondered how attachment styles are measured? Whether the test you are completing is actually reliable? Whether you’ll get your real result? If you have, you’re definitely right to be cautious, and maybe even a bit skeptical, when taking free online attachment style tests. 

Developing an accurate Attachment Style Questionnaire is not easy 

Scientists spend years developing, testing, and validating their measurements. Unfortunately, not all tests offered online (and for free) are actually backed up by science.

And that’s a big issue, especially when it comes to mental health matters. Getting a false or inaccurate result might be confusing, and even harmful, to people who are looking for psychological advice and support. 

For these reasons, we’ve decided to share with you a bit about the science of attachment style tests. In this blog post, you’ll get an idea of how it all started and how attachment tests have developed over time.

You’ll also discover what scientists actually measure with an attachment quiz. As the title suggests, this article offers an overview of science-based and validated attachment style tests that researchers use in their studies. 

Assessment of Attachment Style Differences: The Beginning

The idea of “measuring attachment” began with the work of Mary Ainsworth in the 1960s. With numerous studies of infant-mother dyads and the relationships within those dyads, Ainsworth’s work forms the foundation for the assessment of attachment differences. 

Even though Ainsworth focuses primarily on infants’ – and not on adults’ – attachment patterns, her approach, theoretical framework, and coding system have been used as a basis for succeeding attachment style tests.

Adopting Ainsworth’s classification of three attachment patterns – secure, anxious, and avoidant – Cindy Hazan and Phillip Shaver come up with their attachment prototype framework. [1] [2]

They formulate three short descriptions of behaviors in romantic relationships (each one corresponds to one of the attachment patterns) and ask adults which description best depicts their past experiences in intimate relationships.

This type of measurement, however, does not allow researchers to take into account individual differences within each category (or prototype). To overcome this issue, future assessments utilize continuous scales to better illustrate each individual’s position within the different attachment categories.

10 Attachment Style Tests Used in Research

Over time, research on attachment measurement has grown and evolved tremendously. In the following section, we share with you 10 top-rated, validated, and widely used self-report attachment style tests. 

1. Adult Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ)

Firstly, the AAQ is one of the questionnaires that deconstructs the attachment prototype descriptions into separate items. There are 17 items in total. AAQ classifies attachment patterns based on two dimensions – anxiety and avoidance. [2] [3]

The average scores on the avoidance and the anxiety scales are calculated to determine the individual’s avoidant attachment and attachment anxiety.

Even though this test is relatively old, the AAQ has been proven to be a valid and reliable measure of attachment avoidance and anxiety. [4] [5]


Adult Attachment Scale (AAS)

Similar to Simpson and colleagues (the creators of AAQ), Nancy Collins and Stephen Read also deconstruct the three attachment prototypes and formulate a test with 18 items in total. [3] [6]

A unique aspect of this attachment test is that the authors include additional items – measuring one’s perception of their partner’s availability and responsiveness as well as one’s reaction to separation from their partner.

Collins and Read outline three subscales of attachment: discomfort with closeness, discomfort with dependency, and anxiety about being rejected and abandoned. Results of the test are calculated based on the average score of the items in each of the three subscales. [6]

Unlike other measurements, the AAS contains two scales related to attachment avoidance. Even though both discomfort with closeness and dependency are highly correlated to attachment avoidance, the distinction between these two subscales is a unique feature of the AAS that might be quite useful, depending on the aim and context of the assessment. [7]


Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ)

The Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ) contains 40 items, the scores on which can be used in two ways. [8]

First, the ASQ outlines 5 subscales (see picture below), so the final test score can be used to represent where an individual stands regarding each of the five dimensions:

Second, the ASQ also allows the calculation of one’s attachment score on two general dimensions – avoidant attachment and attachment anxiety.

There are two main advantages of the ASQ. The first advantage is in the way the test is formulated. Unlike the previous tests we mentioned, the ASQ refers to close relationships, and not necessarily to intimate relationships.

This makes it suitable for younger individuals, who might not have much experience with romantic partners yet. The second benefit is that ASQ allows for a more precise assessment of specific facets of attachment avoidance or anxiety.

The ASQ has been tested in numerous studies and has been found to be a highly reliable and valid measure.


Relationship Style Questionnaire (RSQ)

Taking into account Bowlby’s framework on internal working models, in 1990, Bartholomev conceptualizes attachment styles in terms of one’s perception of self and one’s perception of others (as depicted in the picture above). This results in the formation of four attachment prototypes (and not three, like in previous frameworks and assessments). [9]

A few years later, Griffin and Bartholomev develop the RSQ, which consists of 30 items. Attachment styles are calculated based on the average score of the items for each of the attachment categories. [10]


Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR)

The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR) is probably the most known and used attachment styles test. It has been translated into 17 languages and used in hundreds of academic studies. [11]

In 1998, Brennan, Clark, and Shaver analyze all of the items used in attachment tests so far. As a result, they come up with two scales, each of which indicated one of the two attachment dimensions – attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety. [11]

The ECR test has demonstrated excellent scores on validity and reliability, which confirms that it’s a highly accurate measurement of one’s attachment style. In addition, ECR can be used in a wide range of contexts. ECR has been shown to assess attachment styles adequately among various groups – young adolescents, older adults, homosexual individuals, psychiatric patients, etc. [5]


ECR-R Items

The ECR-R Items (“R” for “revised”) is a revised version of the ECR questionnaire, in which some of the items have been replaced. The general outline and system of the test, however, is the same. The anxiety and avoidance scales in these two versions of ECR are highly correlated and seem to show similar results across studies. Similar to ECR, ECR-R Items demonstrates high validity and reliability. [12]

ECR: Short Versions

Due to its wide popularity, ECR has also been recreated in several shorter versions. The reason for that was that adding a 36-item questionnaire to the other measurements in a study would often result in a time-consuming and possibly exhausting (for participants) testing.


Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR)—Short Version

8. ECR-12: A Brief Version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR)

Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR)—Short Version and the ECR-12: A Brief Version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR) are two short versions of ECR that consist of 12 items, rated on a 7-point scale (identical to ECR). [13] [14]

Attachment avoidance and anxiety are calculated based on the average scores of the 6 avoidance items and 6 anxiety items.

Both of these questionnaires have shown high reliability. Still, ECR-12 has been tested in various relationship contexts (same-sex couples, disturbed couples, etc.) and could be considered a slightly better option than ECR-Short Version. [5]

ECR: Situational and Relationship-Specific Versions

Two more versions of ECR are worth mentioning when it comes to attachment style tests.


State Adult Attachment Measure (SAAM)

SAAM places an emphasis on the individual’s state in the present moment. Instead of referring to previous relationships, or relationship history, one reports the emotions they experience in the current moment. [15]

Therefore, SAAM is able to depict one’s temporary and contextual attachment patterns. SAAM is also suitable (and better than ECR for assessing an individual’s attachment-related changes over time. [16])


ECR—Relationship Structures measure (ECR-RS) 

Lastly, ECR-RS is designed to assess attachment patterns across various relationship contexts. [17] Indeed, it has been proven to be a reliable measure, and even better than ECR, when it comes to addressing attachment patterns that are specific to a particular relationship (mother, father, friend, partner).

The ECR-RS contains 9 items selected from ECR. Individuals answer those same 9 items four times – referring to the relationships with their mothers (or mother-like figures), fathers (or father-like figures), best friends, and romantic partners. Attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety scales are calculated separately for each relationship. 

*The ECR-RS is included in our Attachment Style Quiz. Click here to take the test and get your attachment style report for free!*

Are self-report tests the best option for attachment style assessment?

The measurements described in this article all have a valuable contribution to the field of attachment assessment. They have been used in hundreds of academic studies and have demonstrated a good level of accuracy and reliability.

It should be noted, however, that attachment self-report tests (in general) do have some disadvantages compared to attachment interviews.

Criticism towards self-report tests revolves around several aspects.

In short, researchers have argued that self-report tests are subjective, cannot measure the unconscious factors of attachment, are not based on individuals’ rich narrative (about unique memories, experiences, and history), do not depict the role of childhood experiences in attachment-related differences, etc. [5]

Similarly, we believe that attachment interviews with trained therapists can give people a better picture of the functioning of their attachment system.

Self-report tests are a great start for someone who’d like to get an idea of where they stand on the attachment anxiety and avoidance scales. Still, for those who suspect they might have serious attachment disturbances or are simply curious to dive into exploration of their attachment styles, the self-report test might not be enough.

If you’re interested in your attachment style, you might also be curious to discover more about how well your caregiving and sexual systems function.

The two tests listed below measure those aspects. These questionnaires are not designed to assess your attachment style, but they are closely related to the topic.

The Caregiving System Scale (CSS)

CSS is a validated and reliable measure of non-optimal functioning of one’s caregiving system. [18] Our caregiving system is what causes us to protect our loved ones from suffering and in times of danger and to support and encourage our loved ones to explore, grow, and develop. [19]

When the caregiving system is hyperactivated, we become hypervigilant to the needs of others and over-exaggerate those needs.

In other words, we put the needs of others (real or imagined) before our own, and we self-sacrifice. [5] This behavior resembles that of people with an anxious-preoccupied attachment style.

When the caregiving system is deactivated, we become insensitive and unresponsive to the needs of others.

Even when the people we love need closeness and assistance, we keep our emotional distance, lack empathy, and remain relatively uninvolved. [5] The deactivation of the caregiving system is thus closely related to attachment avoidance.

Sexual System Functioning Scale (SSFS)

Our sexual behaviors are closely linked to and influenced by our attachment styles. To measure the functioning of an individual’s sexual system, Birnbaum and colleagues designed the Sexual System Functioning Scale (SSFS). [20] 

Sexual hyperactivation is characterized by preoccupation with the importance of sex as well as with the partner’s interest, reactions, signals, and needs related to sexual activities. [21]

It’s also related to intrusive worries about one’s attractiveness, ability to satisfy the partners, etc. This behavior is similar to the sexual behaviors exhibited by anxious-preoccupied adults. [21]

Sexual deactivation, on the other hand, is characterized by suppressing sexual needs and desires, disregarding the importance of sex and the partner’s sexual needs, and avoiding physical intimacy. [21] This pattern resembles the sexual behaviors of avoidant adults.

If you’re struggling with relationships and suspect that you might have an insecure attachment style, taking a validated and reliable self-report test is definitely a good start.

It’s important, however, to keep in mind that not every test you find online is adequate and will give you your real result. Besides, self-report attachment style tests are not as accurate as interviews conducted by trained professionals.

So, even if you take a reliable test, like the one we offer on our website, you could also consider making an appointment with a therapist trained to conduct and score the AAI (Adult Attachment Interview).  

Prefer to start with an online Attachment Style Quiz? Complete the ECR-RS anonymously and get your attachment style report completely FREE!


[1] Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: Assessed in the Strange Situation and at home. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

[2] Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. R. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(3), 511–524.

[3] Simpson, J. A., Rholes, S. W., & Phillips, D. (1996). Conflict in close relationships: An attachment perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(5), 899–914.

[4] Graham, J. M., & Unterschute, M. S. (2015). A reliability generalization meta-analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97(1), 31–41.

[5] Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2016). Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics, and change (Second Edition). Guilford Press.

[6] Collins, N. L., & Read, S. J. (1990). Adult attachment, working models, and relationship quality in dating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(4), 644–663.

[7] Collins, N. L. (1996). Working models of attachment: Implications for explanation, emotion, and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(4), 810–832.

[8] Feeney, J. A., Noller, P., & Hanrahan, M. (1994). Assessing adult attachment. In M. B. Sperling & W. H. Berman (Eds.), Attachment in adults: Clinical and developmental perspectives (p. 128–152). Guilford Press

[9] Bartholomew, K. (1990). Avoidance of intimacy: An attachment perspective. Journal of Social and Personal relationships, 7(2), 147-178.

[10] Griffin, D. W., & Bartholomew, K. (1994). The metaphysics of measurement: The case of adult attachment. In K. Bartholomew & D. Perlman (Eds.), Advances in personal relationships: Attachment processes in adulthood (Vol. 5, pp. 17–52). London: Jessica Kingsley.

Self Report Measurement

[11] Brennan, K. A., Clark, C. L., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Self-report measurement of adult attachment: An integrative overview. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (p. 46–76). The Guilford Press.

[12] Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., & Brennan, K. A. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(2), 350– 365.

[13] Wei, M., Russell, D. W., Mallinckrodt, B., & Vogel, D. L. (2007). The Experiences in Close Relationship Scale (ECR)—short form: Reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 88(2), 187–204.

[14] Lafontaine, M.-F., Brassard, A., Lussier, Y. , Valois, P., Shaver, P. R., & Johnson, S. M. (2015). Selecting the best items for a short-form of the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. Advance online publication.

[15] Gillath, O., Hart, J., Noftle, E. E., & Stockdale, G. D. (2009). Development and validation of a state adult attachment measure (SAAM). Journal of Research in Personality, 43(3), 362–373.

[16] Xu, J. H., & Shrout, P. E. (2013). Assessing the reliability of change: A comparison of two measures of adult attachment. Journal of Research in Personality, 47(3), 202–208.

Attachment in Relationships

[17] Fraley, R. C., Heffernan, M. E., Vicary, A. M., & Brumbaugh, C. C. (2011). The Experiences in Close Relationships—Relationship Structures questionnaire: A method for assessing attachment orientations across relationships. Psychological Assessment, 23(3), 615–625.

[18] Shaver, P. R., Mikulincer, M. , & Shemesh-Iron, M. (2010). A Behavioral systems perspective on prosocial behavior. In M. Mikulincer & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Prosocial motives, emotions, and behavior: The better angels of our nature (pp. 73–92). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

[19] Mikulincer, M., Shaver, P. R., & Gillath, O. (2008). A behavioral systems perspective on compassionate love. In B. Fehr, S. Sprecher, & L. G. Underwood (Eds.), The science of compassionate love: Research, theory, and application (pp. 225–256). Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell.

[20] Birnbaum, G. E., Mikulincer, M., Szepsenwol, O., Shaver, P. R., & Mizrahi, M. (2014). When sex goes wrong: A behavioral systems perspective on individual differences in sexual attitudes, motives, feelings, and behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106(5), 822–842.

[21] Shaver, P. R., & Mikulincer, M. (2008). Augmenting the sense of security in romantic, leader–follower, therapeutic, and group relationships: A relational model of psychological change. In J. P. Forgas & J. Fitness (Eds.), Social relationships: Cognitive, affective, and motivational processes (pp. 55–74). New York: Psychology Press.

R. Chris Fraley

Attachment Theory Resources

A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research (Fraley)
This document provides a brief overview of adult attachment theory and research. It is designed to cover some of the basic ideas that motivate attachment research among social and personality psychologists.

Information about Self-Report Measures of Adult Attachment (Shaver & Fraley)
This is a summary of some of the self-report measures that are commonly used in adult attachment research in the social-personality tradition. Most of the information is of historical or archival relevance, but I try to update the document every few years to reflect newer developments.

Frequently Asked Questions about the Close Relationships Questionnaire (CRQ) or the Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire (Fraley)
This page is designed to be a relatively comprehensive FAQ guide for the ECR-R--a self-report measure that Waller, Brennan, and I published in 2000. Please consult this online document before writing to me if you have questions about this measure. This page also answers some more general questions about the use of self-report measures in the study of adult attachment.

On-line Attachment Questionnaire (CRQ/ECR-R) (Fraley, Waller, & Brennan, 2000)
This web survey is a broad-based measure of attachment styles in close relationships. The web survey is designed to process and numerically and graphically summarize a person's attachment scores.

Information about the Experiences in Close Relationships- Relationship Structures (ECR-RS) questionnaire (Fraley)
This page summarizes information about the ECR-RS--a self-report measure of adult attachment that can be used to assess attachment styles (a) in various relational domains (e.g., parental, romantic), (b) as a state or a trait, (c) in a relationship-specific manner or in a more general or global manner. Please consult this online document before writing to me if you have questions about this measure. The FAQ link above for the ECR-R addresses questions that are commonly asked regarding both the ECR-RS and the ECR-R.

ECR-Relationship Structures
This web application is designed to assess individual differences in attachment across multiple relationships. The application also provides feedback regarding the within-person correlational structure of a person's attachment ratings.

Some of My Web-based Tools and Demonstrations

Probing Interactions in Moderated Multiple Regression and Differential Susceptibility Research
The purpose of this web application is to facilitate the investigation of differential susceptibility hypotheses in developmental and clinical research. This application also provides a number of general tools that investigators can use to probe interactions in moderated multiple regression, including interaction plots, simple slope analyses, and regions of significance. This application is a supplement to Roisman, G. I., Newman, D. A., Fraley, R. C., Haltigan, J. D., Groh, A. M., & Haydon, K. C. (2012). Distinguishing differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress: Recommendations for evaluating interaction effects. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 389-409.

Self-Scoring Adult Attachment Questionnaire (CRQ/ECR-R)
Assesses adult attachment security toward a romantic partner using the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised questionnaire (Fraley, Waller, & Brennan, 2000).

Relationship Structures
Assesses a person's attachment security in five relationships, and provides a principal components analysis of the within-person correlation matrix.

On-line Personality Tests and Quizes
This web site,, contains a number of on-line personality tests that I've created. Have fun!

Fraley, R. C. (2004). How to conduct behavioral research over the Internet: A beginner's guide to HTML and CGI/Perl. New York: Guilford.
This link goes to a web page for a book I've written on how to design Internet research studies.

Generative Art and Experimental Music

Using HTML5 Canvas, JavaScript, and the Web Audio API

One of my hobbies includes developing procedural methods for creating visual art and music. This sounds like a mouthful, but the basic concept is simple. Imagine a set of wind chimes. The sounds that are produced by wind chimes are determined by non-human forces. Although a human may help decide which chimes are used, nature takes care of the rest. As a result, the sounds produced by the chimes are somewhat unpredictable: They are quasi-random, they never repeat exactly, but they do exhibit a degree of coherence that allows the overall pattern to be differentiated from other sound sources. (Plus, they are fun to listen to.) In short, generative music is essentially music created from systems designed by people, but not played by people.

The demos below showcase some of my explorations into this area. Each demo takes a simple theme and attempts to create a generative/procedural system that controls both the soundscape you hear and the visual patterns you see. Many of the demos are also interactive in the sense that you can use a mouse to control certain elements of the scene.

Generative art. This is a static screen shot taken from the Aural Automata 4 demo (link below).

The visuals use the HTML5 Canvas element; the canvas is manipulated using JavaScript. The sounds are controlled using JavaScript + Web Audio API--an interface that essentially allows sound synthesis to take place in modern web browers (e.g., Safari, Firefox, Chrome). You don't need a special plugin to view/hear these demos.

The soundscapes are designed to be ambient in the sense popularized by Brian Eno: Music that can exist in the background or which can be listened to in a more concerted manner.

Aural Automata 1
Minimalist piece using treated piano notes. This has a Brian Eno/Harold Budd vibe to it.

Aural Automata 2
This soundscape uses 6 acoustic guitar samples and processes those in real time (Web Audio API) to create sleepy, spacious drones that continuously shift and morph across time.

Aural Automata 3 | Manually Creating Soundwaves
This experiment allows the user to draw, by hand, sound waves on the canvas. Those drawings are then converted to a wave form and rendered in audio.

Aural Automata 4 | Crystal
This soundscape uses a 3-second sample of my friend's voice and manipulates those samples to create an eerie atmosphere.

Aural Automata 5 | Generative Alien Landscape
This generative process is designed to simulate an alien landscape. The sound sources are all organic, but are manipulated to give them an other-worldly feel.

Aural Automata 6 | Disintegration
This generative process is designed to simulate the gradual decay of visual scenes and sounds using HTML canvas and Web Audio API.

Aural Automata 7 | Clouds
This is an attempt to simulate clouds and their movement using HTML canvas and JavaScript. The sounds are processed drones using the Web Audio API.

Aural Automata 9 | Zurich
Evolving and shifting images of a display in the Zurich international airport, combined with ambient soundscapes using the Web Audio API.

Aural Automata 10 | Bokeh
Image manipulation and phasing combined with ambient samples from echospace [detroit].

Aural Automata 11 | Starseed
An Anomalous Voice Phenomenon (AVP) (i.e., voices of "ghosts") processed in experimental, haunting ways in Web Audio API.

Aural Automata 12 | Call of the Void
A visual/audio experiment in which an image is manipulated dynamically (blurring, fazing) as a function of the volume of various sound ambient sources located on the canvas.

Attachment Type Test

This test is also available in these languages:

Psychologists have long known that attachment theory is an important indicator of how a person relates to other people. Based on long-term scientific research conducted by both psychologists and biologists, the principles of attachment theory are well founded. According to this theory, our relationships with the people who raised us as children instill in us a basic relationship pattern that persists into adulthood. Like other primates, young people determine the amount of care, safety, and attention available in their native environment and form evolutionarily beneficial response strategies. nine0003

Question 1 of 36

I trust my partner and I don't have to stay "on guard" around him or her.





The IDRLRAS test is the property of IDR Labs International, although it draws on the work of John Bowlby, Mary Ainsworth, Karen Horney, and others. To learn more about personality types, check out our Personality Disorder Test and Freudian Test.

This test will help determine which type of attachment prevails in the structure of your personality. However, it is worth noting that test results do not necessarily match real clinical studies conducted by registered medical professionals with the personal presence of the respondent, numerous conversations with the respondent, and his or her personal and family data, in particular. nine0003

Attachment types refer to the specific way in which a person identifies with and relates to other people. The type of attachment of a person is most often formed at the very beginning of his life, most likely in the first two years of life. Once established, a person's attachment style tends to remain throughout life and is manifested in how people treat others in close relationships (including how they raise their own children). Therefore, understanding your own attachment patterns can be extremely helpful in understanding how you originally felt about yourself and others as a child, and how you may be predisposed to repeating those patterns as an adult. nine0003

Accordingly, please note that this test provides information about your personality for educational purposes only. The information is provided "as is" and should not be construed as the provision of professional services or warranties of any kind. The Company is under no obligation to provide legal, medical, financial or other professional services. If you need qualified assistance, please contact the relevant institutions.

The IDRLRAS test is the property of IDR Labs. For more information, please see our Terms of Service. nine0003

Study of the play environment of the modern child on the portal




Sociological research "Education and punishment: the view of generations". Abstracts and comments (.docx, 19 KB)

The sociological study "Education and punishment: the view of generations" was carried out in order to clarify the attitude to education in Russian families: what punishments are used and how the views of young people and the older generation differ on this issue. nine0003

How modern schoolchildren use gadgets (.docx, 98 KB)

Children in 2020 were forced to study remotely. This made it possible to see the problems of access to education in a new way. A study by the Educational Law Laboratory of the HSE Institute of Education evaluates the extent to which the massive transition to online mode is combined with existing norms and ideas that limit the time of using gadgets

Aggressive behavior of adolescents on the Internet (.doc, 2.99 MB)

The Internet Development Foundation conducted the largest study in the history of Russia on the aggressive behavior of adolescents on the Internet. More than 3,000 Internet users from 8 regions of the country were surveyed. For the first time, victims, aggressors, witnesses were interviewed and the motives of their behavior were analyzed. We present the results of the study.

Adolescent children: the main factors of self-realization (.docx, 25.02 MB)

"Adolescent children: the main factors of self-realization" - this is the name of a sociological study commissioned by the Children's Support Fund by the Russian Society of Sociologists at the end of 2019of the year.

2,235 schoolchildren from grades 6 to 11, as well as class teachers, school psychologists and social workers involved in the problems of minors, took part in a large-scale survey. The geography of the study covered more than 50 regions of the country, in which schools in the administrative center, large and small towns and rural settlements became platforms for surveys.

We publish a part of the study "Relationships in the family: trust, communication, self-disclosure, helping behavior." nine0003

Involved Fatherhood (.docx, 126 KB)

The All-Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VTsIOM) presented data on the study of the phenomenon of fatherhood and the attitude of Russians towards modern fathers.

What do Russian teenagers strive for (.docx, 17 KB)

The Values ​​Atlas of Russia project is a large-scale study aimed at identifying the value-motivational priorities of Russian youth, their personal and professional self-determination and the level of psycho-emotional well-being. nine0003

30 facts about today's youth (.pdf, 5.31 MB)

Sberbank presented the results of a joint youth survey conducted with the Validata agency at the end of 2016. As follows from the release of the credit institution, this is the largest qualitative study of this segment of potential customers in its history.

A total of 18 focus groups with children and youth aged five to 25, five focus groups with parents, a series of in-depth interviews with parents and expert teachers, as well as an analysis of blogs of young people from different cities of Russia and communication with representatives of the younger generation in recent tours of their cities has become "a report on the life of today's youth, which helps to understand consumers here and now, offering them relevant services and communication." nine0003

The results of the study are presented in the form of 30 facts about today's youth, covering areas such as information processing, relationships with parents, self-perception, attitudes and values, frustrations and fears, and expectations for the future.

Bullying in Schools Worldwide: Austria, Germany, Russia (.pdf, 173 KB)

This article briefly describes some of the best-known bullying prevalence studies to date and their main findings, as well as OECD data on the prevalence of bullying in 27 countries of the world. A detailed description of the "Smob" questionnaire developed by H. Kasper (Germany) is given, with a description of quantitative criteria and two forms of bullying identified on their basis (bullying I and bullying II). The study of the prevalence of school bullying conducted using the Smob questionnaire in a number of regions of Germany and Austria is described in detail. Statistical data based on the results of these studies are compared on the following points: what is the frequency of bullying I and bullying II, who carries out bullying and what is the number of bullies, who are the victims of bullying turning to, what bullying actions are carried out most often (the 10 most common hostile manifestations are given) . nine0003

At the end of the article, the results of the first study in the Russian Federation to identify the prevalence of bullying among adolescents, conducted by the authors of the article in the fall of 2015 in schools in the Moscow region, which also used the Smob questionnaire, are presented. The features of this monitoring are analyzed, the results obtained are compared with the data of European colleagues.

What determines a child's school performance? (.docx, 28 KB)

Teacher and sociologist from St. Petersburg Olga Sachava, Ph.D. in Philology, master student of the Education Management program at the Higher School of Economics, conducted a survey in one of the educational institutions, which helped to identify what influences students' grades 2-11 grades. The teacher distributed questionnaires to the parents of the students, including five blocks of questions: four about the family and one about the child himself and his progress. We publish the results of the work done (2015)

FOM: survey on the topic “How much time do parents spend with their children? And what is special about today's children? (. docx, 163 KB)

How much time do parents spend with their children? And what is special about today's children? We are publishing the results of a study by the Public Opinion Foundation (FOM) conducted in May 2017

Russian Children and the Media (.docx, 166 KB)

The Modern Media Institute (MOMRI) conducted a comprehensive study on the interests of children in the media environment. It was attended by about three thousand children and seven thousand parents. Data published in the report “Children. Media consumption. 2017". nine0003

It turned out that today's children consume almost all the main media content, and in large quantities: 72% TV, 77% print, 71% games and 42% music. The most popular activities for children under 12 are reading and watching TV. The main digital device for a preschooler is a TV, for a schoolchild it is a smartphone.

Children aged 0-12 watch videos on YouTube every day, 35% of ages 8-12 use instant messengers daily and 36% of ages 8-12 use social media every day. Mobile games are used by every second child aged from birth to 12 years old. nine0003

Evaluation of family education style by adolescents and their parents (.docx, 39 KB)

The article presents the results of a study of the opinions of parents and students of secondary and senior classes of a general education school about the style of family education practiced by one or both parents; demonstrated how and to what extent the positions of parents and their children differ on this issue; an attempt is made to analyze the reliability of the results of a study of parent-child relationships conducted in the format of group diagnostics. nine0003

Raising children: qualities and professions, school problems (.docx, 123 KB)

The survey was conducted on August 18–22, 2017 on a representative all-Russian sample of the urban and rural population among 1600 people aged 18 years and older in 137 settlements 48 regions of the country. The study is conducted at the respondent's home by a personal interview. The distribution of responses is given as a percentage of the total number of respondents, together with data from previous surveys.

Children. Parents. Internet (.pdf, 126 KB)

On the eve of International Children's Day, Mail.Ru Group investigated the relationship between children and parents. The results of the survey, which involved more than one and a half thousand teenagers (aged 12-17 years) and parents, showed that more than a quarter of children would prefer not to tell adults about their problems, but to look for a solution on the Internet.

81% of parents believe that the main factor influencing the worldview of children is family and relatives. Only 41% of teenagers agree with this. In addition, 87% of adults are sure that in a difficult situation, children tend to seek help and advice from their relatives. At the same time, less than half of the respondents (48%) chose this option among young respondents. Almost a quarter of teenagers say that they will look for answers to their questions on the Internet. nine0003

Only 37% of children answered that they could always turn to their parents for help. More than a third (35%) are confident that they will deal with their problems themselves. At the same time, only 12% would like to discuss problems with adults more often.

Most of the respondents in both groups answered that they were interested in spending time together. At the same time, 14% of adolescents believe that their parents are not interested in joint leisure.

The development of the project was used for the survey. 1,650 Russians took part in the survey: teenagers (12–17 years old) and parents with children of this age. All respondents are active Internet users. nine0003

Information taken from the site:

Perspectives of modern adolescents in the context of the life trajectory (.pdf, 381 KB)

individual trajectory at this age. The blurring of the boundaries of adolescence, the postponement of life choices and the difficult process of separation from parents as trends in modern living during adolescence are discussed. The features of modern society (transitivity and its consequences), which make it difficult to design a life path and contribute to the fact that strategic thinking in this area is replaced by tactical ones, are analyzed. The role of the family, in particular, the culture of discussing the future, is considered in terms of its contribution to supporting the design of a life trajectory by an adolescent. nine0003

Students' attitudes towards the institution of the family: representation of family values ​​in the social media of Runet (.pdf, 271 KB)

The study was conducted by sociologists from the Moscow State Pedagogical University (MPGU): Doctor of Sociology Anna Dombrovskaya and Doctor of Political Science Elena Brodovskaya.

Students' attitudes towards families, like many other value orientations, are represented in social media messages. This is due to the active use of electronic social networks by student youth (according to the World Internet Project in Russia, 83% of young people in Russia use social media) and their orientation towards the intensive expression of their positions and attitudes online. The study was conducted to obtain data on the degree and nature of the formation of family and other traditional spiritual landmarks among the modern youth of Russia. nine0003

An empirical model of sociological research has been developed and applied to identify the specific characteristics of the attitude of Russian student youth towards the family. It included a cybermetric analysis of 1 million youth messages on social networks (VKontakte, Odnoklassniki), a mass survey of students who use social media, and in-depth interviews with them.

CHILDREN ON THE INTERNET: activity dangers protection (.pdf, 1.88 MB)

Especially for the summer holidays, Kaspersky Lab decided to talk about threats to children on the Web, as well as find out which Internet resources are visited by underage users in Rostov-on - Don and the Southern Federal District as a whole and how they can be dangerous. nine0003

According to statistics, most often children use social networks, chats and mail, and in Rostov-on-Don Internet communication tools on a PC are even more popular than in Moscow - 71% of them visit them against 68% in the capital. In Kaspersky Lab, this is explained by the fact that Rostov schoolchildren still use computers more often to communicate on the Web, while their Moscow peers are actively switching to mobile applications and instant messengers.

The top three most frequently visited sites also include computer games (14%) and resources with information about alcohol, tobacco and drugs (12%). Nevertheless, Rostov children are less likely to visit them than Moscow children (17% and 15% of all visits, respectively). Experts suggest that this is due, among other things, to the fact that the amount of pocket expenses for children in Moscow and St. Petersburg is higher than in other cities of the country. Young users spend their personal finances, including on purchases, which they search for on the Web. nine0003

Among the popular Internet activities of the children of this metropolis are visiting online stores and payment systems, as well as resources about various software and watching videos. With profanity online, small residents of Rostov-on-Don are not very common, but more often than Muscovites (3% versus 2%).

Report on the results of the study "Children and Finance" conducted by the National Financial Research Agency (.pdf, 10.39 MB)

risks associated with the incorrect use of various products and services, as well as with ineffective financial behavior strategies. In turn, high levels of financial literacy are one of the conditions for the stability of the financial environment. The level of financial literacy of the population in the Russian Federation can currently be characterized as low: borrowing strategies prevail over savings, consumer awareness of the peculiarities of using various products and services is low, so the problem of developing a large-scale financial education program is one of the most urgent. Children and adolescents are at the highest risk in relation to financial literacy issues, since parents in most cases cannot teach them the basics of financial literacy due to the lack of sufficient knowledge in this area. nine0003

The purpose of the study conducted by NAFI was to obtain a comprehensive picture of the level of financial literacy of children and adolescents, as well as to identify the main factors influencing their financial behavior. This study is primarily exploratory in nature and is intended to identify the most problematic areas of financial behavior of minor children and adolescents, including to determine the possible causes of such behavior.

The research methodology included an all-Russian representative quantitative survey of parents of children from 4 years old, a survey of high school students, focus group interviews with children, and desk research to better understand the problem of access to specialized financial services among children and adolescents. nine0003

Report on the results of the study “Becoming parents? Responsible Parenthood in Modern Russia” (.pdf, 5.18 MB)

In April–May 2015, the Center for Operational and Applied Research of the Russian Society of Sociologists commissioned the Foundation for the Support of Children in Difficult Life Situations to conduct a comprehensive sociological study aimed at assessing the dynamics parental values, attitudes, behavioral responses in comparison with the results of similar studies "Family and Parents of Modern Russia" (2009year) and "Culture of education, encouragement and punishment of children in Russian families" (2011). One of the key aspects of the study is to assess the dynamics of attitudes towards manifestations of cruelty and violence against children and behavioral practices of physical punishment of children in the process of education. An important direction of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign to strengthen the institution of the family, promote the family structure, create in society the value of responsible parenthood and combat child abuse, conducted by the Foundation in 2013-2014. nine0003

In the course of the mass survey, 1,600 respondents aged 16 to 45 were interviewed. Due to the upper age “ceiling”, the focus of the study was that part of the population for which family issues, issues of relationships with children are among the most relevant.

Data from three studies—2009, 2011, and 2015—were combined into one database that provided the empirical basis for most of the findings presented in this report.

Demand study for online tutoring (.pdf, 216 KB)

In today's conditions, students and pupils of general education schools are increasingly receiving information and interacting through Internet technologies. Using the capabilities of Skype creates new prospects for the development of interactive educational forms and methods that improve the effectiveness of the educational process.

Skype, a free closed-source software that provides text, voice and video communication over the Internet between users, makes the educational services of a tutor in general subjects available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and a student living in any region of the country. nine0003

In order to identify the dynamics of the demand for additional educational services and distance sessions (online tutoring), we are conducting a study of the demand among students for online classes with a tutor in various subjects of the school curriculum.

In the course of the study, the preferences of more than 7,000 Russian schoolchildren from the fifth to the eleventh grades were analyzed - the audience of the Internet portal Data collection and processing were carried out regularly for three years. Data for the current year analyzed and published in September 2015.

Actual mental state of high school students in the context of interactive learning (.pdf, 268 KB)

The results of a study of the current mental state of high school students, who are active subjects of career self-determination, in the context of interactive learning are considered. The following groups of interactive learning methods are distinguished: methods of psychological training, art therapy, cognitive and game methods. The main task, which is solved by the researcher by the method of a formative experiment, is to establish significant differences in the severity of well-being, activity and mood as indicators of the current mental state of students in the classroom using each of these methods. It has been established that the most noticeable improvement in the current mental state occurs when using gaming methods and art therapy methods, so it is advisable to use them in groups of students with low work motivation, as well as with an unfavorable psychological climate. Less noticeable was the improvement in the actual mental state when applying the methods of psychological training due to the fact that these methods allow you to update and look for ways to solve the most significant intrapersonal problems, require a deeper reflection. nine0003

"Study of the structure of subjectivity in early adolescence with different levels of computer game addiction" (.pdf, 122 KB)

computer? addictions in children? younger adolescence. The methodology includes five main scales: emotional attitude to computer games; self-control in computer game; target orientation on a computer game; parental attitude to computer? game; preference for virtual communication over real. nine0003

The author analyzes the features of the development of subjectivity in early adolescence with different levels of play? computer? dependencies. The structure of subjectivity is defined as the level of expression of its components: activity; awareness of the ability to reflect, freedom of choice and responsibility for it; self-awareness? uniqueness; understanding and acceptance of the other; self-development.

Found that children with a high level of play? computer? dependencies have lower indicators for such components of subjectivity as: awareness of the ability to reflect, awareness of freedom of choice and responsibility for it, understanding and acceptance of the other, awareness of self-development. According to the degree of expression of the components of subjectivity, three groups of younger adolescents were distinguished: with low, balanced and unbalanced indicators. nine0003

The study was supported by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science? Federation in the framework of the implementation of public work in the field of scientific? activities.

"Children on the Internet: what are we looking for, what are we doing?" (.pdf, 353 KB)

The article discusses topical issues of using the Internet by visitors to children's libraries. The study was based on a survey of 47 people, whose average age is 12 years. According to the authors, at this age children are already active Internet users and visit libraries. nine0003

Based on the responses received, the authors analyze the goals of accessing the global network, show how children are involved in the virtual environment and what is the degree of departure from such familiar sources of information as books.

Based on the results of the work done, the authors give specific recommendations to the staff of children's libraries, indicate what information is relevant for children aged 12, which sites are more popular and how much the Internet is in demand in the development of children's libraries. nine0003

“Interaction with the mother of children born as a result of in vitro fertilization (IVF): attachment and parenting style” (.pdf, 485 KB)

The article is devoted to the social and emotional development of children. It expresses and partially confirms the hypothesis that in children born as a result of the use of reproductive technologies, a secure type of attachment is less common than in children born naturally. Such a picture may be formed due to the peculiarities of the behavior of IVF mothers. The study conducted by the author involved 11 children aged 5 years to 6 years 11 months, born as a result of IVF, and 10 children of the control group, conceived naturally, as well as their mothers. To collect anamnestic data, the following were used: questioning parents using the "Questionnaire of parent-child emotional interaction" and the "Analysis of family education" method, projective drawing methods "Nest drawing" and "Drawing dialogue", aimed at identifying the quality of the child's attachment to the mother and interaction in diade, as well as a method for determining the type of attachment N. Kaplan. nine0003

Report on the results of the study "Family and Parenthood in Modern Russia" (.pdf, 4.15 MB)

The brochure presents the results of the study "Family and Parenthood in Modern Russia", life situation, conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The head of the study is M. F. Chernysh, Doctor of Sociological Sciences, Head of the Sector for Applied and Operational Research.

During the study, information was obtained about who Russians consider a responsible parent, whether physical punishment of children is used in a modern family, how parents participate in raising children after a divorce, what measures to help parents are most effective. In addition, the study touched upon such painful phenomena as the abandonment of children at birth, the deprivation of parental rights. nine0003

"Research of intergenerational relationships in a family context" (.docx, 181 KB)

The article analyzes the factors of parent-child conflict, shows the differences in the perceptions of parents and adolescents about their relationship, which is considered by the author as one of the causes of intergenerational conflict in families different types (full, incomplete, adoptive). The results of a study of maternal and paternal attitudes and their dynamics in three generations of men and women (grandparents, parents and children) are presented. Continuity (reproduction) of parental attitudes by subsequent generations is considered in the work as a factor in strengthening intergenerational ties in the family. nine0003

"An empirical study of the psychological characteristics of large families" (.docx, 170 KB)

Relevance. Currently, the family in Russia is undergoing certain changes. In many ways, they are due to the socio-political and socio-economic processes taking place in our country in recent decades. These changes are also largely related to changes in the psychology of people. At the level of society, the changes taking place with the family are manifested in the dynamics of such negative phenomena expressing a certain loss of the value of the family: an increase in divorces, the spread of small families, voluntary celibacy, incomplete families. nine0003

Domestic violence and the crisis of the traditional concept of education . Research works and works of art, everyday observations and comments of specialists testify to this.

"Changes in parental attitudes towards preschoolers over the past 10 years" (.pdf, 95 KB)

Over the past decades, our country has undergone significant economic, political and socio-cultural changes. In particular, the attitude of the state towards preschool childhood has changed (liquidation of the preschool department of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, transfer of preschool education to the municipal level, changes in the timing of primary education at school, the introduction of preschool training for children from the age of 5, etc.). Have these changes affected the attitude of parents towards preschool children, and if so, how exactly? nine0003

“Aggression as a Family Phenomenon” (.doc, 169 KB)

Through the prism of family histories and relationships, there is continuity in the transmission of aggressive behavior, violence as habitual scenarios of behavior. In the scientific work of E.A. Agayeva convincingly demonstrates the stability of physical, verbal and psychological violence through generations in dysfunctional families: aggression, being formed as a family tradition, becomes the basis of family relations, the basis for solving family problems.

The hypotheses put forward by the author are confirmed by the results of an experimental study. The work has practical value in the organization of psychotherapeutic assistance to dysfunctional families.

"Influence of Parental Behavioral Characteristics on Aggressiveness in Adolescents" (.doc, 3.41 MB)

No other behavior irritates adults and maladjusts children and adolescents as much as aggressive behavior. The aggressiveness of children and adolescents manifests itself in a wide range from rare statements to physical actions, representing that rare case when a teenager causes general irritation instead of sympathy and often reciprocal aggression, even from specialists. The interaction of the child with the parent is the first experience of interaction with the outside world and therefore is a necessary factor for the study of child aggression. Based on the results of the study, a hypothesis was put forward about the key influence of the attitude of parents towards adolescents on the emergence and persistence of the manifestation of aggressive behavior. nine0003

"The play environment of the modern child" (.pdf, 200 KB)

The article is devoted to two issues related to the so-called play products for children: a) defining the criteria for ersatz products and b) investigating the function of an aggressive toy in child development. A methodology has been developed that allows assessing the impact that modern gaming products have on the mental state of children. The basis of the criterion for such an assessment is the concept of vitality. The lack of vital stimulation, as well as the lack of proper handling of the need for vitality, leads to the child's dependence on ersatz objects, which can be certain toys or games. The results of a study of the quality of some types of gaming products (Yu. Kuklachev's Cat Theater and a computer game-shooter) are presented. nine0003

The functions of an aggressive toy are singled out, its right to exist in the child's play environment is shown, since the cause of children's aggressiveness is the violation of significant social ties, and not the toy itself. The typology of toys, established using the method of expert evaluation, is given.

The journal "Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy" is a periodical specialized scientific and analytical publication covering the problems of theory, methodology and practice of counseling psychology, psychotherapy and related disciplines. nine0239

“Healing from Trauma” (.docx, 38 KB)

American psychotherapist, psychologist Peter Levin, one of the leading specialists in the United States on childhood psychic trauma, claims that a reaction to a traumatic event may not occur immediately, but after several years or even decades. For most people, symptoms of trauma appear 6 to 18 months after the event. However, in three-quarters of his patients, post-traumatic symptoms do not manifest themselves for a very, very long time, they seem to be asleep - up to a certain point. nine0003

“Peculiarities of the market of modern toys” (.doc, 45 KB)

Most modern toys, unfortunately, are not very suitable for play, and therefore do not fulfill their main purpose. An analysis of the market of modern toys shows that many of them not only cannot be a means of play, but also interfere with play activities, since they do not involve the child’s own activity and imagination. Children's play often comes down to using the capabilities of highly technical toys. nine0003

"Culture of education, encouragement and punishment of children in Russian families" (.docx, 1.4 MB)

"Presentation of research results" (.pptx, 2.33 MB)

"Influence of family structure on preschool children's idea of ​​the desired family" (. pdf, 734 KB)

The study of 6-year-old children's ideas about the family is a fragment of a study of the image of the world of preschoolers conducted in 2009. This is part of an ongoing research project that began in 1992. The aim of the project is to analyze changes in preschoolers' ideas about the surrounding reality. nine0003

Published with the permission of the journal Psychological Research

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