Is adhd a disease
Symptoms and Diagnosis of ADHD
COVID-19: Information for parenting children with ADHD
Deciding if a child has ADHD is a process with several steps. This page gives you an overview of how ADHD is diagnosed. There is no single test to diagnose ADHD, and many other problems, like sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, and certain types of learning disabilities, can have similar symptoms.
If you are concerned about whether a child might have ADHD, the first step is to talk with a healthcare provider to find out if the symptoms fit the diagnosis. The diagnosis can be made by a mental health professional, like a psychologist or psychiatrist, or by a primary care provider, like a pediatrician.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that healthcare providers ask parents, teachers, and other adults who care for the child about the child’s behavior in different settings, like at home, school, or with peers. Read more about the recommendations.
The healthcare provider should also determine whether the child has another condition that can either explain the symptoms better, or that occurs at the same time as ADHD. Read more about other concerns and conditions.
Why Family Health History is Important if Your Child has Attention and Learning Problems
How is ADHD diagnosed?
Healthcare providers use the guidelines in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth edition (DSM-5)1, to help diagnose ADHD. This diagnostic standard helps ensure that people are appropriately diagnosed and treated for ADHD. Using the same standard across communities can also help determine how many children have ADHD, and how public health is impacted by this condition.
Here are the criteria in shortened form. Please note that they are presented just for your information. Only trained healthcare providers can diagnose or treat ADHD.
Get information and support from the National Resource Center on ADHD
DSM-5 Criteria for ADHD
People with ADHD show a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development:
- Inattention: Six or more symptoms of inattention for children up to age 16 years, or five or more for adolescents age 17 years and older and adults; symptoms of inattention have been present for at least 6 months, and they are inappropriate for developmental level:
- Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or with other activities.
- Often has trouble holding attention on tasks or play activities.
- Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
- Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (e.g., loses focus, side-tracked).
- Often has trouble organizing tasks and activities.
- Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to do tasks that require mental effort over a long period of time (such as schoolwork or homework).
- Often loses things necessary for tasks and activities (e.g. school materials, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, mobile telephones).
- Is often easily distracted
- Is often forgetful in daily activities.
- Hyperactivity and Impulsivity: Six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity for children up to age 16 years, or five or more for adolescents age 17 years and older and adults; symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity have been present for at least 6 months to an extent that is disruptive and inappropriate for the person’s developmental level:
- Often fidgets with or taps hands or feet, or squirms in seat.
- Often leaves seat in situations when remaining seated is expected.
- Often runs about or climbs in situations where it is not appropriate (adolescents or adults may be limited to feeling restless).
- Often unable to play or take part in leisure activities quietly.
- Is often “on the go” acting as if “driven by a motor”.
- Often talks excessively.
- Often blurts out an answer before a question has been completed.
- Often has trouble waiting their turn.
- Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games)
In addition, the following conditions must be met:
- Several inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were present before age 12 years.
- Several symptoms are present in two or more settings, (such as at home, school or work; with friends or relatives; in other activities).
- There is clear evidence that the symptoms interfere with, or reduce the quality of, social, school, or work functioning.
- The symptoms are not better explained by another mental disorder (such as a mood disorder, anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder, or a personality disorder). The symptoms do not happen only during the course of schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder.
Based on the types of symptoms, three kinds (presentations) of ADHD can occur:
- Combined Presentation: if enough symptoms of both criteria inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity were present for the past 6 months
- Predominantly Inattentive Presentation: if enough symptoms of inattention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, were present for the past six months
- Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Presentation: if enough symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity, but not inattention, were present for the past six months.
Because symptoms can change over time, the presentation may change over time as well.
Diagnosing ADHD in Adults
ADHD often lasts into adulthood. To diagnose ADHD in adults and adolescents age 17 years or older, only 5 symptoms are needed instead of the 6 needed for younger children. Symptoms might look different at older ages. For example, in adults, hyperactivity may appear as extreme restlessness or wearing others out with their activity.
For more information about diagnosis and treatment throughout the lifespan, please visit the websites of the National Resource Center on ADHD and the National Institutes of Mental Health.
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. Arlington, VA., American Psychiatric Association, 2013.
Información básica sobre el TDAH
- Signos y síntomas
- Causas del TDAH
- ¡Busque ayuda!
- El TDAH en adultos
El trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) es uno de los trastornos del neurodesarrollo más frecuentes de la niñez. Habitualmente su diagnóstico se realiza en la niñez y a menudo dura hasta la adultez. Los niños con TDAH pueden tener problemas para prestar atención, controlar conductas impulsivas (pueden actuar sin pensar cuál será el resultado) o ser excesivamente activos. 
Signos y síntomas
Es normal que a los niños les cueste concentrarse y comportarse bien de vez en cuando. Sin embargo, los niños con TDAH no van dejando atrás esas conductas a medida que crecen. Los síntomas continúan y pueden provocar dificultades en la escuela, el hogar o con los amigos.
Un niño con TDAH puede presentar las siguientes conductas:
- Fantasear mucho.
- Olvidar o perder las cosas con mucha frecuencia.
- Retorcerse o moverse nerviosamente.
- Hablar mucho.
- Cometer errores por descuido o correr riesgos innecesarios.
- Tener problemas para resistir la tentación.
- Tener problemas para respetar turnos.
- Tener dificultades para llevarse bien con otros.
Sepa más sobre los signos y síntomas
Hay formas en que el TDAH se presenta, según qué tipos de síntomas sean más fuertes en la persona:
- Presentación en la que predomina la falta de atención: Es difícil para la persona organizarse o terminar una tarea, prestar atención a los detalles o seguir instrucciones o conversaciones. La persona se distrae fácilmente o se olvida de detalles de la rutina diaria.
- Presentación en la que predomina la hiperactividad/impulsividad: La persona se mueve nerviosamente y habla mucho. Le resulta difícil quedarse sentada quieta durante mucho tiempo (p. ej., para una comida o mientras hace la tarea escolar). Los niños más pequeños pueden correr, saltar o trepar constantemente. La persona se siente inquieta y tiene problemas con la impulsividad. Una persona que es impulsiva puede interrumpir mucho a otros, agarrar cosas que les pertenecen a otros o hablar en momentos inapropiados. Es difícil para la persona esperar su turno o escuchar instrucciones. Una persona con impulsividad puede tener más accidentes y lesiones que los demás.
- Presentación combinada: Los síntomas de los dos tipos anteriores están igualmente presentes en la persona.
Dado que los síntomas pueden cambiar con el paso del tiempo, la presentación también puede cambiar con el tiempo.
Causas del TDAH
Los científicos estudian las causas y los factores de riesgo para intentar encontrar mejores maneras de manejar y reducir las probabilidades de que una persona tenga TDAH. Se desconocen las causas y los factores de riesgo del TDAH, pero investigaciones actuales muestran que la genética tiene un papel importante.
Además de la genética, los científicos están estudiando otras causas y factores de riesgo posibles que incluyen los siguientes:
- Lesión cerebral
- Exposición ambiental (p. ej., al plomo)
- Consumo de alcohol o tabaco durante el embarazo
- Parto prematuro
- Bajo peso al nacer
Los resultados de investigaciones no respaldan las opiniones populares de que el TDAH se origina por comer demasiada azúcar, ver demasiada televisión, por las técnicas de crianza o por factores sociales y ambientales, como la pobreza o el caos familiar. Por supuesto, muchas cosas, incluidas estas, podrían empeorar los síntomas, especialmente en ciertas personas, pero no hay suficientes datos de peso como para concluir que son las causas principales del TDAH.
Decidir si un niño tiene TDAH es un proceso de varios pasos. No hay un único examen para diagnosticar el TDAH y hay muchos otros problemas, como la ansiedad, la depresión y ciertos tipos de trastornos del aprendizaje, que pueden presentar síntomas similares. Un paso del proceso implica realizar un examen médico, que incluye pruebas auditivas y de la visión, para descartar otros problemas con síntomas similares a los del TDAH. Otra parte del proceso puede incluir completar una lista de verificación para calificar los síntomas del TDAH y recolectar los antecedentes del niño por parte de los padres, maestros y, a veces, el propio niño.
Más información sobre criterios para diagnosticar el TDAH
En la mayoría de los casos, el TDAH se trata mejor utilizando una combinación de terapia conductual y medicamentos. Para los niños de edad prescolar (4-5 años de edad) con TDAH, se recomienda la terapia conductual como la primera línea de tratamiento. Ningún tratamiento es la única respuesta para todos los niños, y los buenos planes de tratamiento incluirán un monitoreo estricto, seguimiento y cualquier cambio necesario en el camino.
Más información sobre tratamientos
Si usted o su médico tienen inquietudes sobre el TDAH, puede llevar a su hijo a un especialista como un sicólogo infantil o un pediatra especializado en desarrollo, o puede comunicarse con su agencia de intervención temprana (para niños menores de 3 años) o la escuela pública local (para niños de 3 años o más).
Los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades apoyan el Centro Nacional de Recursos de TDAH, un programa de Niños y Adultos con Trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (Children and Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, CHADD). Este sitio web tiene enlaces para obtener información para personas con TDAH y sus familias. El Centro Nacional de Recursos opera un servicio telefónico con personal capacitado para contestar preguntas sobre el TDAH. Para obtener más información sobre los servicios para niños con necesidades especiales, visite el Centro para Información y Recursos para Padres (Center for Parent Information and Resources). Para asegurarse de que su hijo alcance todo su potencial, es muy importante que reciba ayuda para tratar el TDAH tan pronto como sea posible.
El TDAH en adultos
A menudo, el TDAH dura hasta la adultez. Para obtener más información sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento a lo largo de la vida, visite los sitios web del Centro Nacional de Recursos para el TDAH y del Instituto Nacional de Salud Mental.
- The ADHD Molecular Genetics Network. Report from the third international meeting of the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder molecular genetics network. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 2002, 114:272-277.
Vasculitis - what is this disease? Symptoms, causes and treatment, making an appointment with a specialist of the MEDSI clinic
Vasculitis is a pathology that affects large, medium and small vessels and is characterized by inflammation of the walls of arteries, veins, venols, arteries and small capillaries. The disease is not only unpleasant for the patient, but also dangerous. An accurate diagnosis can only be made by an experienced rheumatologist. He will also cope with the task of the difficult treatment of vasculitis.
Causes of pathology
The exact causes of the disease are unknown. Often, pathology occurs even in an absolutely healthy person.
Vasculitis usually occurs against the background of:
- Autoimmune disorders
- Acute and chronic infections
- Allergic reactions
- Malignant neoplasms
Predisposing factors include:
- Genetic predisposition
- Skin lesions
- Reduced immunity
- Prolonged and frequent hypothermia
- Exposure to toxic substances
- Pathologies of the thyroid gland
Vasculitis can also occur as a complication of reactive arthritis or lupus erythematosus.
Depending on the causes of vasculitis, they are divided into:
- Primary . This pathology is a consequence of inflammation of the walls of blood vessels, occurs independently and is in no way associated with other diseases
- Secondary . These pathological conditions are the reaction of blood vessels to other diseases occurring in the body
Depending on the localization, there are:
- Large vessel vasculitis (Takayasu's arteritis, giant cell arteritis). Such pathologies affect the walls of the aorta and its branches
- Medium vessel vasculitis (Kawasaki disease and periarteritis nodosa). Such pathologies are often the result of the hepatitis virus and individual intolerance to various medications. They are dangerous because they can provoke the development of dangerous diseases: thrombosis, myocardial infarction, etc.
- Vasculitis of small vessels (granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, etc. ). Such ailments can progress rapidly, affecting capillaries, arterioles and venules. The lungs, kidneys, and organs of vision are often affected. The patient begins to suffer from severe shortness of breath, bronchial asthma and other pathologies
In some cases, both small and medium, and large vessels are simultaneously affected.
Symptoms of vasculitis
The main signs and symptoms of vasculitis, which are the reason for contacting a doctor and starting treatment, are:
- Decreased appetite and resulting weight loss
- Appearance of rashes on the body
- Decrease in general body temperature
- Joint pain
- Pale skin
- Frequent sinusitis (runny nose)
- Weakness and fatigue
- General malaise
- Nausea and vomiting
- Sensory disturbances
Symptoms of vasculitis in children, after the discovery of which you should consult a specialist for treatment, are the same. Moreover, babies suffer from pathology more often than adults. Children between the ages of 4 and 12 are most susceptible to the disease. As a rule, Kawasaki disease and other systemic vasculitis develop. In juvenile patients, the pathology affects the small vessels of the epidermis, joints, organs of the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys.
Important! If you do not consult a doctor in a timely manner, do not undergo diagnostics and do not start treatment for vasculitis, the disease will become chronic. Periodically, the patient will suffer from relapses of the pathological condition.
A diagnosis of vasculitis is always made before starting treatment. It allows you to determine the characteristics of the course of the disease and identify its cause.
- Inspection . In some cases, there are no external signs of pathology, since the disease has gone into remission
- Blood test for cytoplasmic antibodies characteristic of certain diseases
- Blood test for rheumatoid factor . Such diagnostics allows to exclude rheumatic pathology
- Blood test for cryoglobulins . Such an examination makes it possible to distinguish vascular inflammation from other diseases
- Urinalysis . There are objective indicators of the presence of vasculitis (excess C-reactive protein and the presence of blood elements)
- Visceral angiography . This technique is aimed at studying blood flow and is carried out with the introduction of a contrast agent and using an X-ray unit
- Doppler ultrasound . Such a study is aimed at assessing the intensity of blood flow and detecting areas with its violations
- CT and MRI. This diagnostic allows you to assess the condition of internal organs
- Aortography . Such a study is an x-ray and is aimed at studying the aorta
Treatment for vasculitis is aimed at:
- Elimination of aggressive reactions from the immune system, which provoke the disease
- Relapse Prevention
- Extension of remission
- Complication prevention
In complex therapy, funds are used for:
- Antibody suppression
- Blood purification
- Relieve inflammation and eliminate infection
Such treatment includes:
- Hemocorrection . It is aimed at cleaning the patient's blood using special sorbents. Blood sampling is performed with a venous catheter. After that, the blood is passed through a special apparatus and cleaned. She then returns to the bloodstream
- Immunosorption . This procedure is aimed at passing the patient's blood through a special apparatus filled with a substance that binds antibodies of the immune system that provoke damage to blood vessels
- Plasmapheresis . It consists in the selection, purification of blood using a centrifuge and its return to the bloodstream
Such treatment of vasculitis is carried out in the presence of signs of deep vein thrombosis. It is prescribed only under strict indications. Methods are selected by experts.
Vasculitis on the legs and other parts of the body often does not have not only pronounced symptoms, but also causes, therefore, not only its treatment, but also prevention is difficult.
- Constantly strengthen the immune system by taking special preparations prescribed by a doctor
- Carry out hardening activities
- Adhere to proper nutrition
- Be active
In order to prevent a secondary form of pathology, you should:
- Avoid prolonged stress
- Regularly sanitize foci of chronic infection
- Strictly adhere to the regime of rest and work
- Avoid prolonged exposure to cold and heat, allergens, harsh chemicals
The basis of nutrition in pathology is the exclusion of allergens (citrus fruits, eggs, flavor enhancers, honey, mushrooms, industrial preservatives, etc.).
- Avoid fried and fatty foods
- Introduce plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables into the diet
- Be sure to consume fermented milk products and cereals
The exact diet will be made by your attending physician. He will also give recommendations regarding lifestyle in general. This will both reduce the symptoms of the disease and (in some cases) reduce the dosage of medications taken.
Benefits of treating vasculitis at MEDSI
- Opportunities for rapid diagnosis (including on the day of application). We conduct all types of examinations in one place and in the shortest possible time
- The world's best innovative technologies on the most modern equipment in the USA, Japan, Germany and Russia and the use of genetically engineered biological drugs and hormonal agents
- Doctors' experience . The procedures are carried out under the supervision of specialists with extensive clinical experience - from 15 to 30 years, trained in Europe and the USA. Some immunosorption methods were developed and applied for the first time in the world by the Chairman of the Scientific Council of the MEDSI Group of Companies, Laureate of the Prizes of the Government of the Russian Federation, Director of the business unit "Belorusskaya" and the Center for Extracorporeal Treatment Methods, Professor Gennady Alexandrovich Konovalov
- Individual approach. The patient's treatment plan is developed taking into account his characteristics, current condition and disease
If you want to make an appointment with a doctor and get treatment for vasculitis, call us at +7 (495) 7-800-500.
Do not delay treatment, see a doctor right now:
- Vasculitis treatment
- Intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI)
- Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus
Varicose disease of the legs! What it is?
"Varicosis" - probably, each of you met this word in everyday life. But what is it for the patient? Varicose veins of the lower extremities are one of the most common diseases of modern man. The word "varicose" comes from the Latin word "varix" - swelling. Varicose veins are found in more than 60% of the population of our country. About 20% of men and 40% of women suffer from various forms of this disease. In Russia, a significant number of cases of the development of such consequences of the disease as trophic ulcers, vein thrombosis and thrombophlebitis are recorded.
Who is most at risk of developing this disease?
The so-called "big" risk factors for varicose veins are:
•Heredity (if close relatives suffer from this disease, you may also develop it).
• Female (women get sick 4-6 times more often than men).
•Peculiarities of work (work associated with prolonged standing)
• Hereditary predisposition
• Conditions and diseases leading to increased intra-abdominal pressure (heavy physical work, strength sports, constipation, etc.)
•Permanent leg injuries (athletes, workers, etc.)
• Hormonal contraception.
How is venous insufficiency and varicose veins manifested?
Symptoms are varied and depend on the stage of the disease. The first signs may be swelling of the lower leg and foot by the end of the day, a feeling of heaviness and fullness in the calf muscles, which appears with a long stay in a sitting or standing position. These symptoms are relieved by walking and after a night's rest. Later, arching pains in the calves, a feeling of heat in the legs and night cramps appear. There are also external changes. Small blue-red vascular "asterisks", dark blue intradermal veins and tortuous varicose veins form on the thighs and legs. Over time, acquiring the appearance of conglomerates resembling bunches of grapes. With the progression of varicose veins, the skin of the legs becomes dry, sensitive to various injuries. Then small brown islands appear on the skin, gradually merging into a single archipelago. A trophic ulcer is formed in its center.
Traditionally, the diagnosis and treatment of varicose veins is attributed to such a branch of medicine as phlebology. Phlebology studies exclusively venous diseases. Every phlebologist knows that any varicose veins is, first of all, a consequence of a certain lifestyle. Spending a long time in a standing or sitting position without movement, a person creates the preconditions for him to develop varicose veins of the lower extremities. Vein thrombosis may be a consequence of such a disease, but its risk of occurrence can be minimized by following the simple recommendations of a phlebologist.
Diagnosis should begin with a clinical examination by a phlebologist. The necessary arsenal of instrumental examination should include Doppler ultrasound, duplex scanning of the veins of the lower extremities. Varicose veins and vein thrombosis are serious ailments of modern society, which have not bypassed our city. Given the trend towards a quantitative increase in vascular diseases, the administration of the Federal State Budgetary Healthcare Institution of Medical Units No. 135 of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency of Russia trained specialists in the field of vascular pathology, who were trained in Moscow (the Center for Phlebology named after N.