How to get cbt

Cognitive behavioral therapy - Mayo Clinic


Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common type of talk therapy (psychotherapy). You work with a mental health counselor (psychotherapist or therapist) in a structured way, attending a limited number of sessions. CBT helps you become aware of inaccurate or negative thinking so you can view challenging situations more clearly and respond to them in a more effective way.

CBT can be a very helpful tool ― either alone or in combination with other therapies ― in treating mental health disorders, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or an eating disorder. But not everyone who benefits from CBT has a mental health condition. CBT can be an effective tool to help anyone learn how to better manage stressful life situations.

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Why it's done

Cognitive behavioral therapy is used to treat a wide range of issues. It's often the preferred type of psychotherapy because it can quickly help you identify and cope with specific challenges. It generally requires fewer sessions than other types of therapy and is done in a structured way.

CBT is a useful tool to address emotional challenges. For example, it may help you:

  • Manage symptoms of mental illness
  • Prevent a relapse of mental illness symptoms
  • Treat a mental illness when medications aren't a good option
  • Learn techniques for coping with stressful life situations
  • Identify ways to manage emotions
  • Resolve relationship conflicts and learn better ways to communicate
  • Cope with grief or loss
  • Overcome emotional trauma related to abuse or violence
  • Cope with a medical illness
  • Manage chronic physical symptoms

Mental health disorders that may improve with CBT include:

  • Depression
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Phobias
  • PTSD
  • Sleep disorders
  • Eating disorders
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
  • Substance use disorders
  • Bipolar disorders
  • Schizophrenia
  • Sexual disorders

In some cases, CBT is most effective when it's combined with other treatments, such as antidepressants or other medications.

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In general, there's little risk in getting cognitive behavioral therapy. But you may feel emotionally uncomfortable at times. This is because CBT can cause you to explore painful feelings, emotions and experiences. You may cry, get upset or feel angry during a challenging session. You may also feel physically drained.

Some forms of CBT, such as exposure therapy, may require you to confront situations you'd rather avoid — such as airplanes if you have a fear of flying. This can lead to temporary stress or anxiety.

However, working with a skilled therapist will minimize any risks. The coping skills you learn can help you manage and conquer negative feelings and fears.

How you prepare

You might decide on your own that you want to try cognitive behavioral therapy. Or a doctor or someone else may suggest therapy to you. Here's how to get started:

  • Find a therapist. You can get a referral from a doctor, health insurance plan, friend or other trusted source. Many employers offer counseling services or referrals through employee assistance programs (EAPs). Or you can find a therapist on your own — for instance, through a local or state psychological association or by searching the internet.
  • Understand the costs. If you have health insurance, find out what coverage it offers for psychotherapy. Some health plans cover only a certain number of therapy sessions a year. Also, talk to your therapist about fees and payment options.
  • Review your concerns. Before your first appointment, think about what issues you'd like to work on. While you can also sort this out with your therapist, having some sense in advance may provide a starting point.

Check qualifications

Psychotherapist is a general term, rather than a job title or indication of education, training or licensure. Examples of psychotherapists include psychiatrists, psychologists, licensed professional counselors, licensed social workers, licensed marriage and family therapists, psychiatric nurses, or other licensed professionals with mental health training.

Before seeing a psychotherapist, check his or her:

  • Background and education. Trained psychotherapists can have a number of different job titles, depending on their education and role. Most have a master's or doctoral degree with specific training in psychological counseling. Medical doctors who specialize in mental health (psychiatrists) can prescribe medications as well as provide psychotherapy.
  • Certification and licensing. Make sure that the therapist you choose meets state certification and licensing requirements for his or her particular discipline.
  • Area of expertise. Ask whether the therapist has expertise and experience treating your symptoms or your area of concern, such as eating disorders or PTSD.

The key is to find a skilled therapist who can match the type and intensity of therapy with your needs.

What you can expect

Cognitive behavioral therapy may be done one-on-one or in groups with family members or with people who have similar issues. Online resources are available that may make participating in CBT possible, especially if you live in an area with few local mental health resources.

CBT often includes:

  • Learning about your mental health condition
  • Learning and practicing techniques such as relaxation, coping, resilience, stress management and assertiveness

Your first therapy session

At your first session, your therapist will typically gather information about you and ask what concerns you'd like to work on. The therapist will likely ask you about your current and past physical and emotional health to gain a deeper understanding of your situation. Your therapist may discuss whether you might benefit from other treatment as well, such as medications.

The first session is also an opportunity for you to interview your therapist to see if he or she will be a good match for you. Make sure you understand:

  • His or her approach
  • What type of therapy is appropriate for you
  • The goals of your treatment
  • The length of each session
  • How many therapy sessions you may need

It might take a few sessions for your therapist to fully understand your situation and concerns, and to determine the best course of action. If you don't feel comfortable with the first therapist you see, try someone else. Having a good "fit" with your therapist can help you get the most benefit from CBT.

During CBT

Your therapist will encourage you to talk about your thoughts and feelings and what's troubling you. Don't worry if you find it hard to open up about your feelings. Your therapist can help you gain more confidence and comfort.

CBT generally focuses on specific problems, using a goal-oriented approach. As you go through the therapy process, your therapist may ask you to do homework — activities, reading or practices that build on what you learn during your regular therapy sessions — and encourage you to apply what you're learning in your daily life.

Your therapist's approach will depend on your particular situation and preferences. Your therapist may combine CBT with another therapeutic approach — for example, interpersonal therapy, which focuses on your relationships with other people.

Steps in CBT

CBT typically includes these steps:

  • Identify troubling situations or conditions in your life. These may include such issues as a medical condition, divorce, grief, anger or symptoms of a mental health disorder. You and your therapist may spend some time deciding what problems and goals you want to focus on.
  • Become aware of your thoughts, emotions and beliefs about these problems. Once you've identified the problems to work on, your therapist will encourage you to share your thoughts about them. This may include observing what you tell yourself about an experience (self-talk), your interpretation of the meaning of a situation, and your beliefs about yourself, other people and events. Your therapist may suggest that you keep a journal of your thoughts.
  • Identify negative or inaccurate thinking. To help you recognize patterns of thinking and behavior that may be contributing to your problem, your therapist may ask you to pay attention to your physical, emotional and behavioral responses in different situations.
  • Reshape negative or inaccurate thinking. Your therapist will likely encourage you to ask yourself whether your view of a situation is based on fact or on an inaccurate perception of what's going on. This step can be difficult. You may have long-standing ways of thinking about your life and yourself. With practice, helpful thinking and behavior patterns will become a habit and won't take as much effort.

Length of therapy

CBT is generally considered short-term therapy — ranging from about five to 20 sessions. You and your therapist can discuss how many sessions may be right for you. Factors to consider include:

  • Type of disorder or situation
  • Severity of your symptoms
  • How long you've had your symptoms or have been dealing with your situation
  • How quickly you make progress
  • How much stress you're experiencing
  • How much support you receive from family members and other people


Except in very specific circumstances, conversations with your therapist are confidential. However, a therapist may break confidentiality if there is an immediate threat to safety or when required by state or federal law to report concerns to authorities. These situations include:

  • Threatening to immediately or soon (imminently) harm yourself or take your own life
  • Threatening to imminently harm or take the life of another person
  • Abusing a child or a vulnerable adult ― someone over age 18 who is hospitalized or made vulnerable by a disability
  • Being unable to safely care for yourself


Cognitive behavioral therapy may not cure your condition or make an unpleasant situation go away. But it can give you the power to cope with your situation in a healthy way and to feel better about yourself and your life.

Getting the most out of CBT

CBT isn't effective for everyone. But you can take steps to get the most out of your therapy and help make it a success.

  • Approach therapy as a partnership. Therapy is most effective when you're an active participant and share in decision-making. Make sure you and your therapist agree about the major issues and how to tackle them. Together, you can set goals and assess progress over time.
  • Be open and honest. Success with therapy depends on your willingness to share your thoughts, feelings and experiences, and on being open to new insights and ways of doing things. If you're reluctant to talk about certain things because of painful emotions, embarrassment or fears about your therapist's reaction, let your therapist know about your reservations.
  • Stick to your treatment plan. If you feel down or lack motivation, it may be tempting to skip therapy sessions. Doing so can disrupt your progress. Attend all sessions and give some thought to what you want to discuss.
  • Don't expect instant results. Working on emotional issues can be painful and often requires hard work. It's not uncommon to feel worse during the initial part of therapy as you begin to confront past and current conflicts. You may need several sessions before you begin to see improvement.
  • Do your homework between sessions. If your therapist asks you to read, keep a journal or do other activities outside of your regular therapy sessions, follow through. Doing these homework assignments will help you apply what you've learned in the therapy sessions.
  • If therapy isn't helping, talk to your therapist. If you don't feel that you're benefiting from CBT after several sessions, talk to your therapist about it. You and your therapist may decide to make some changes or try a different approach.

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Overview - Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a talking therapy that can help you manage your problems by changing the way you think and behave.

It's most commonly used to treat anxiety and depression, but can be useful for other mental and physical health problems.

How CBT works

CBT is based on the concept that your thoughts, feelings, physical sensations and actions are interconnected, and that negative thoughts and feelings can trap you in a vicious cycle.

CBT aims to help you deal with overwhelming problems in a more positive way by breaking them down into smaller parts.

You're shown how to change these negative patterns to improve the way you feel.

Unlike some other talking treatments, CBT deals with your current problems, rather than focusing on issues from your past.

It looks for practical ways to improve your state of mind on a daily basis.

Uses for CBT

CBT has been shown to be an effective way of treating a number of different mental health conditions.

In addition to depression or anxiety disorders, CBT can also help people with:

  • bipolar disorder
  • borderline personality disorder
  • eating disorders – such as anorexia and bulimia
  • obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
  • panic disorder
  • phobias
  • post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  • psychosis
  • schizophrenia
  • sleep problems – such as insomnia
  • problems related to alcohol misuse

CBT is also sometimes used to treat people with long-term health conditions, such as:

  • irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)
  • fibromyalgia

Although CBT cannot cure the physical symptoms of these conditions, it can help people cope better with their symptoms.

What happens during CBT sessions

If CBT is recommended, you'll usually have a session with a therapist once a week or once every 2 weeks.

The course of treatment usually lasts for between 5 and 20 sessions, with each session lasting 30 to 60 minutes.

During the sessions, you'll work with your therapist to break down your problems into their separate parts, such as your thoughts, physical feelings and actions.

You and your therapist will analyse these areas to work out if they're unrealistic or unhelpful, and to determine the effect they have on each other and on you.

Your therapist will then be able to help you work out how to change unhelpful thoughts and behaviours.

After working out what you can change, your therapist will ask you to practise these changes in your daily life and you'll discuss how you got on during the next session.

The eventual aim of therapy is to teach you to apply the skills you have learnt during treatment to your daily life.

This should help you manage your problems and stop them having a negative impact on your life, even after your course of treatment finishes.

Pros and cons of CBT

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can be as effective as medicine in treating some mental health problems, but it may not be successful or suitable for everyone.

Some of the advantages of CBT include:

  • it may be helpful in cases where medicine alone has not worked
  • it can be completed in a relatively short period of time compared with other talking therapies
  • the highly structured nature of CBT means it can be provided in different formats, including in groups, self-help books and online
  • it teaches you useful and practical strategies that can be used in everyday life, even after the treatment has finished

Some of the disadvantages of CBT to consider include:

  • you need to commit yourself to the process to get the most from it – a therapist can help and advise you, but they need your co-operation
  • attending regular CBT sessions and carrying out any extra work between sessions can take up a lot of your time
  • it may not be suitable for people with more complex mental health needs or learning difficulties, as it requires structured sessions
  • it involves confronting your emotions and anxieties – you may experience initial periods where you're anxious or emotionally uncomfortable
  • it focuses on the person's capacity to change themselves (their thoughts, feelings and behaviours) – this does not address any wider problems in systems or families that often have a significant impact on someone's health and wellbeing

Some critics also argue that because CBT only addresses current problems and focuses on specific issues, it does not address the possible underlying causes of mental health conditions, such as an unhappy childhood.

How to find a CBT therapist

You can get psychological therapies, including CBT, on the NHS.

You can refer yourself directly to an NHS psychological therapies service (IAPT) without a referral from a GP.

Or your GP can refer you if you prefer.

If you can afford it, you can choose to pay for your therapy privately. The cost of private therapy sessions varies, but it's usually £40 to £100 per session.

The British Association for Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapies (BABCP) keeps a register of all accredited therapists in the UK and The British Psychological Society (BPS) has a directory of chartered psychologists, some of whom specialise in CBT.

Video: psychological therapies for stress, anxiety and depression

Animated video explaining self-referral to psychological therapies services for stress, anxiety or depression.

Media last reviewed: 14 March 2022
Media review due: 14 March 2025

Instructions on how to order and receive, sample diagram

What is a cadastral plan of the territory (CPT)?

Cadastral plan of the territory (CPT) is a plan of all lands located in one cadastral block. There is a single form of preparation of such documents. Information is taken from the registry and cartographic sources. It cannot be required by the owner of the land, since cadastral engineers use it to prepare other technical documentation for the site. The main difference between CPT and other types of extracts from the USRN is that it contains information about all objects that are within certain boundaries.

When and why you need a CPT

A document may be needed in many cases, for example:

  • Entering information or changes to the cadastre.
  • For design work
  • For various surveying applications
  • Where to get?

    The document can be ordered on paper or as a downloadable file certified by EDS. The legal force of both formats is the same, but electronic is more convenient for work. The fact is that the document characterizes large territorial units and the paper plan is very voluminous. In electronic format, it can be scaled.

    There are two ways to order a cadastral plan of the territory:

    1. Through the MFC
    2. On the Rosreestr website.

    Through the MFC

    At the MFC you can get a paper document, but since it is inconvenient for work, more often it is received in electronic form through the Rosreestr website or other portals.

    On the website of Rosreestr

    Anyone can order CBT on the website. The application will be accepted for work immediately after you pay for the service. Confirmation will be sent to the email you provided. Once the cadastral plan is prepared, you will receive a notification. In order to download the document, you need to follow the link received during the application process and enter the code. Usually, the electronic version is prepared quickly, but you can find out the status of your application at any time in your personal account in the "Checking the execution of the request" section.

    Validity of the extract

    The cadastral plan of the territory does not have an expiration date. It is valid as long as no changes are made to the registry. We do not recommend ordering it in advance, as it may turn out that during this time new data will be entered into the register, new objects will appear and the information will become outdated.

    Required documents

    No special package of documents is required. It is enough to indicate the number of your passport in the application.

    Contents of the document: text and graphics

    The cadastral plan of the territory contains a large amount of different data. The information is contained in textual and graphical form. The text part describes in detail all the objects, the graphic part gives a visual representation in the form of drawings and diagrams.

    These data facilitate cadastral work and preparation of technical documentation for a separate storage facility. Part can be found on a public map, but this data alone is not enough to work. The CPT provides important information about the boundaries and characteristics of the lands located near the studied storage area. Its use allows you to avoid mistakes, overlapping borders.

    Document forms

    The form is approved by law and consists of five parts KPT.1-KPT.5. Each contains different information:

    KPT-1.1. Contains the cadastral number and data on the area of ​​the block. It also contains information about the composition of the document (the number of sheets or file names, depending on the medium on which the document is drawn up). This section also includes general data on the land plots located on the territory of the quarter: cadastral number, area, address, category and type of permitted use of land, their cadastral value.

    KPT-1.2. Includes information on capital construction projects (including unfinished ones) located within the quarter. General information is indicated about each object - type, cadastral number, purpose, address, main characteristics, their significance for the ACS and units of measurement.

    KPT-2.1. In this section, plots of land, OKS, construction in progress are displayed in a graphical format. The basis for the plan is information from the USRN on the boundaries of land plots. Capital objects are displayed according to the data on the coordinates of their contours. To identify individual objects, a cadastral number or a number within a quarter is used. The serial number under which the object is indicated in section KPT-1.1 can also be used.

    KPT-2.2. It is filled in if the boundaries of settlements, municipalities pass through the cadastral quarter. Data from USRN.

    KPT-2.3. This subsection displays territories with special conditions of use. The boundaries are displayed based on the coordinate data contained in the inventory.

    KPT-2.4. Plan of territorial zones located within the quarter.

    KPT-3.1. Description of the boundaries of the memory with coordinates. Coordinates are rounded up to 0.01 m. If the characteristic points of the boundaries are fixed with boundary marks, the subsection includes their description and the standard error (accuracy of determining the position of the boundary mark).

    KPT-3.2. Description of the boundaries of capital construction projects, including unfinished ones.

    KPT-4. General information and location of the boundaries of land management objects. The general information indicates their type and name, units of cadastral division, data on decisions on the basis of which the boundaries of such objects were established or changed. For areas with special conditions of use, the scope of restrictions is indicated.

    KPT-5. Information about the reference boundary network: type, number, class of the MLA point, their coordinates (X, Y).

    The SPT does not always contain all sections. Depending on the purpose for which the cadastral plan of the territories is required. For example, if the plan is requested in order to obtain information about the basic boundary network, it will include only two sections - KPT-1 and KPT-5. Draw up a document according to the same rules as the cadastral passport of the site. The plan in electronic format is certified by an electronic digital signature.

    Is it possible to refuse?

    The document is based on open information, so it is easy to get it. Refusal can be only in one case - errors made in the application. But in this case, it is enough to correct them to get the document.

    Sample scheme on the cadastral plan of the territory

    Public cadastral map

    Video: Search for real estate on the cadastral map online

    You can watch the video instruction on how to find and get the cadastral plan of the territory through the USRNka portal online. If you need other geodetic services - please contact us, we will be happy to help!

    Useful video


    23.19. Ordering CPT from USRN - NextGIS documentation 1.12


    Due to the high load, all Rosreestr services often work with restrictions. If you do not get the desired result at any step, you need to wait and repeat the request later.

    23.19.1. Get a cadastral plan of the territory

    This method has been tested for individuals. The result is data with an expanded list of layers, including Restricted Area Use Zones (ZUIT) and boundaries of settlements.

    1. Follow the link

    2. Enter the number of the quarter. For example: 23:49:0800002

    3. Fill in the rest:

    • Landmarks of the territory (enter the name of the region, the first 2 digits of the quarter number correspond to the region code)

    • In the form - leave the "Link to the electronic document"

    • Email.

    On the next page fill in information about the applicant:

    • Individual

    • Other person

    • Surname

    • Name

    • Passport of a citizen of the Russian Federation

    • Passport number (without series)

    • Passport issue date

    • Email.

    Check the box to consent to the transfer of personal data to the RR. On the next page, we check and send the request ( without digital signature ).

    4. On the next page, we get the request number, for example: 50-18468740 and the code for downloading the result, for example: A2477 (both numbers are subsequently duplicated in letters). At the same time, a letter arrives in the mail with payment code .

    5. Check the request status by the request code, for example:

    6. We get the result "Awaiting payment" and below in the text we find and click the link "specify the payment code". After clicking on the link in the text, an input field opens (enter the received by mail payment code and the "Proceed to payment" button (click).

    Scroll down the reloaded page and find payment methods there.

    1. Choose one of the payment methods. We pay (depending on the type of payment, a commission is charged)

    8. Checking the status of the request, you need the request number from the letter

    After payment, several letters will come within 3 days. One of them will provide an access key and a link to download the result.

    23.19.2. Request through access to FSIS USRN

    This method works for both individuals and legal entities.

    1. Go to your personal account Registration is required for the State Services.

    2. My balance section, Providing USRN information, With documents 2, Make payment

    3. With documents 2 - choose About territories and zones, 110 rub. Order.

    4. Make a payment using one of the methods. 1 payment - 1 CPT.

    5. Wait for payments to arrive. Transactions should appear in the My Balance section.

    6. Go to My keys section, copy the key.

    7. Follow the link

    8. Enter key

    9. Open section Search for real estate objects. Enter:

    1. In the found list, select the found quarter, confirm the order.

    2. Wait for the result to appear in the result list.

    23.19.3. Data request via Highlights

    1. Regions for which this data ordering method is available


    Autonomous districts/regions: Nenets, Chukotsky, Khanty-Mansiysk, Yamalo-Nenets, Jewish. Republics: Adygea, Altai, Buryatia, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Kalmykia, Karelia, Komi, Mari El, Mordovia, Yakutia, North Ossetia, Tyva, Khakassia, Chechnya, Chuvashia, Bashkortostan.

    Territories: Krasnoyarsk, Khabarovsk, Zabaikalsky.

    Regions: Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan, Bryansk, Volgograd, Voronezh, Ivanovo, Irkutsk, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka, Kostroma, Kurgan, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhny Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Oryol, Penza, Perm , Pskov, Ryazan, Sakhalin, Smolensk, Tambov, Tver, Tomsk, Tyumen, Ulyanovsk.

    1. Go to

    2. Order 1 CPT - 350 rubles + commission 5.25 rubles (If you choose to pay with a bank card from Tinkoff, then there is no commission). It is possible to pay several statements at once

    3. After the order, a notification comes from [email protected] with the request number

    4. Important! An invoice for payment from the State Services arrives,

      Learn more