High gaba symptoms

GABA - Nutters Everyday Naturals

Ever wondered about the physiology of anxiety? Why is it that you can be perfectly calm one minute, have one anxious thought, and be experiencing anxiety all over your body the next? This happens because of the signals and messages your brain sends to the rest of your body via your central nervous system. Luckily, there are a series of checks and balances that your body carries out, depending on the state it is in. GABA, or gamma-aminobutyric acid, is one of nature’s tranquilizers that acts as a neurotransmitter (a chemical that affects the transmission of an impulse across a synapse, or gap, between nerves) in the brain to slow over-excited nerves and stop them from over-firing. It works in conjunction with vitamins B3 and inositol to block the effect that worrying thoughts have on the motor centers of your brain; thoughts that will tense muscles, have your stomach in knots and have you unknowingly clenching your jaw. Sometimes prescription medications are suggested to relieve chronic anxiety. However, there is always the fear of addiction with prescription tranquilizers and this is why GABA, taken for its calming properties and on the advice of your primary health care provider, can be used as a natural sedative.

GABA is formed in the body from another amino acid, glutamic acid, which has been converted from glutamine in the brain. Glutamine is referred to as a conditionally essential amino acid because, under certain circumstances, the body is unable to produce enough, at which time glutamine then becomes essential.

GABA’s function is to decrease neuron activity and inhibit nerve cells from over-firing. It’s interesting to note that GABA is formed from glutamic acid because glutamic acid’s function, opposite to that of GABA’s, is to increase the firing of neurons in the central nervous system.


GABA does not have an established RDA but there are suggested supplemental amounts for some of the more common conditions. Before beginning any type of supplement, always check with your primary health care provider to assure there are no contraindications to taking the supplement.

  • For fibromyalgia sufferers, 250mg to 500mg to be taken three times daily.
  • For insomnia, 500mg to 1,000mg of GABA to be taken 30 minutes before bedtime.
  • For stress, 250mg three times daily.

There is also an indication that GABA can help to calm your nerves when you’re in the process of quitting smoking. Try taking 250mg three times daily or 750mg at night before retiring.

It is useful to note that overuse of GABA has the opposite effect in the body. This really is a case where more is not better.


GABA is the most widespread inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and helps maintain a proper balance between the mind and the body. In technical terms, there are two forms of GABA; A and B. It’s as simple as that. Both are inhibitory, or calming neurotransmitters that take care of stress-related tension and anxiety naturally.

In adults, inhibitory neurotransmitters play an important role in the regulation of muscle tone. Nerve signals are constantly being fired in muscle tissue to stimulate it. This causes muscle to maintain its strength. However, if this nerve signal isn’t regulated and inhibited occasionally, muscle tissue would hypertrophy (increase in volume/size – think of an enlarged ventricle in your heart; the enlargement happens from overuse). GABA is the regulator of these signals.

GABA increases the level of Human Growth Hormone (HGH) which further helps in maintaining a healthy body. HGH plays a significant role in converting body fat to muscle mass, energy levels, tissue repair, cell replacement, bone strength, brain function, enzyme production, organ health and the integrity of hair, nails and skin. HGH production naturally declines as we age.

GABA is also a precursor to sleep. During the day, our bodies and minds are constantly “on”. GABA calms us during the day, and at night, turns off our body and mind so we can rest and rejuvenate.


Some physical signs of a GABA deficiency could include:

  • Trembling, tremors, twitching, feeling shaky
  • Restlessness
  • Blurred vision
  • Carbohydrate cravings
  • Cold or clammy hands
  • Flushing
  • Headaches
  • Insomnia
  • Muscle loss and/or muscle tension
  • Night sweats
  • Memory problems
  • Difficulty concentrating

Some common mental/emotional signs of a GABA deficiency could include:

  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Feelings of hopelessness
  • Mood swings
  • Sudden onset of phobias or fears
  • Short temper


Insomnia: GABA is a natural tranquilizer; it helps induce sleep and improves sleep quality as well. It also turns your body “off” at night.

High Blood Pressure: If you live with high blood pressure due to daily stress and anxiety, GABA tea might be the answer! Yes, you read it correctly, tea. First developed by Japanese researchers two to three decades ago to enhance the natural GABA on tea leaves, GABA tea has become a daily health drink in Japan. GABA tea is also reported to be a good cure for hangovers but there is little scientific evidence to back up this claim.

Headaches: If stress headaches are a fact of life for you, using a GABA supplement has been shown to help alleviate this type of headache. GABA helps slow the effects of stress on your body, reducing the amount of excitatory signals your brain sends out.

Anti-Aging Properties: Higher brain functions such as visual recognition or understanding language require the processing of information in the brain. This ability declines as we age. This decline appears to be due to a reduction in GABA in the brain. Neuroscientist Audie Leventhal, at the University of Utah School of Medicine, led a study of applying GABA on Macaque monkeys, with an age equivalent to 90 years in humans, and concluded the monkeys improved vastly. 1

Once we are done growing (somewhere in our early 20’s), our body’s production of HGH slows. This allows for the onset of the signs of aging; a decrease in the quality and quantity of sleep, an increase in body fat, gradual memory loss and a decline in brain function. One way of increasing the amount of HGH in your system is through the use of a GABA supplement. This stimulates the pituitary gland to produce and release HGH. A possible side benefit; more youthful looking skin.

Another sign of age is wrinkles; the type you get from frowning and furrowing your brow. GABA can help prevent wrinkles from pinched, drawn skin before they even start by preventing the anxiety issues that can cause them. It also can be effective in suppressing the minute spasms and movements that lead to wrinkles. What a bonus but you should still avoid the most common causes of wrinkles; sun, smoking and alcohol.

Weight Loss: Low levels of HGH can sometimes be the reason for excess fat storage on our body, with the waistline and hip regions being the main dumping sites. Unfortunately, these are also two of the most stubborn regions to get to release their excess weight. GABA is helpful in stimulating the pituitary glands that release HGH. More HGH can help “increase the release” of this stubborn fat. And don’t forget; GABA helps your muscles perform at optimum levels. When your muscles perform the way they should, your metabolism speeds up and you burn fat more effectively.

Chronic Pain: It was reported on Web MD in November, 2004 that “chronic…pain actually shrinks the brain by as much as 11%. Specifically, it shrinks the gray matter, which makes up the part of the brain responsible for memory and information processing.” This constant chronic pain affects the nervous system which, in turn, affects communication in the neurotransmitters of the brain. Remember, GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, used throughout the nervous system to reduce stress, anxiety, panic and pain. A deficiency of GABA in the brain means your brain will not receive messages as regularly as it should, often causing surges of anxiety which can result in a hypersensitivity to pain.


GABA is found in almost everything we eat, but here’s the catch; as soon as you cook your food, you’ve almost completely depleted the GABA in it. Try and eat as many raw foods as you can. Good quantities of GABA are found in dairy products, almonds, bananas, broccoli, brown rice, halibut, lentils, oats, oranges, potatoes, walnuts, eggs, beans, spinach and whole grain products.

Because glutamine is the amino acid needed to produce GABA, good sources of glutamine include cabbage, beets, beef, chicken, fish, beans and dairy.

Because GABA works in conjunction with vitamins B3 and inositol, good sources of B3 include beef liver, broccoli, carrots, cheese, dates, eggs, fish, milk, nuts, pork, potatoes, tomatoes and whole wheat products. Good sources of inositol include fruits, legumes, meats, milk, raisins, vegetables and whole grains.


It is always prudent to avoid taking supplements otherwise prescribed by your primary health care provider if you are pregnant, intend on becoming pregnant or are nursing. Too much GABA can cause an increase in anxiety, a shortness of breath, numbness around the mouth and tingling in the extremities. When you start taking GABA you might experience drowsiness or lightheadedness (so don’t take it before driving), and in some individuals, skin hives or a rash may appear. If you experience chest pains or difficulty breathing, stop taking the GABA right away. Talk with your primary health care provider before taking GABA to discuss the reasons why you want to start taking it and to get a clearer picture of how it might affect you personally.


GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is a natural calming and anti-epileptic agent in the brain. In fact, it is one of the brain’s most important regulators of proper function and neurotransmission. It appears that many people with anxiety, insomnia, epilepsy, and other brain disorders do not manufacture enough GABA on their own. Many popular drugs, such as Valium, Neurontin, Baclofen, and Valproate act by increasing the effects of GABA within the brain. However, these drugs have numerous side effects and are highly addictive drugs, making them unsuitable for long-term use. GABA, in the right form, is completely safe and remarkably effective without side effects.

Are you suffering from the “tired and wired” syndrome? If so, view this short video by Dr. Kate Rheaume-Bleue, ND on stress, insomnia, your wellbeing and personalized stress management. CLICK HERE.


1. Aura Teas, Tea and Healthhttp://www.aurateas.com/tea_health_benefits-health_info_GABA_tea-detail.aspx

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology, Seventh Edition, Elaine Marieb

Carol Roy is a Natural Health Practitioner who received her diploma from the Alternative Medicine College of Canada in Montreal, Quebec. With 12 years experience in her area of expertise, natural health and wellness, Carol has also trained to become a fully qualified Reiki Master, Quantum Touch Practitioner, and Reflexologist.

The suggestions by Nutter’s Bulk & Natural Foods and the contents of this article
are recommendations only and not a substitute for any medical advice or a
replacement for any prescriptions. Seek medical advice for any health concerns.
Consult your health care provider before using any recommendations herein.



Dystonia can happen for many reasons and can take many forms, depending on what causes it and the body parts affected.

What is dystonia?

Dystonia is a nervous system disorder that causes uncontrollable muscle contractions, meaning a person’s muscles tense up without trying to make the muscles do so. Though it affects muscles, it’s actually an issue with your brain or another part of your nervous system.

The name “dystonia” is a combination of the Latin prefix “dys-,” and the Greek word “-tonos,” which refers to muscle tension. The combination of the two words describes a problem where your muscles tense up in a way that’s faulty or incorrect.

What is the difference between dystonia and dyskinesia?

Dyskinesia and dystonia are closely related but aren’t the same.

  • Dyskinesia: This word comes from Greek. “Kinesia” comes from the word “kinesis,” which means “movement.” The combined word refers to movements that are faulty or happen in a way they shouldn't. Dyskinesias are involuntary muscle movements, meaning you don't control that they’re happening.
  • Dystonia. This is a specific type of dyskinesia. With dystonia, muscles tense up for longer periods. Depending on what part of your body they happen in, they can often cause you to move or pose in certain ways.

Who does dystonia affect?

Depending on why it happens, anyone can develop dystonia. Some causes are age-specific, affecting people at birth or in childhood, while others are more likely to develop late in life.

How common is this condition?

The available research indicates that dystonia affects about 300,000 people in the United States. However, it’s difficult to know how common dystonia is because experts believe it’s underdiagnosed. That’s because dystonia can take so many different forms.

How does dystonia affect my body?

Dystonia is a brain condition that affects how your brain controls muscles throughout your body. This can affect muscles or groups of muscles in different ways. Exactly how and why this happens is still a mystery, though. The effects of dystonia can also worsen when you feel tired or stressed, or if you drink caffeine or alcohol.

Some types of dystonia happen because of genetic mutations or conditions that disrupt the way parts of your brain work. This can cause the affected cells to work incorrectly, leading to faulty signals reaching your muscles and causing dystonia’s effects.

Dystonia can also happen because of injuries or conditions that disrupt your brain function, and some of these conditions are visible on imaging scans or detectable with certain tests. But it can also happen for other reasons.

Symptoms and Causes

What are the symptoms of dystonia?

In general, the key symptom of dystonia is uncontrollable muscle movements. These movements are often:

  • Uncomfortable or even painful, sometimes feeling like electric shocks.
  • Repetitive (especially with tremors).
  • Variable in how long they last; some last seconds or minutes while others can continue for months.
  • Twisting or stretching in nature, causing a person to look like they’re holding an unusual pose.
  • Worse when using the affected muscles.

There are also some slight differences in the symptoms depending on where dystonia happens in your body. There are five main ways that symptoms happen (with more about each below):

  • Focal dystonia.
  • Segmental dystonia.
  • Multifocal dystonia.
  • Hemidystonia.
  • Generalized dystonia.
Focal dystonia

Focal dystonia only affects one part of your body, and experts estimate these cases are about 10 times more common than generalized dystonia cases. Depending on the body part affected, this can take different forms:

  • Eyelids: Eyelid spasms (blepharospasm).
  • Jaw: Teeth-grinding (bruxism).
  • Hand or wrist: Cramps or muscle spasms, often known as “writer’s cramp” or “musician’s cramp.” Golfers and baseball players often call these “the yips.”
Segmental dystonia

This affects two or more adjacent body parts, such as different parts of your face, your head and neck, or your hand and arm. The most common example of segmental dystonia is cervical dystonia, which affects muscles in your head and neck. Another example is Meige syndrome, which affects multiple parts of your face.

Multifocal dystonia

This affects two or more body parts that aren’t directly connected. An example of this is dystonia that affects both hands. Tardive dyskinesia is an example of multifocal dystonia when it affects more than one non-connected part of your body.


Hemidystonia gets its name partly from the Greek word “hemi,” which means “half.” In this context, it affects just half — one side — of your body. An example of this is uncontrollable muscle movements in the right side of your face and your right hand. Strokes are a key cause of hemidystonia.

Generalized dystonia

This can involve your body’s leg and trunk (the main part of your body to which your arms, legs and head connect) or even your entire body. This can happen when dystonia is progressive, meaning it worsens over time. When focal dystonia turns into generalized dystonia, the symptoms spread from your limbs to the trunk of your body.

What causes dystonia?

Dystonia happens because of disruptions in how your brain should function. It usually involves your basal ganglia, a group of brain structures that link many different brain areas and coordinate how those areas work together.

Experts organize the causes of dystonia into three categories: Primary, secondary and “dystonia plus” conditions.

  • Primary dystonia: This is when dystonia is the main condition. It’s usually “idiopathic,” which means it happens for an unknown reason. Experts also suspect genetics are a factor, meaning it runs in families.
  • Secondary dystonia: This is when dystonia is a symptom of another condition or issue.
  • Dystonia plus: These are neurological conditions where dystonia is a main symptom, but there are other symptoms, too.
Secondary dystonia causes

Secondary dystonia can happen because of, or in connection with, a wide range of reasons:

  • Brain tumors.
  • Other brain conditions (such as epilepsy, Parkinsonism, Parkinson’s disease, etc.).
  • Cerebral hypoxia (especially for newborns who experienced a lack of oxygen during their birth).
  • Drugs (prescription or recreational).
  • Genetic conditions (such as Wilson’s disease or Huntington’s disease).
  • Infections (such as encephalitis).
  • Metabolic conditions.
  • Stroke.
  • Toxins and poisons (carbon monoxide poisoning, manganese poisoning, etc. ).
  • Traumatic brain injuries.

Is dystonia contagious?

Dystonia isn’t contagious, and you can’t spread it or catch it from others.

Diagnosis and Tests

How is dystonia diagnosed?

A healthcare provider, often a neurologist, can diagnose dystonia based on your symptoms, a neurological exam and various medical tests. Diagnosing dystonia is often tricky because its symptoms can happen with so many other conditions. That means it’s important to rule out those other conditions, some of which are life-threatening medical emergencies.

What tests will be done to diagnose dystonia?

A wide range of lab, diagnostic and imaging tests are possible with dystonia. The most likely tests depend on your symptoms and what conditions healthcare providers suspect. Possible tests include, but aren’t limited to, the following:

  • Blood tests (these can detect many problems, ranging from immune system issues to toxins and poisons, especially metals like copper or manganese).
  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan.
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG).
  • Electromyogram (nerve conduction test).
  • Genetic testing.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan.
  • Spinal tap (lumbar puncture).

Other tests are possible, so your healthcare provider is the best person to ask about the tests they recommend for your specific case. The information they provide will be the most accurate for your circumstances.

Management and Treatment

How is dystonia treated, and is there a cure?

There’s no way to cure dystonia, but it might be treatable. Many possible treatments depend on the underlying cause or condition, or the symptoms you have. Your healthcare provider is the best person to tell you the treatment options they recommend in your specific situation.

Is there anything I can’t eat or drink with dystonia?

Your healthcare provider may recommend that you avoid caffeine and alcohol. For some people, drinking beverages that contain either can make dystonia symptoms worse.

What medications or treatments are used?

The possible medications or treatments for dystonia depend on why it’s happening and the specific symptoms you have. In general, the following treatment types are possible:

  • Deep brain stimulation. This treatment involves surgery to implant electrodes into your brain. These electrodes deliver a mild electrical current to part of your brain, which can help the symptoms of dystonia. This is the most common and most useful surgical treatment for dystonia.
  • Medications. Depending on why dystonia happens, it’s often possible to treat it with medication. The medication (or combination of them) depends on the symptoms and the underlying cause — if there is one — of the dystonia.
  • Botulinum toxin injections. Botulinum toxin — commonly known under the trademarked name Botox® — can block all nerve signals for weeks or even months when injected in the right place. That keeps the signals that cause dystonia from getting to your muscles, making botulinum toxin a treatment option for focal or some segmental dystonia symptoms.
  • Physical, occupational and speech therapy. These forms of treatment can often help a person adapt or recover from dystonia, especially when dystonia happens because of a temporary health condition or circumstance.
Complications/side effects of treatment

The complications and side effects possible with dystonia depend on several factors, starting with the treatments themselves. Your healthcare provider is the best person to explain what’s possible or likely for you because they can give you information that considers your circumstances.

How do I take care of myself or manage symptoms?

Dystonia is a neurological problem, which means it isn’t something you can self-diagnose and self-treat. It’s also important to talk to your healthcare provider sooner than later because dystonia can happen with severe or life-threatening conditions.

How soon after treatment will I feel better, and how long does it take to recover?

The timeline for you to feel better and recover depends on why your dystonia happened, how severe it is, the treatments you received, any other health conditions you might have and more. Your healthcare provider is the best person to tell you about the likely timeline for you to feel better and recover.


How can I reduce my risk or prevent dystonia altogether?

Dystonia happens unpredictably, so you can’t prevent it. You also can’t reduce the risk of developing primary dystonia. That’s because you either inherit it or develop it for unknown reasons.

However, some causes of secondary dystonia are preventable, or you can reduce your risk of developing them. The things you can do include:

  • Eat a balanced diet and maintain a healthy weight. Many conditions related to your circulatory and heart health, especially stroke, can damage areas of your brain, causing dystonia. Preventing, delaying or reducing the severity of these conditions can have a big effect on whether or not you develop dystonia.
  • Don’t ignore infections. Eye and ear infections need fast treatment. When these infections spread to your brain, they become a serious threat. Infections can cause brain inflammation (encephalitis) that can lead to dystonia.
  • Wear safety equipment. Traumatic brain injuries can damage your brain and cause dystonia. That makes safety equipment essential in reducing your risk of developing this condition.
  • Manage your health conditions. Chronic conditions cause or contribute to other conditions that lead to dystonia. That includes conditions like Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, epilepsy and others.

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the outlook for dystonia, and what can I expect if I have it?

The outlook for dystonia depends on what caused it, when you develop it, where in your body it causes symptoms, your health history, the treatments you receive and more. Your healthcare provider is the best person to tell you more about the outlook for your case.

Primary dystonia outlook

In general, primary dystonia tends to have a less-favorable outlook when it happens early in life. That’s because primary dystonia can progress from focal to generalized. The earlier in life you develop this condition, the further the condition can progress.

Focal dystonia tends to have a better outlook because it’s limited in how it affects your body. When dystonia affects multiple areas of your body, especially areas that aren’t directly connected, it’s usually because of more severe disruptions in your brain.

Secondary dystonia outlook

The outlook for secondary dystonia depends strongly on the condition causing it. When the underlying cause is a curable or reversible condition, there’s a much better likelihood of a good outcome. When it happens because of a chronic (long-term) condition, the odds of a good outcome go down. However, there are some chronic conditions where a good outcome and recovery from dystonia are still possible.

How long does dystonia last?

Primary dystonia is a lifelong condition once it develops. It’s treatable, but it isn’t curable and doesn’t go away on its own.

Secondary dystonia can be a short-term condition, depending on the underlying cause. This is more likely with conditions like infections, traumatic injuries and certain drugs. However, other factors can influence this, so your healthcare provider is the best person to tell you what you should expect in your case.

Living With

How do I take care of myself?

If you have dystonia, there may be some things you can do to take care of yourself, including:

  • Avoid caffeine and alcohol if your healthcare provider recommends this. These can make dystonia symptoms worse.
  • Manage your stress. Anxiety and stress can cause dystonia to worsen. You can reduce this risk by managing your stress and anxiety with techniques like meditation, relaxation training, exercise and more.
  • Avoid activities that make symptoms worse. Some forms of dystonia are more likely to happen under certain circumstances. Avoiding those circumstances, when possible, can reduce the chances of dystonia symptoms flaring up.
  • Learn how to manage your condition. Different forms of dystonia are often manageable with “sensory tricks.” A key term for this is “geste antagoniste,” which is French for “antagonistic gesture.” An antagonistic gesture can cause dystonia symptoms to get better temporarily, though experts don’t know exactly why this happens. An example of an antagonistic gesture is touching your chin or the side of your face to help relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia (which affects muscles in your head and neck). Your healthcare provider can help find if you respond to these gestures and teach you how to use them.
  • Take your medication. If you take medication for dystonia, take your medication as prescribed. Suddenly stopping your medication can worsen dystonia symptoms or cause other side effects.

When should I see my healthcare provider, and when should I seek care?

If you have dystonia, you should see your healthcare provider for follow-up visits as recommended. You should also see them if your symptoms change or worsen, especially if the changes disrupt your life and routine. Also see them if medications or other treatments lose effectiveness or cause side effects that are difficult to deal with or disruptive.

When should I go to ER?

You should go to the ER if you have any symptoms that could also happen with a stroke. To know when you need to call 911 (or your local emergency services number) because of stroke symptoms, remember to think FAST.

  • F is for face. Does one or both sides of the person's face droop when they try to smile?
  • A is for arm. Does one arm sag downward when the person tries to raise their arms upward?
  • S is for speech. Can the person speak clearly and understand others talking to them?
  • T is for time. Call 911 or your local emergency services number IMMEDIATELY if a person has the above symptoms. Stroke is a time-critical condition, and fast treatment is the best way to increase the chances of having a good outcome and recovery.

Frequently Asked Questions

What does dystonia feel like?

What dystonia feels like depends on what’s causing it, where it happens in your body, how severe it is and more. Dystonia can vary greatly from person to person, and what one person experiences with the same type of dystonia could be wildly different from what another person experiences.

For some people, dystonia causes minor symptoms, and the muscle movements feel like light fluttering or twitching. For others, the muscle movements are sharper, faster and may be uncomfortable or painful. Some types of dystonia cause muscle movements that feel like electric shocks.

What is the life expectancy of someone with dystonia?

The life expectancy with dystonia depends strongly on why it happens, if it happens in connection with any other conditions, your health history, the treatments you receive and more. Your healthcare provider is the best person to tell you more about whether or not dystonia affects your life expectancy and, if yes, how it will do so.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Dystonia is a brain condition that causes faulty signals to your muscles, which makes those muscles move uncontrollably. This condition can happen for many reasons, ranging from lifelong inherited conditions to short-term illnesses. The severity of the symptoms and how widespread the effects are in your body can make this condition a minor inconvenience, or they can be severely disruptive and keep you from doing certain things.

While it isn’t curable, dystonia is often treatable, especially with certain causes. In some cases, dystonia may go away entirely when it happens with short-term or curable conditions.

GABA (GABA) what it is, how it works and what are the benefits


➦ What is gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

➦ How does GABA work?

➦ What are the benefits of GABA?

➦ GABA for athletes

➦ Gamma aminobutyric acid deficiency symptoms

➦ How to increase the level of Gamma?

➦ What is gamma-aminobutyric acid?

➦ The most popular GABA supplements in Phytomarket

➦ GABA in food products

➦ Gaba tea as a source of acid

➦ How to take a GABA supplement

➦ Side effects of GABA

➦ Frequently asked questions answered

Gamma-aminobutyric acid preparations are becoming increasingly popular among natural remedies with anti-stress properties. They are able to eliminate anxiety and improve sleep, they are also in demand in sports practice to enhance the growth of muscle mass. Learn about the benefits of this substance for the body and how it can be used in everyday life. nine0003

What is gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (chemical formula C4H9NO2) or GABA is an organic substance that is synthesized by the body and is present in all areas of the brain. It is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, that is, it slows down the transmission of nerve impulses, and competes with glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter, affecting approximately 30-40% of synaptic connections. In nature, this substance is present in some plants, such as valerian or green tea. nine0003

Neurotransmitters influence our thoughts, feelings, sensations. An imbalance between the main neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, GABA and acetylcholine) can manifest itself in various psychological disorders.

The main task of GABA is to block unnecessary information flows to create parity between the processes of excitation and inhibition in our brain, providing functions such as attention, motor and emotional control.

Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors are found in high concentration in the cerebellum, thalamus and spinal cord. Moreover, recent studies have shown that GABA molecules are also present in the walls of the uterus, spermatozoa, retina, lungs and respiratory tract, as well as in the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. nine0003

A bit of history

The presence of GABA in the brain became known in 1950, when the American scientist Eugene Roberts, while studying free amino acids, came across a compound whose migration on paper chromatograms did not correspond to any compound containing known amino acids. He drew attention to the presence of this substance in various tissues of the central nervous system: the brain, cerebellum and spinal cord of vertebrates and suggested a direct or indirect connection with the conduction of nerve signals. 7 years later, researchers in Canada reported that the unknown compound with neuronal inhibitory activity was GABA. A number of subsequent discoveries have determined its role in our brain. nine0003

How does GABA work?

GABA is an amino acid that occurs as a result of processes occurring in different cells and, above all, in nerve cells. The "chemistry" of the brain is such that the main brake for the mediator - gamma-aminobutyric acid is a product of the main excitatory neurotransmitter - glutamate, which produces it under the action of the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), and vitamin B6 acts as a cofactor. It all happens in a part of the brain called the hippocampus. Maintaining a balance between these two neurotransmitters is a key condition for physical and mental health, as well as good mood. A low level of GABA leads to the development of anxiety, depression, impairs concentration, attention, and some cognitive functions. nine0003

To understand the role of GABA, it is important to know how it interacts with its receptor. When GABA binds to the GABA receptor, the latter changes shape slightly, allowing ions to pass through its central channel. This leads to a decrease in the excitability of the neuron, which is why GABA is called an inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Getting into the brain from food, supplements or drugs, GABA becomes not just an additional inhibitory neurotransmitter, but also food for neurons, as it is captured by mitochondria. In neurons, it performs two tasks: about 1% of the substance works as a neurotransmitter, and 99% provides energy exchange in mitochondria during ATP synthesis and glucose breakdown. This substance stimulates metabolism, saturates the brain with oxygen and improves blood circulation throughout the body.

What are the benefits of GABA?

The main function of gamma-aminobutyric acid is to reduce the neural activity of the neurons to which it attaches. It prevents long-term activation of neurons and also plays a neurotrophic role by promoting the growth of certain neurons. nine0003

The main functions of the GABA:

  • Regulation by motor activity
  • Providing memory processes and thinking
  • Anti -icing effect
  • Activation of energy processes
  • acceleration exchange.

The inhibitory effects of GABA serve to counteract the excitatory (activator) effects of glutamate. Indeed, when the brain is overexcited, it can contribute to feelings of restlessness, irritability, and even insomnia. Taking GABA helps to correct the imbalance associated with anxiety, has a relaxing and sedative effect. It is also associated with better sleep quality, allowing you to switch off, helping you fall asleep faster. nine0003

GABA plays a stabilizing role on a mental and physical level, helping to restore balance and maintain normal mood. This substance is involved in certain stages of memory and can be used to relax, control fear or anxiety, which manifests itself in overexcitation.

GABA has been scientifically proven to significantly stimulate growth hormone (HGH = Human Growth Hormone) secretion during the early stages of deep sleep. Growth hormone is one of the muscle growth hormones in the human body. It helps to reduce body fat and stimulates muscle growth. GABA acts on certain chains of neurons that stimulate the hypothalamus so that more growth hormones are released. This ability is highly valued by athletes. nine0003

Based on GABA, nootropics are produced - drugs that improve the higher functions of the human brain. They are widely used in the treatment of strokes, brain injuries, age-related changes, when the performance of the brain is significantly reduced. The advantages of nootropics over other drugs that affect synaptic activity are that they do not cause addiction and dependence, unlike psychomotor stimulants and antipsychotics. And because GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, it is widely used in the treatment of epilepsy. nine0003

Thus, tableted gamma-aminobutyric acid contributes to the overall strengthening of the nervous system, in particular, such brain functions as thinking, perception and attention.

GABA receptors are located, among other things, in the hypothalamus, which controls circadian rhythms and is directly related to sleep. Many insomnia medications, as well as their herbal counterparts, raise GABA levels, thereby improving the quality of sleep.

What are the benefits of GABA? nine0033

Thanks to numerous studies, today GABA is officially recognized as an effective cytoprotective antihypoxant and antioxidant for various organs and systems. She is credited with antitumor and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as the ability to positively influence the functioning of the immune system.

The effect of GABA on sleep is especially noticeable. Under its influence, mental excitation decreases, the energy processes of the brain are activated, the respiratory activity of tissues and glucose utilization improve, which leads to high-quality deep sleep. nine0097

Gaba action on the body:

  • Helps to calm and relax
  • controls “panic” states associated with anxiety
  • reduces muscle tone
  • reduces
  • .
  • normalizes blood pressure
  • helps control anxiety
  • promotes quality sleep
  • reduces blood sugar levels
  • improves overall immunity
  • accelerates the recovery process after injuries
  • improves sexual activity

GABA preparations are used to treat mental retardation, cerebral palsy, post-stroke conditions, and also restore brain function after injuries. Taking GABA supplements is appropriate for high mental, physical and psychological stress. They help to normalize the work of the brain, cope with stress. nine0003

GABA for athletes

Many professional athletes today recognize the benefits of GABA for athletic performance. The advantage of sports nutrition based on it is high efficiency in the absence of a hormonal component. Acting on the anterior pituitary gland of the brain, GABA stimulates the production of growth hormone, which increases the growth of muscle tissue and reduces the percentage of body fat. This is especially important for bodybuilders and athletes. nine0003

The advantages of a margin for athletes:

➦ Increases the growth of the growth hormone by 4-6 times, being a safe alternative to steroids

➦ stimulates the production of somatotropin even after training

➦ participates in the process of fat burning, contributing to a faster

➦ helps to quickly achieve a beautiful relief body

➦ normalizes the functioning of the nervous system

➦ eliminates insomnia, improves sleep

➦ accelerates recovery after injuries: dislocations and sprains.

GABA supplements are consistently in high demand among professional athletes and amateurs, which is the best confirmation of their high effectiveness. Single negative reviews are associated with the incorrect use of drugs with GAB or a violation of the training process.

It is important to remember that all dietary and sports supplements are taken in a certain dosage, courses, after consultation with a doctor.

nine0032 Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) deficiency symptoms

GABA is synthesized naturally by the body. When its level in the body is sufficient, we experience peace and well-being. With a deficiency of GABA, there is an imbalance between the processes of excitation and inhibition, which leads to disturbances in the functioning of the nervous system: from increased anxiety and irritability to insomnia. Low levels of this neurotransmitter cause difficulty falling asleep despite being tired, as well as restlessness, recurring muscle or neuropathic pain, and a tendency to be irritable. In children, this manifests itself in the form of hyperactivity, attention deficit disorder, problems with perseverance and attention. nine0003

Here are some of the symptoms indicating a marriage deficiency:

✔ Nervousness and inability to concentrate

✔ periodically occurring tremor

✔ Frequent difficulties with breathing

✔ Strong sweating

✔ Fatigue even after a good night dream

✔ mood swings

✔ mental confusion

The most severe case, which is associated with a lack of  γ-aminobutyric acid, is epilepsy. This neurological disease is caused by the fact that as a result of malformations or brain tumors, a huge wave of excitation periodically occurs in some of its areas (most often in the local area), which leads to an epileptic seizure. Using preparations containing GABA, it is possible to enhance the work of the GABA system by suppressing the activity of the excitatory neurotransmitter. nine0003

Deficiency cases for which GABA is recommended:

✔ Trouble falling asleep due to nervousness and anxiety

✔ Inability to relax

✔ Constant feeling of physical tension

✔ Mood and behavior disorder

How to increase the level of Gamk?

In a healthy body with a balanced diet and a proper lifestyle, the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid is regulated independently, but bad habits, stress and certain diseases can provoke its deficiency. GABA is naturally present in plants, but it is primarily synthesized endogenously by our bodies from glutamic acid. nine0003

Restore the GABA balance in the body will help the consumption of food or special supplements containing gamma-aminobutyric acid, as well as glutamine, since GABA is its derivative. This substance is found in animal proteins: eggs, white meat, legumes such as lentils or chickpeas, leafy vegetables such as spinach and parsley. And to turn it into GABA, it is important to take supplements with vitamin B6 and magnesium.

Some plant extracts may also interfere with GABA production. For example, lemon balm is a transaminase inhibitor, and consuming it increases GABA levels in the brain, as it will be less degraded. GABA stimulants include: inositol, glutamic acid, melatonin (at night), thiamine (vitamin B1), niacinamide (vitamin B3), pyridoxine, valerian, passionflower 200–1000 mg. nine0003

Connection name

What does it contain

Inositol, a sugar normally synthesized by the body

fruits, vegetables, legumes, seeds, oilseeds

Branched-chain amino acids (leucine) nine0003

turkey meat, spirulina, beans, pistachios, whey


nuts of all kinds, seeds, lentils, rye, eggs, chicken


peanuts, mushrooms, soybeans, lupins, parmesan, all kinds of seeds



pumpkin seeds and peanuts

Coenzyme Q10

spinach, broccoli and cauliflower



vitamin C

Brussels sprouts, bell peppers and citrus fruits

All B vitamins, including B6.

nuts (especially walnuts), tomatoes, potatoes, cabbage, cereals, citrus fruits, berries

The following measures will help to stimulate the production of GABA:

+ good rest

+ breathing techniques to reduce stress

+ meditation practices

+ physical activity

What is GABA?

GABA is found naturally in foods such as chestnuts, potatoes, rice, astragalus, fresh leaves of selected teas from which natural GABA extracts are obtained.

It is also found in medications and supplements for anxiety, anxiety, blood pressure and sleep, and sports nutrition for athletes and bodybuilders. nine0003

Studies have shown that with long-term use of products and preparations with gamma-aminobutyric acid, it is possible to raise its level in the body to the optimum.

The most popular GABA supplements in Phytomarket

More items in Vitamins for the nervous system!

GABA in food

Foods rich in gamma-aminobutyric acid include:


16 to 35 mg


Quantitative content of GABA per 100 g

Gaba tea

150-400 mg

Tomatoes (depending on variety), sauerkraut, fermented soybeans


to 63 mg

Germinated rice, especially anoxic fermented in nitrogen

25. 9 mg


20 mg



23 mg


13 mg


11 mg


11.5 mg


10 mg

Shiitake mushrooms

8 mg

Green soybeans


6 mg


4 to 8 mg

Based on this table, we can conclude that the most complete natural source of GABA is Gaba tea.

Gaba tea as a source of acid

Gaba Tea is a unique product produced in the north of Taiwan. Now he is at the peak of popularity. Due to its richness in GABA molecules, it has a large list of benefits for human health. Among them: support for memory, relaxation, fighting stress and depression, building muscle mass and delaying aging. Studies have shown that regular consumption of Gaba tea helps reduce blood pressure, boost immunity, and improve sexual function. nine0003

Gaba is not a type of tea, but a special oxygen-free fermentation technology that releases gamma-aminobutyric acid. The origins of this unusual drink are the Japanese. In the late 1980s, a team at the National Tea Experiment Station, led by Dr. Tsushima Tojiro, experimentally determined that fresh tea leaves release large amounts of GABA during fermentation in the absence of oxygen.

It is believed that unlike synthetic GABA, which hardly crosses the protective blood-brain barrier to access the brain, the gamma-aminobutyric acid contained in the natural tea leaf is absorbed much better. nine0003

Today, Taiwan is the world's largest producer and supplier of Gaba tea. The delicious taste, as well as the extraordinary health benefits, have earned Taiwanese Gaba tea a prominent place in catalogs of exceptional teas.

How much Gamma in tea?

The largest plant source of GABA is the Taiwanese version of Oolong tea. 100 g of the product contains 150-400 mg of gamma-aminobutyric acid.

How is Gaba tea made?

High quality fresh leaves are used in the production, which are placed under vacuum in sealed bags and kept at a temperature of at least 40 ˚C for about 8 hours. Then they are taken out into the air and shaken thoroughly for several minutes. This cycle is repeated 5 times with slight variations in air exposure time between vacuum steps. This anaerobic reaction develops the natural potential of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the leaves, and also provides a rich fruity taste of tea: baked apple with hints of cinnamon and nutmeg. nine0003

How to brew Gaba tea?

To make Gaba tea not only healthy, but also tasty, you need to brew it properly.

Proceed as follows :

  1. Boil water
  2. Preheat the kettle with hot water
  3. Put 7 grams of tea (approximately 1.5-2 tablespoons), fill with hot water and immediately drain (rinsing tea) 906 6 again and wait about 10 seconds
  4. Repeat the previous step several times, increasing the steeping time by 10-20 seconds. nine0064

How to take for sleep?

As a remedy for insomnia, Gaba tea is best consumed at least 2-3 hours before bedtime.

How to take GABA supplement

The positive effect of GABA intake is observed when taking at least 2g / day after about a week. It is recommended to start with 0.5 g - 1 g per day, gradually increasing the dose to 4 g. Small doses of the supplement do not work, since only a small part of the substance penetrates the brain. nine0003

It is best to take a GABA supplement before bed or after a workout on an empty stomach with water or juice, but not in the morning, as this may affect performance. The course is at least 1 month. A break while taking GABA is not regulated.

It is desirable to combine the use of GABA with the intake of vitamin B6. In case of its shortage, sleep disturbance, nervousness and other unpleasant symptoms may occur. In addition to B6, GABA can be taken along with 5-HTP, as well as magnesium and zinc, which are responsible for activating GABA receptors. nine0003

Side effects of GABA

GABA has very few side effects. In very rare cases, tingling on the skin may be felt, even less often: nausea, vomiting, insomnia, fluctuations in blood pressure (during the first days of treatment), dyspepsia, hyperthermia, a feeling of heat. Such side effects may be associated with individual intolerance.

On the other hand, the simultaneous use of GABA and anxiolytics may be associated with an increased risk of sedation, so it is important to consult a doctor in advance. nine0003

Overdose of drugs that inhibit GABA reuptake can cause an excess of GABA, which is manifested by neurological and psychiatric symptoms: memory loss, convulsions, hallucinations and cognitive impairment.

Contraindications to the use of GABA drugs are hypersensitivity, children under 1 year of age, acute renal failure, pregnancy and lactation.

Answers to popular questions:

nine0042 When is the best time to drink GABA?

Best GABA supplement to take before bed or after workout

How much GABA to take?

It is recommended to start with 0.5 g - 1 g per day, gradually increasing the dose to 4 g. For a noticeable effect, take the supplement for at least 1 month. Break while taking GABA is not regulated

Where are GABA receptors located?

Neurons carrying receptors for GABA molecules can be found in almost any area of ​​the brain.

How long will it take to see a noticeable result? nine0043

Noticeable improvement can be seen as early as a week after taking a GABA supplement.

Brewer's yeast: real benefit or harm? Isotonic for athletes and not only. Everything you need to know about drink

Participation of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the negative feedback mechanisms of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular complex | Naumenko


The role of y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its receptors in the regulation of negative feedback mechanisms of the integral hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal complex in sham-operated and unilaterally castrated Wistar rats was studied. An increase in GABA in the body under the action of aminoacetic acid, an inhibitor of GABA transaminase, was associated with the suppression of a compensatory increase in peripheral blood testosterone levels after its two- or three-fold decrease caused by castration, while a decrease in the content of GABA with thiosemicarbazite, an inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase, was accompanied by more intense compensatory increase in testosterone levels. All GABA receptors are involved in its action. Stimulation of GABA-A receptors by muscimol suppressed, and their blocking by bicuculline increased the compensatory increase in testosterone levels after hemicasteration. At the same time, stimulation of GABA-B receptors by baclofen was accompanied by a more intense compensatory increase in blood testosterone levels. The authors conclude that GABAergic systems contribute to the regulation of the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal complex as a negative feedback mechanism. nine-rluntsgo hormone (LH). However, her role in this! process is not entirely clear, since. According to different authors, GABA has both inhibitory and activating effects on LH release [3, 12].

Even less is known about the role of GABA and its receptors in the regulation of LH secretion by a negative feedback mechanism, the study of which is carried out on bilaterally castrated rats [3]. However, this model makes it possible to study only a separate link in this mechanism that regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular complex (HHSC). As for the study of the neurochemical regulation of the integral system of negative feedback -

The research described in this paper was partly supported by grant no. RAJ 000 from the International Science Foundation. zi, then for this purpose it is more adequate to use unilaterally castrated rats. In such animals, compensation for androgen deficiency is due to negative feedback stimulation, and not to the administration of exogenous steroids. In addition, the level of testosterone in the peripheral blood more adequately reflects the state of this mechanism than the level of gonadotropins [7]. However, the role of GABA and its receptors in the regulation of the integral negative feedback mechanism of HHSC, as far as we know, has not been studied at all. This was the aim of the present work. nine0003

Materials and methods

'Sham-operated and unilaterally castrated 3-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 200-220 g were used in the experiments. restrictions.

Rats were operated on under Nembutal anesthesia (35 mg per 1 kg of body weight), the left testicle was removed, and decapitated at various times after administration of drugs or an appropriate amount of saline. In sham-operated animals, only an incision (1 cm long) of the scrotum was made and a suture was applied. nine0003

To increase the level of GABA in the body, an inhibitor of α-ket-otlutarate-GABA-gransamdnase, aminooxyacetic acid (LOUK, Sigma) was used at a dose of 20 mg per

  • kg of animal body weight. glutamate decarboxylase inhibitor thiosemicarbazite (TSK, Sigma) at a dose of 5 mg/kg. company “Sigma”) at a dose of 5 mg/kg. after hecastration and not affecting the condition and behavior of animals, were selected in preliminary experiments.The drugs were dissolved in physiological saline and administered intraperitoneally during the greatest decrease in the level of testosterone in the peripheral blood caused by the removal of the testis. Control animals were injected with similar volumes of saline under the same conditions. nine0064

Testosterone in peripheral blood plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay using highly specific antiserum and 3 H-testosterone (Amersham). Statistical processing of the results was carried out using Studentent's /-criterion, taking into account the heterogeneity of dispersions in the studied groups.

Results and discussion

The study of the involvement of GABA and its receptors in the negative feedback mechanisms of HHSC presents certain difficulties. They are due to the fact that seasonal factors and seasonal rhythms affect not only the initial level of testosterone in the blood of intact animals, but also its dynamics after unilateral castration [1]. In the summer, when the main studies were carried out, the testosterone content in the blood is much higher than in winter, and the compensation for the reduced testosterone level in the blood as a result of the removal of the testis occurs much faster. However, even within one season, one can observe differences in the rate of decrease in blood testosterone levels after hecastration, which leads to the need for additional control experiments. nine0003

In our experiments conducted in July, the testosterone level, which decreased by more than 3 times 24 hours after unilateral castration, significantly increased to the initial level 48 hours after the operation. An increase in the level of GABA in the body as a result of the introduction of AOUK at the peak of the decrease in the content of the male sex hormone in the blood clearly inhibited its compensatory increase (Table 1).

Opposite results were obtained against the background of reduced GABA content in the body. It turned out that the decrease in its concentration after the administration of TSC is accompanied by a significant increase in the compensatory increase in the level of testosterone in the blood, which, 48 hours after hemocastration, exceeded more than

  • times the original level. Repeated experiments in August gave similar results: a decrease in the level of GABA against the background of a decrease in the content of the male sex hormone in the blood 12 hours after the operation was accompanied by an increase in the compensatory rise in the level of testosterone in the peripheral blood in 24 hours compared to its level in control animals (see Table 1). 1).

Table 1

Effect of changes in the body's GABA content on the compensatory increase in blood testosterone levels after unilateral castration


0.80 ± 0.17

Drug, dose

Time after castration, h

Testosterone level, ng/ml (M + m)

Number of animals




1.25 ± 0.28





0.34 ± 0.02


< 0.01*



1.33 ± 0.29


AOUK, 20 mg/kg


0.59 + 0.12


nine0002 < 0. 05**

TSC, 5 mg/kg


3.18 ± 0.32


< 0.001**



1.36 ± 0.18





< 0.05*



1.12 ± 0.17


TSC, 5 mg/kg -


2.27 + 0.50


< 0.05**

Here and in Table. 2 and 3: one asterisk compared to 0 h, two asterisks compared to control at the same time.

Table 2

Effect of GABAergic receptor stimulation on compensatory increase in blood testosterone levels after unilateral castration


Drug, dose

Time after castration. h

Testosterone level, ng/ml (M ± t)


Number of animals




1.04 + 0.28




0.38 ± 0.08


< 0.05*




1.27 ± 0.28


Muscimol 7 mcg/kg


0.63 ± 0.09


< 0.05**



1.25 + 0.29




0.34 ± 0.02


< 0. 01**



1.33 ± 0.29


Baclofen. 5 mg/kg


2.49+ 0.37


< 0.05**

Table 3

Influence of blockade of GABAd receptors on compensatory increase in blood testosterone levels after unilateral castration in winter (A) and summer (B) seasons goal

Drug, dose

Time after castration, h

Testosterone level, ng/ml (M ± t)


Number of animals


A. Control


0.63 ±0.11




0. 29 ± 0.07


< 0.05*




0.48 ± 0.06



1.8 mg/kg


0.87 ± 0.16


< 0.05**

B. Control


0.95 + 0.22




0.26 ± 0.07


< 0.02*

Kosh roll


1.01 ± 0.11



1.8 mg/kg


1.58 ± 0.20


< 0. 05**

Thus, GABA has a clear inhibitory effect on the negative feedback mechanism that regulates the function of HHSC. The question arose about the role of GABAergic receptors in this process. To clarify it, hemicasterized rats were injected with drugs that activate GABA receptors.

The administration of muscimol, which excites GABA receptors, was accompanied by a delay in the compensatory increase in blood testosterone levels compared with control animals, and this effect was already observed after administration of a negligible (7 μg/kg) dose of this drug (Table 2). nine0003

An opposite effect was found after administration of the specific GABA-receptor blocker bicuculline. The increase in testosterone levels after its decrease in the blood, caused by unilateral castration, increased significantly. Such results were obtained both in winter and summer seasons (Table 3).

Unlike excitation of GABAd receptors, activation of B-type receptors by baclofen was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the compensatory increase in blood testosterone levels (see Table 2). nine0003

Thus, GABA receptors affect the negative feedback mechanism that regulates the function of HHSC, however, the nature of the action of different types of receptors is opposite: while excitation of GABA receptors is accompanied by inhibition, excitation of GABA B receptors leads to an increase in compensatory increase the level of testosterone in the peripheral blood after its decrease caused by unilateral castration.

Since the drugs were administered intraperitoneally in this work, and all of them pass the blood-brain barrier well, no definite conclusion can be made about the localization of GABAergic receptors associated with the regulation of HHSC. In addition to the fact that GABA is considered as an inhibitory mediator in the central nervous system, it has been shown that GABA also plays the role of a neurotransmitter in the peripheral nervous system [6]. In addition, the direct effect of GABA on the gonads cannot be ruled out, since GABA is found in the gonads, and a high density of its receptors is found on the membranes of the gonad cells [4, 11]. Moreover, relatively recently it was found that GABA is able to regulate the production of androgens in the testes of rats [10]. Therefore, only special experiments, in which the effect of excitation of GABAergic mechanisms of the brain and the periphery will be differentiated, will help to elucidate the relative role of GABA receptors located in the central and peripheral nervous system in the regulation of HHSC function by the negative feedback mechanism. nine0003


  1. An increase in GABA content in the body is accompanied by inhibition, and its decrease is accompanied by an increase in the compensatory increase in the level of testosterone in the peripheral blood after unilateral castration.
  2. Excitation of GABA receptors leads to inhibition, and excitation of GABA D) receptors leads to an increase in the compensatory increase in the level of testosterone in the peripheral blood after its decrease caused by hemicasteration.
  3. GABAergic mechanisms are able to take part in the regulation of HHSC function by a negative feedback mechanism. nine0064

1. Naumenko E. V., Osadchuk A. V., Serova L. I., Shishkina G. T. Genetic and physiological mechanisms of regulation of testicular functions. - Novosibirsk. 1983.

2. Anderson R. A., Mitchell R. // J. Endocr. - 1986. - Vol. 108. R. 1-8.

3. Donoso A. O. // Neuroendocrinology. - 1988. - Vol. 48. - R. 130-137.

4. Erdo S. L., Laslo A. // J. Neurochem. - 1984. - Vol. 42. - P. 1464-1467.

5. Hany, M.. Simler S. Ciesielski L. et. al. // Physiol, and Behav. nineteen84.-Vol. 32. - P. 767-770.

6. Janssen K. R., Mirsky R., Dennison M. E., Burstock G. // Nature. - 1979. - Vol. 281. - P. 71-74.

7. Naumenko E. V.. Shishkina G. T. // Neuroendocrinologv. 1978. Vol. 26. - P. 359-366.

8. Naumenko E. V.. Serova L. I. // Pharmacol. Biochem. behavior. 1991. Vol. 4. - P. 287-290.

9. Racagni G., Apud J.

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