Dogmatic personality disorder
Dogmatism and Happiness - PMC
Iran J Public Health. 2017 Mar; 46(3): 326–332.
,1,*,2 and 3,4
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Happiness is a drive and constructive force of life. A person feels wellbeing under different effective factors. Religious dogmatism that has an influence on the entire world is one of the depreciatory factors of happiness or wellbeing. The current study decided to analyze the relation between dogmatism and wellbeing, and according to a model, answer the following question: how does religious dogmatism decrease wellbeing?
This study is a correlation research. Population of study includes all people with 30–50 yr old who live in Tehran, Iran, in 2015. Among all, 180 subjects were selected as in access sample. The Oxford happiness questionnaire and Rokeach dogmatism scale were used. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation test.
There is a significant negative correlation between dogmatism and happiness (α=0.05).
Dogmatism is one of the factors that have a negative effect on wellbeing. Religious dogmatism is the most dangerous factor against wellbeing. Dogmatic individuals have an inflexible cognitive system that emerges as a stable personality trait and decreases their adjustment with environment. Affective well-being and cognitive wellbeing are affected by individual adjustment. Therefore, in dogmatic individuals with low adjustment, the decrease of affective well-being and cognitive wellbeing is inevitable. This process will result in decrease of happiness and increase of aggression.
Keywords: Subjective wellbeing, Happiness, Dogmatism
Happiness is the fundamental factor in mental health. Achieving happiness was the earliest wishes of human being. Happiness points out to short-term effects and feelings and long-term well-being (1). In one point, happiness (regarded as subjective wellbeing in this article) is called as a heritable mood. In another point, happiness is seen as emotion and others see the happiness as cognitive evaluation. Therefore, it seems as a complex and controversial content. It includes positive emotions like; life satisfaction, optimism, sense of humor, forgiveness, tipsiness and so on. Philosophers and scientists describe several characteristics as critical criteria of pleasant life. They use several terms for happiness: eudemonia and virtues life, wellbeing, utopia, pleasant, high level of positive emotions, life satisfaction and so on.
Since appearance of positive psychology, happiness is studied as a major subject in scientific studies (2). The term “happiness” has many definitions. Each definition refers to a specific theory. Generally, all definitions divided into 4 categories: emotional-affective, cognitive, attitude and combined (3). The most common definition presented by Veenhoven; general judgment of a person about his/her quality of life as a whole (4).
Although there is no common construction for wellbeing, the similar basis can be traced in different cultures. Wellbeing consists of two factors: cognitive factors (life satisfaction) and emotional factors (hedonic level) (5).
The important thing about wellbeing is its underlying factors. Which factors do increase happiness or subjective well-being? Positive psychology’s researchers study various aspects of happiness and describe several indicating factors for happiness. A group of researchers believe that happiness results from genetic and heredity factors (6), another group believe that happiness results from earning high income (success in economic and job) (5), others believe that being able to live leads to happiness. Happiness is not the result of one or two factors; it is a combination of factors in a special way leading to happiness (5).
As a whole, indicating factors of happiness are divided into two groups: endogenic factors (genetic and biologic, cognitive, personality and ethical factors) and exogenic factors (behavioral, social, cultural, demographic, life event, geographic, political and economic factors) (2, 5).
Initial studies of wellbeing and happiness were focused more on exogenic (environmental) factors. Exogenic factors like; health, income, marriage, life events and so on, explain a little part of happiness. Studies conclude that since happiness is stable in time and after a major life event, it returns to base situation, happiness has a great significant correlation with endogenic factors like; personality traits (7,8).
A personality trait considered in relation with subjective wellbeing is the dogmatism. Dogmatism is a cognitive construction altered to a personality trait. Dogmatism has a significant negative influence on wellbeing. There is a negative relation between dogmatism and wellbeing (9). Dogmatism is defined as avoidance from accepting others’ beliefs, ideas and behaviors. Dogmatic individuals have many problems in understanding new ideas. They cannot accept reasonable ideas instead of their incorrect ideas. They do not cooperate with others with different ideas. They prefer to work with people like themselves. This group committed to their ideas without considering other possibilities (10, 11).
Dogma is a Greek word that means individual believe or idea. Individuals with open mind in acceptance of new ideas are without dogmatism and individuals with close mind present as dogmatism (12). An important theory about dogmatism was that dogmatism pointed to a cognitive network (13). Based on that, dogmatism can be attended in two levels.
“The first level, the isolation between and within belief and disbelief systems, is characterized by little differentiation within the disbelief system, isolation of parts within and between belief and disbelief systems, and high rejection of disbelief system. The second level that of the subordination of the peripheral beliefs to the central region of beliefs is characterized by the dependence-submission in an authoritarian way of the peripheral parts of beliefs to what constitutes the central beliefs.”(12)
In dogmatic person, the change in central region of beliefs affects the peripheral beliefs. In return, peripheral beliefs have no effect on central region of beliefs (14).
In this theory, dogmatism had three definitions:
A relatively closed cognitive system from beliefs and unbelief toward the reality,
Organizing a fundamental belief about absolute power,
Providing a framework of dogmatism forms towards everything (15).
In current societies, there are various forms of dogmatism that it is a challenge for the world. Dogmatism was developed mainly in following forms: political, racial, ethnic, religious, and so on. Dogmatism as a personality trait decreases the accommodation and it has negative effects on wellbeing. Therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between dogmatism and wellbeing experimentally.
This study was an applicable research and data were analyzed by correlation procedure. Population of study includes all people (30–50 yr) that come from Tehran, Iran, in 2015. Among all, 180 people with mean age 48 yr selected as an in access sample.
Ethical issues were attended for both selecting sample and performing the research. Demographic characteristics are presented in .
Demographic characteristics of sample
|Bachelor of art||31||17|
|Master of art||28||16|
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For obtaining the data and assessing the variables, the following tools are used:
Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI) (7)
The OHI comprises 29 items, each involving the selection of one of four points (Likert scale) that are different for each item. The highest score on this scale is 87, which shows the highest point of happiness. Normal and mean range score on this scale is 40 to 42. Reliability of the OHI is 0.91 and internal correlation of items is about 0.04 to 0.67. In addition, reliability of the test in Iran by test-retest is 0.79.
Rokeach dogmatism Scale
The 66 items form of Rokeach dogmatism scale was used. It is a valid and reliable scale. Reliability of the scale was assessed by test-retest method (0.69) (16). It is localized by researchers in Iran. Based on the expert’s report, validity of the scale was suitable and reliability of the scale is obtained about 0. 71.
Data were analyzed by descriptive and referral statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient). Analysis of data was performed by SPSS-21 (Chicago, IL, USA).
Obtained data categorized in order and by using descriptive mathematics, mean and standard deviation is assessed for each variable. Mean and standard deviation of subjects in dogmatism (34.76, 11.75) and in happiness are (47.26, 15.22), respectively.
For assessing the relation between dogmatism level as an independent variable, with a dependent variable in research, Subjective well-being, the Pearson correlation coefficient is used ().
Correlation coefficient between dogmatism & Subjective wellbeing
|Dogmatism||Pearson correlation||1||−0. 644**|
|Sig. (2-tailed)||0. 000|
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**:Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Dogmatism has negative effects on wellbeing. High levels of dogmatism lead to low level of happiness. Findings are in line with other studies (17, 18). Dogmatism has negative relationship with sense of humor (19).
This relationship can be explained by presentation of forming dogmatic thinking. One of the critical periods of life is the adolescence. In this stage of life, an adolescence encounter with identification challenge. Theoretically, different forms of identity (individual, social, ethnical, racial) develop in this period (20). Totally, identity pointed to awareness of a person about her/himself as an independent, unique and a person with special place in society (21). Attention to identity in psychology refers to the works of Erikson (1968). He explained in his book as “Identity: Youth and Crisis” identity is a critical challenge for each person (20).
Puberty is named in Erikson’s theory as “identity vs. role confusion”. Identity means essentially, how a person sees her/himself in relation to her/his world. It is a sense of self or individuality in the context of life and what lies ahead. Erikson believed that social groups have a clear role in forming identity (22). Membership of extremist groups and projection with these groups is the base of forming dogmatic thinking.
Another theory that designated to identity is that adolescence faces with four-identity status: achievement identity, moratorium identity, foreclosure identity, diffusion identity ().
Kinds of identity (23)
|Position regarding career and ideology||Identity status|
Present but vague
|Crisis present or absent|
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Each status results from a special combination of “commitment” and “crisis” (24).
Adolescences with foreclosure identity and diffusion identity have more problems in adaptation with environment. Dogmatism will be developed in families with rigorous thinking; they are all under control of parents. A person with foreclosure identity is more intended to dogmatism and inflexibility (25). Therefore, these children develop their cognitive networks based on their families’ forces and insist on acquisition rules.
Maladjustment and inability to accommodate with peripheral environment resulted from close mind and inflexibility against life events (25). Dogmatic person is unable to modify his cognition with new and challengeable events. They do not have an alternative solution for solving problems. They change most of problems based on limited acquired rules (26). Therefore, when they encounter a problem, they will experience frustration, and then they will avoid this problem (27, 28). Inflexible thinking has negative effects on adaptation through two ways:
Dogmatic people are unable to accept and understand opposite ideas. Violence is the predictive behavior when they encounter with challengeable events.
For inflexible forms of thinking, dogmatic individuals are unable to find different solutions in challengeable events. In another hand, they do not have creative and divergent thinking. Therefore, they have clear problems in adaptation with environment (26).
There are two dimensions for wellbeing: affective wellbeing, cognitive wellbeing (29, 30). According to two dimensions of subjective well-being, affective wellbeing, and cognitive wellbeing, the role of adaptation on each dimension should be considered. Affective well-being includes emotions and temperaments (negative and positive). Emotional theories suppose that negative emotions stimulate avoidance tendencies and positive emotions stimulate exposure tendencies. In contrast, temperaments are more affected by behavior (31).
Therefore, emotions and temperaments are a constant and accessible control system toward reaching goals. This system may be activated by some internal factors, but it would be back to the basic condition since it should be adopted by long-term changes (31, 32). Then, adaptation is an important function for affective well-being and adaptation is a necessary factor for balance of all system (33).
Changes in cognitive wellbeing may be fewer acts automatically. Cognitive wellbeing reflects self-evaluation about life. Major life events (if they have significant effects on goals, family, and job) have measurable and constant effects on cognitive wellbeing (34). Life events have more constant effects on cognitive wellbeing than affective wellbeing. For example, negative events affect both cognitive well-being and effective well-being, but the rate of effects on cognitive wellbeing is significant (31).
Since dogmatism decreases adaptation, dogmatic and close-minded people are not able to solve challenges, and they are not able to return to balance position, then their cognitive well-being and effective well-being is in danger (30). This danger is more in cognitive wellbeing than affective wellbeing. Happiness will be significantly decreased when cognitive wellbeing is decreased. So, inability of dogmatic people in adaptation with peripheral environment has negative effects on satisfaction and, therefore, it decreases the well-being or happiness ().
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Impact of dogmatism on happiness
Dogmatism in social level has some consequences that it has negative effect on wellbeing. Dogmatism, especially religious dogmatism, associated with authoritarian, mythopoeia and individualism (35). Authoritarianism is an important factor for increasing immorality and bullying and results in social problems like poverty, gap, crime and destruction of natural resources. These social problems lead to decrease of wellbeing.
Dogmatism has various subtypes: religious, racism, ethnic dogmatism. Although membership of a group increases social happiness, racism, and ethnic dogmatism decrease happiness. In addition, spiritual tendencies increase happiness, but religious dogmatism decreases happiness.
While there are various thoughts, ideas and believes in our world, dogmatism of any form (especially religious dogmatism) results from foreclosure identity and it decreases the individual adaptation with environment. Since they cannot accept the opposite attitudes and ideas, then they show maladjustment and violent behaviors. In addition, because of inability in creative thinking and in providing alternative solutions, they are missing ability of adjustment. While the critical factor for reaching happiness is adaptation with environment. Finally, inability of dogmatic people in adaptation with peripheral environment has negative effects on well-being or happiness.
Ethical issues (Including plagiarism, informed consent, misconduct, data fabrication and/or falsification, double publication and/or submission, redundancy, etc.) have been completely observed by the authors.
This research was supported by Iranian Academy of Medical Sciences. We are thankful to our colleagues who provided expertise that greatly assisted the research. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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Three Simple Statements That Cure Dogmatism and Open Minds
Why do some people present themselves in conversation as rigid, inflexible, dogmatic, opinionated, overbearing, and unwilling to listen and learn?
Hardening of the Categories: a Semantic Disorder
One explanation is that they have a flawed concept of the need to be certain about everything – or almost everything. Somewhere in their development, they may have bought into the idea that all grown-up, capable, smart people know a lot – and that, even if you don’t know a lot, it’s important to make other people think you do. They feel it’s important to have a stand or take a stand on just about every contentious issue that arises. One must be decisive, not wishy-washy, they believe. You mustn’t let people push you around. You must have the courage of your convictions.
But they typically pay a high price for their dogmatism. Not only do they alienate many people, but they actually imprison their own egos inside their figurative fortress of conviction. Other people may react in various ways, from direct opposition and aggressive argument; to politely changing the subject; to falling silent and waiting patiently for someone else to change the subject; and even to avoiding further contact with Mr. or Ms. Always-Right.
Regarding the second aspect of the disorder, the self-inflicted ego trap, consider your own experience. Can you remember a time when you were declaring yourself forcefully in a conversation or an argument, and you suddenly realized that you were dead wrong – at the top of your voice? Perhaps someone politely offered a simple fact or a new piece of evidence that demolished the “position” you were preaching. How did you feel? Did you get a fleeting feeling you were like a rat trapped in a maze?
“How can I get out of this?” you might have been asking yourself. “If I admit I was wrong, I’ll look like a fool.” “But if I keep defending my position, I’ll just dig myself deeper, and I’ll look like a fool anyway.” At that moment, you might have felt like you just wanted to disappear.
Have we deprived ourselves of the right to be wrong?
Dogmatic people seem to get themselves into those kinds of situations repeatedly. Most of them seem to prefer the “fight it out” option – you try to fool, distract, confuse, or bully the others into agreeing with you, or at least ending the exchange politely and allowing you to retreat into ambiguity. Not only do they diminish themselves in the eyes of others, but – worse - they prevent themselves from learning and growing. The block their own adaptation.
The cure for this disorder is to let go of the need to be certain about everything, and the need to be “right” every time. Once you come to peace with the idea that your personal “truth” is not universal, and that other people have their own personal truths, you can immediately liberate yourself from the ego trap. And there’s a deceptively simple form of “semantic therapy” that works: change what you say, which causes you to change the way you think.
Three Semantic Mantras
For many, many years I’ve been teaching executives, managers, and professional people, in seminars all over the world, three simple statements that seem to have a magical effect on their success in dealing with others. Consisting of only 11 words in total, each of these three social mantras is a declaration of your right to be wrong. The three magic mantras are:
“I don’t know.”
“I made a mistake.”
“I've changed my mind.”
For the committed dogmatist, these statements amount to terrifying admissions of failure, inadequacy, and incompetence. But for the person who has thrown off the “always right” tyranny, they are remarkably powerful and liberating.
A suggestion: about a dozen times per day for the next five days, practice saying each of them aloud, in a simple, matter-of-fact tone of voice, while holding on to the feeling that you’re saying something perfectly reasonable, adult, and intelligent, and not subject to disapproval.
Start experimenting with these expressions in conversation as appropriate, and even add them for special effect on various occasions. Let's consider a few simple examples.
Someone asks, “Do the threads on the franostat match the threads on the cladiforus?” You reply, simply, “I don’t know.” (Maybe you add, “That’s a good question, let’s find out” or, “I haven’t tried it myself, so I’m not sure.”) You're not obligated to conjure up an answer just to "play smart."
Or, maybe someone asks, “Why did you approve that project before the survey was completed?” You reply – without defensive feelings - “That was a mistake on my part.” (You might add, “I overlooked that part of the plan” or, “What’s the best course of action now?”)
Or, someone might say, “I heard we’re not going to be doing Project X – is that true?” You reply, “I've changed my mind about project X – based on the new figures, I decided it wouldn’t be a wise use of our resources. ” (You might add, “I’ve re-thought that issue, and I’ve ‘re-decided’ it” – a sophisticated sounding management euphemism for changing your mind.) Maybe we should consider changing our minds as a cognitive skill, not a weakness.
These three semantic strategies are also cognitive and emotional strategies. They bypass the usual feelings of guilt, shame, inadequacy, or self-disapproval that we too often attach to our mistakes. Indeed, they might form the core of a personal bill of rights – paradoxically, the right to be wrong.
And, there's an extra benefit of adopting them: you can model them in your conversations with others, and to some extent you might influence them to begin adopting them as well. Maybe Mr. or Ms. Always-Right will venture out of the dogmatic fortress and begin sharing and listening, instead of always telling and selling. We can hope . . .
Language in Thought and Action. Hayakawa, S.I. New York: Harcourt 1949.
Language Habits in Human Affairs. Lee, Irving J. New York: Harper 1941.
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Dr. Karl Albrecht is an executive management consultant, coach, futurist, lecturer, and author of more than 20 books on professional achievement, organizational performance, and business strategy. He is listed as one of the Top 100 Thought Leaders in business on the topic of leadership.
He is a recognized expert on cognitive styles and the development of advanced thinking skills. His books Social Intelligence: The New Science of Success, Practical Intelligence: The Art and Science of Common Sense, and his Mindex Thinking Style Profile are used in business and education.
The Mensa society presented him with its lifetime achievement award, for significant contributions by a member to the understanding of intelligence.
Originally a physicist, and having served as a military intelligence officer and business executive, he now consults, lectures, and writes about whatever he thinks would be fun.
Personality disorder: treatment, symptoms, diagnosis
- Causes of personality disorder
- Symptoms of disease
- Principles of treatment
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Personality disorders are a fairly large group of mental illnesses with different symptoms and course. They are distinguished by a tendency to a chronic, recurrent course, the patient's unwillingness to see a doctor, the desire to hide any clinical manifestations of a personality disorder.
Specialists of the medical center "Dependence 24" will conduct a comprehensive examination, make an accurate diagnosis. The treatment prescribed by our doctors will allow you to get rid of the main symptoms of the disease.
Causes of personality disorders
The etiology of the disease has not yet been fully elucidated. In modern psychiatry, there are several different theories that explain the appearance of signs of the disease. These are:
- Genetic causes. The role of hereditary factors is great in schizotypal personality disorder. It is assumed that the pathogenetic mechanisms of the development of this form of the disease are similar to those in schizophrenia.
- Comorbid mental illness. It is believed that personality disorder is one of the symptoms of a number of mental illnesses. In some patients, the pathology progresses and more pronounced signs appear over time, while others remain in such a borderline state for years.
- Psychological experiences. The relationship of personality development with the characteristics of upbringing, relationships with parents paid great attention to such masters of psychiatry as Z. Freud, K. G. Jung, A. Adler. The essence of their theory boils down to the fact that experienced unrest, fears in childhood lead to serious mental disorders in adolescents and in adulthood. In such cases, the basis of treatment is psychotherapy.
- Social environment. It is assumed that certain subspecies of personality disorders are associated with the peculiarities of upbringing and the situation in the family as a whole. If a child considers antisocial behavior to be the norm, such attitudes persist as they grow older.
Symptoms of disease
The first manifestations of a personality disorder usually occur in adolescents, less often in childhood, but the symptoms are fully “revealed” closer to 20–25 years. Clinical manifestations of the disease cover all areas of psycho-emotional experiences, thinking, behavior in society. The patient is not capable of a flexible response to ongoing events, cannot fully perceive himself and others, build any relationship with them.
Typical depression, anxiety. But unlike neurosis or, for example, depression, the patient perceives everything that happens to him as something quite normal. A person does not consider himself ill, categorically refuses medical care, which significantly complicates treatment.
There are several main clinical varieties of the disease:
- Paranoid. Accompanied by pathological suspicion, tension, inability to relax, emotional rigidity. Often these symptoms are harbingers of schizophrenia.
- Schizoid. Complete self-absorption is characteristic, it is extremely difficult (and in principle it is not necessary) for people with such a diagnosis to establish social contacts, therefore they prefer work that does not involve intensive communication. They do not seek to communicate with relatives, they are indifferent to what is happening around. Schizoids cannot openly express their emotions and desires, they experience them inside. Such people are very lonely, extremely rarely start a family, and various sexual disorders are characteristic.
- Dissocial. The main symptom is an uncontrollable desire to get pleasure at any cost, but at the same time, a person avoids work, activities that require effort on his part with all his might. Falsity, resourcefulness, manipulations are typical (often - threats to commit suicide, complaints about deteriorating health). Adolescents suffering from this disease often run away from home. The patient looks quite healthy and satisfied with life, turns into a joke any talk about the need for treatment. But under the guise of external well-being lies tension, anxiety and irritability, which often becomes the cause of the development of alcoholism and drug addiction.
- Emotionally unstable. It is manifested by short-term sudden episodes of loss of self-control, which is expressed in unjustified aggression (during an attack, a person can break something, hit another). Subsequently, the patient regrets his behavior, asks for forgiveness, blames himself for what happened.
- Border. It is characterized by unstable self-esteem, a tendency to conflict, imbalance, irresponsibility. Demonstrative suicide attempts are possible (but there are clearly no serious intentions to commit suicide).
- Hysterical. Patients at any cost seek to attract attention to themselves through inappropriate behavior, simulation of serious illnesses. Indifference on the part of others causes outbursts of anger, accusations, irritability.
- Obsessive-compulsive. Accompanied by a pathological preoccupation with order, the desire for control, the desire to achieve perfection in the work performed. But at the same time, the paucity of the emotional sphere is also noted.
- Dissociative (multiple personality disorder). It is extremely rare. A person has the impression that several personalities "live" in him at once, which differ from each other in character, habits, demeanor, etc.
In the diagnostic examination of patients with personality disorders, various questionnaires and questionnaires are used, however, the diagnosis is complicated by the tendency of patients to distort the clinical picture, hide or vice versa, exaggerate individual symptoms.
The main criteria for the diagnosis of pathology are:
- Behavior and perception of the surrounding reality differs from those accepted in society. But at the same time, the peculiarities of religion, national culture, etc. are taken into account.
- Mental state leads to inadequate actions, incorrect awareness of reality.
- Identified mental disorders persist for a long time.
- No organic diseases. To do this, we give a referral for EEG, tomography, dopplerography of the brain, prescribe additional clinical tests, in some cases it is necessary to exclude the use of narcotic substances.
Principles of treatment
The doctors of our clinic warn that you should not expect a quick result. In some forms of pathology (for example, in multiple personality disorder), drug treatment plays a minor role. But if anxiety and anxiety are too pronounced, the patient may be prescribed anxiolytics, antipsychotics, and lithium-based drugs. With emotionally unstable, hysterical and borderline disorder, antidepressants, “mild” sedatives, have a good result. But because of the risk of side effects, they are prescribed only for a short time to stop signs of exacerbation.
In those situations where drugs can be dispensed with (as well as to enhance their effect), the specialists of the Addiction 24 medical center prefer individual or group psychotherapy. Psychotherapeutic treatment is aimed at:
- analysis of the patient's behavior;
- correction of relationships with other people;
- training in self-control, methods of correct way out of conflict situations;
- patients' awareness of their own emotional problems, etc.
If you have any questions about the methods of treatment, examination of patients with personality disorders, call us around the clock at 8 (495) 182-66-66. All our services are provided on a confidential basis. If necessary, a visit by a doctor to the house is possible.
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90% of addicts do not admit that they are sick
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Kazantsev Alexey Vladimirovich
Experience: 30 years
Head physician of the clinic, psychiatrist-narcologist of the highest category, psychotherapist
Portnov Alexander Sergeevich
Experience: 22 years
Brynzar Konstantin Sergeevich
Experience: 6 years
Gamaev Anton Evgenievich
Work experience 30 years
As a narcologist with many years of experience, I want to note the seriousness of the problem of beer alcoholism. The risk of developing dependence on beer is no less than on strong alcohol. With the systematic use of beer, the body adapts to the toxic effect and begins to require larger portions for pleasure. The disease develops gradually, so the addict himself does not notice the changes and does not consider himself an alcoholic. We know how to help you, how to cope with beer alcoholism. Therapy in our clinic is possible in a hospital or at home, with a guarantee of anonymity.
Aleksey Vladimirovich Kazantsev
Head physician of the clinic, psychiatrist-narcologist of the highest category, psychotherapist
Work experience 30 years
I want to address the relatives of patients undergoing treatment for alcoholism at home. Do not need self-activity. Trying to "strengthen" the therapeutic effect, family members often use folk remedies that allegedly relieve cravings for alcohol. The effectiveness of non-traditional methods is not confirmed by medical research. The safety of the interaction of decoctions and tinctures with medicines has not been proven. An incorrect combination can cause severe intoxication, confusion, and an allergic reaction. Outpatient treatment of alcoholism in our clinic does not need an imaginary reinforcement of folk recipes. We conduct patients according to a personal program, making every effort for a successful result.
Portnov Alexander Sergeevich
Experience 22 years
Based on professional experience, I believe that one of the reasons for the breakdown after coding is the patient's deliberately false consent. Agreeing under pressure from relatives, a person does not understand and does not accept his illness, and therefore sooner or later returns to his former way of life. To avoid relapse, the duration of the encoding must be used to motivate treatment. The main thing is to convince them to ask for help. We will help you deal with addiction. Our psychotherapy sessions will help you strengthen your sobriety mindset and get sincere consent to a full course of treatment for alcoholism.
Zhanna Viktorovna Makhobey
I would like to draw attention to the problem of female alcoholism. The weaker sex is more prone to psychological dependence on alcohol due to vegetative lability, emotional instability, and increased sensitivity to traumatic events. At the same time, it is more difficult for a woman to admit dependence and trust a doctor. Therefore, the problem requires a delicate approach to the solution. Patients of our clinic can count on understanding and support. We will keep treatment confidential from the employer, colleagues, friends and relatives.
Zdanovich Aleksey Anatolyevich
As a family psychologist, I want to remind you that alcoholism is not a problem of an individual, but of the whole family. Life with an alcoholic person turns into a nightmare for his loved ones. The illness of one family member leads to co-dependence of relatives, destroys fundamental family foundations and values. A chance to change the situation is given by family psychotherapy and family counseling. Comprehensive psychological assistance to families in our clinic is one of the leading areas of work. Our doctors have already helped thousands of people not only to get rid of alcoholism, but also to restore harmonious family relationships.
1. The meaning of the term "dogma". Dogmatic theology1. The meaning of the term "dogma". Dogmatic theology
(Kastalsky-Borozdin) Archimandrite Alipy
1. Meaning of the term "dogma"
The word "dogma" comes from the Greek verb ?????? - to think, to believe, to believe (the past form - ??????? - of this verb means: decided, put, determined). The ancient Greeks called dogma the philosophical positions accepted by the followers of any school as axioms. They were called already established, indisputable truths.
In the latter sense, the word "dogma" was used by ancient philosophers. Thus, in the works of Plato (“The State”), “dogmas” are rules and norms related to the concepts of fair and beautiful. Cicero calls "dogmas" indisputable philosophical propositions. Seneca's "dogmas" are the foundations of the moral law. Over time, this term began to be used to refer to government decisions. In this sense, we meet him in the Greek text of the Gospel of Luke (2, 1), where the command of Caesar Augustus to make a national census is called "dogma". But the Apostle Paul already uses the word "dogma" in relation to the law of God (Col. 2:14; Eph. 2:15). The concept of "dogma" came into use among Christian writers to designate the truths of revealed religion. True, initially this word denoted in general the entire Christian teaching - dogmatic and moral. Thus, the decrees of the Apostolic Council of the year 50 are called “dogmas”. In the Acts of the Holy Apostles, it is said that the Apostles Paul and Timothy “committed to the faithful to observe the decrees (in Greek - ?? ???????, i. e. “dogmas”), decreed by the Apostles and presbyters in Jerusalem” (Acts. 16:4). The same broad understanding of the term is found in St. Ignatius the God-bearer, Justin the Philosopher, Clement of Alexandria, Origen. Since the 4th century, the Eastern Fathers of the Church (for example, St. Cyril of Jerusalem, St. Gregory of Nyssa, St. John Chrysostom, Blessed Theodoret, etc.) began to call "dogmas" not all the truths contained in Revelation, but only those related to the field of faith. Thus, St. Gregory of Nyssa divides the content of his own teaching into “the moral part and into precise dogmas” . Over time, in the dogmatic systems of the East and West, this word began to denote, as a rule, only those doctrinal truths that were discussed at the Ecumenical Councils and received conciliar definitions or formulations.
Dogmas are divinely revealed truths containing the doctrine of God and His Dispensation, which the Church defines and professes as unchanging and indisputable provisions of the Orthodox faith. Characteristic features of dogmas are their dogma, revelation of God, ecclesiastical and obligatory nature.
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