Types of conures and their personalities
15 Types of Conure Parrots to Keep as Pets (With Pictures)
Conures are a large group of diverse birds that fall under the category of parrots. For parrots, they’re small to medium-sized, generally between 10 and 20 inches in length.
Many Conures are extremely loud, others are quiet and docile. They come in a variety of bright colors, spanning nearly every color of the rainbow. But it’s their loving and affectionate nature that makes them great pets.
But there are many different species of Conure to choose from if you’re looking for a new feathered friend. So, which ones make the best pets? Let’s take a look at 15 of the Conures that make the best companions.
The 15 Types of Pet Conure Parrots
1. Green-Cheeked ConureImage Credit: bluepaints, Pixabay
Green-Cheeked Conures have some of the shortest lifespans in the parrot world, expected to live just 15 years. They’re also pretty small, topping out around 10 inches in length.
But they make excellent pets due to their spunky nature. They’re lots of fun and full of energy, always looking for a way to entertain their family. These are some of the quieter Conures, so if you’re not looking for a screeching alarm clock or you live close to other people, then the Green-Cheeked Conure is a good choice.
2. Jenday ConureImage Credit: bluepaints, Pixabay
Brightly colored and beautiful, the Jenday Conure has distinct bands of color that run the length of its body. Red belly feathers are topped by orange and yellow heads with bright red ringing the eyes. Green wings and blue tail feathers complete the rainbow, making them one of the most ornamental birds you could keep.
These are affectionate and playful Conures that want lots of attention. In fact, they’ll be very demanding about your time, and they’ll make sure their displeasure is heard! They’re also quick learners, so you can easily train your Jenday Conure.
3. Sun ConureImage Credit: Gary Chambers, Pixabay
This bird is a sight to behold. They’re a bright rainbow of feathers, with hues of red, green, yellow, and orange all coalescing on each other. On average, they’re roughly 12 inches long and can be expected to live 25-30 years. They’re very social, constantly looking for more social interaction.
Your Sun Conure can even learn to perform tricks. They’re excellent guards as well, releasing a piercing scream to alert you whenever someone is at the door.
4. White-Eyed Conure
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The White-Eyed Conure only lives about 20 years, but they make some of the best pets of any type of Conure. This is because of their docile nature that makes them more well-behaved than other parrots. If you take care to socialize your White-Eyed Conure, you can expect it to make an excellent companion. It is both entertaining and affectionate.
- Related Read: White-Eared Conure
5. Queen of Bavaria ConureImage Credit: Needpix
If you’re looking for the rarest and most unique parrot you could find, then the Queen of Bavaria Conure certainly fits the bill. Also called the Golden Conure, this bird is a sight to behold. It’s covered in bright golden feathers from crown to foot, which makes it an instantly recognizable bird.
Of course, part of their charm is their rarity. They’re extremely expensive, but you can find them available as pets. And luckily, they do make excellent companions! People who own these birds fall in love with their upbeat, affectionate nature. They’re entertaining and fun, but not everyone can afford such an exotic parrot.
6. Red-Masked ConureImage Credit: bluepaints, Pixabay
Though their bodies are almost entirely bright green, you can easily pick out a Red-Masked Conure for the bright red feathers that cover their entire face, creating a red “mask” from which they take their name. They’re medium-sized birds, though large for Conures, that reach 13 inches and can live over 30 years.
Talking birds are wildly popular, and the Red-Masked Conure is one of the parrots that can easily learn to talk. They’re very vocal by nature, so they’ll likely naturally start to mimic your words. But like many parrots, they can be very loud at times, so they may not do well in apartments.
7. Nanday ConureImage Credit: Steven Bush, Pixabay
Though physically plain and drab compared to some of the more colorful Conure species, the Nanday Conure makes up for its appearance with a larger-than-life personality. They love to play and always want to be the center of attention, constantly seeking your affection.
But if you don’t provide enough of that much-needed attention and stimulation, you can expect your Nanday Conure to become very noisy and even start displaying destructive behaviors.
8. Patagonian ConureImage Credit: bluepaints, Pixabay
While most Conures are brightly colored, usually green but often displaying rainbows of colors, the Patagonian Conure has a more subdued physical appearance. This species is mainly a dark olive color, though it has small patches of orange and red on its legs.
Patagonian Conures are the largest Conure species and can reach 20 inches in length when fully grown. They’re affectionate and loving, though they can be quite loud as well.
9. Half-Moon Conure
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Much quieter than many of the other Conure species, the Half-Moon Conure is still quite vocal. However, their calls are much lower in volume than other Conures, which makes them attractive as potential pets.
What else makes these little Conures attractive is their lively personality. They will show their emotions plainly, getting very excited to see their family, bobbing up and down in a show of enthusiasm.
10.Mitred ConureImage Credit: bluepaints, Pixabay
Bright green with a red forehead and accents, the Mitred Conure is an adorable parrot. They can learn quite a few words, becoming good talkers with practice. They’re also very curious, always wanting to explore a new area.
One thing to keep in mind with Mitred Conures is that they can be a bit temperamental. They’ll scream if they don’t feel like they’re getting adequate attention and can even start nipping. They’re not a great choice for novice bird-owners or apartment dwellers.
11. Austral Conure
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Native to Chile, the Austral Conure is the most southern reaching of all parrot species. This is a lesser-known species of Conure, though one of its sub-species is well-known; the Chilean Conure. But these days, Austral Conures are being successfully bred in captivity, so they’re becoming more available as pets.
- Cockatiel vs. Conure Bird: What’s the Difference? (With Pictures)
12. Dusky-Headed ConureImage Credit: bluepaints, Pixabay
These Conures aren’t quite as visually impressive as others, though they’re excellent pets because of their personalities. Still, they’re beautiful birds, though not as bright as many other parrots. Their feathers are dull green with a grey head from which the Dusky-Headed Conure takes its name.
What makes these Conures great pets is that they’re much less demanding. They’re naturally loving and sweet and even make good pets for children. Plus, they’re pretty quiet compared to other Conures.
13. Blue-Crowned Conure
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As you might guess from the name, the Blue-Crowned Conure features blue feathers atop its head. The rest of its body is primarily bright green, except the underside of its tail which ranges across hues of red or pink.
This is a smart and sweet species of Conure, making them excellent pets. They’re very playful and eager to learn, so you can teach your Blue-Crowned Conure tricks and words and they’ll pick them up quickly.
14. Golden-Capped Conure
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Named for the golden plume on their heads, the Golden-Capped Conure is a very popular pet that does well in captivity, though their population in the wild is threatened by deforestation and loss of habitat.
These birds love attention. They’ll scream loudly when they don’t get it, or when they’re excited, or when you come home, or pretty much whenever they want. They’re not great for apartments for this reason. However, they’re very trainable and can even learn to speak a few words.
15. Peach-Fronted ConureImage Credit: bluepaints,Pixabay
The Peach-Fronted Conure has a bright orange forehead that makes it look similar to other Conures, though it can be differentiated by the black beak. They’re cuddly and loving, which makes them excellent choices as pets. Moreover, they’re very quiet for Conures and can even do well in apartments with neighbors close by.
You may also want to read:
- Cinnamon Green-Cheeked Conure
- What’s the Optimum Age to Bring a Conure Home?
- Suncheek Conure
As you can see, there’s no shortage of diversity among the Conure family. Whether you want a brightly colored bird with just as colorful of a temperament, or you want a more subdued bird with a calmer demeanor and less vibrant colors, you’re sure to find the right Conure to fit your personality. Hopefully, we’ve helped narrow down the choices so you know which Conures to start researching more in-depth before you add a new member to your family!
- Related read: 18 Fascinating & Fun Conure Facts You Never Knew
Featured Image Credit: Pikest
Types of conures | With pictures!
If you’re somewhat familiar with pet parrots you’ve probably heard of the green cheeked conure and the sun conure. But did you know there are many more conure parakeets out there that make amazing pets? All have their own slightly different personalities, so there’s a conure for everyone.
Let’s have a look at some of the common types of conures kept as pets, with photos to make identification easier!Hover over image to pin to Pinterest!
Types of conures: Genus Aratinga
Sun conure (Aratinga solstitialis)
Among the most well-known types of conures is the sun conure, Aratinga solstitialis. These parakeets are easily recognized by their super bright yellow-orange coloration with green wings.
Naturally found in northeastern South America, sun conures inhabit forested areas where they can forage for fruits and nuts. They live in flocks and are highly social, forming monogamous pairs.
Sun conures and jenday conures (discussed below) are very similar in appearance if you’re not familiar with them. The trick is to look at the wings: sun conures have quite a bit of yellow on the outside of their wings while jendays don’t.
Sun conures are also extremely similar to the sulfur-breasted conure, Aratinga maculata, so much so that sightings of the two are sometimes confused in the wild.
Want to know more about sun conures? Learn all about sun conure lifespan and sun conure talking.
Jenday conure (Aratinga jandaya)
As mentioned above, jenday conures (Aratinga jandaya) are very similar in appearance to sun conures, which can make for confusion since both species are naturally found in Brazil. Jendays are slightly larger, though, with an average weight of 125-140 grams while sun conures max out around 120 grams.
Jenday conures are naturally found in forested areas in eastern Brazil. They feed on fruit and nuts, although like many other parrots they’re also sometimes considered pests by farmers, since they have a taste for human-grown crops.
If you’ve got time to dedicate to your parrot, jendays and other conures make great pets. They’re very smart and can be an incredibly fun addition to your family.
Nanday conure (Aratinga nenday)
The nanday conure (Aratinga nenday) is very easy to recognize, as its black face contrasts pretty sharply against its green body. This species is also referred to as the black-hooded parakeet and it’s not difficult to understand why! A healthy nanday is quite a sight to see.
Nanday conures naturally have a pretty wide range in the heart of South America (Bolivia, Southwestern Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina). This region is referred to as Pantanal. Unlike the sun- and jenday conure they’re often found in relatively open areas, although they do also inhabit palm groves and will nest in hollow trees.
If you don’t mind a bit of noise and spending plenty of time socializing your bird, nandays can make lovely pets. They’re active and love bathing, being trained and having access to plenty of toys to chew up.
Tip: Nanday conures are sometimes still categorized under their former name, Nandayus nenday, but they are actually closely related to the other members of the Aratinga genus and classified as such.
Dusky headed conure (Aratinga weddellii)
Dusky headed conures (scientifically known as Aratinga weddellii) are slightly smaller than most of their other Aratinga cousins at a maximum weight of around 100 grams. They’re lovely colored conures with a green body, blue wing-tips and their signature greyish brown head.
Dusky headed conures naturally occur in the South American Amazon basin, which stretches across a range of countries. They’re often found around forest edges near a water source and are known for their habit of nibbling on clay soil for the mineral nutrients it contains. They often nest in trees hollowed out by termites and their flocks can be very large.
As pets, dusky headed conures are often seen as a great choice for those who find the popular green cheeks and sun conures a bit too much in terms of noise and activity level. They’re calm and respond very well to socialization training.© Rachael on Adobe Stock.
Gold capped conure (Aratinga auricapillus)
The gold capped conure or flame-headed conure (Aratinga auricapillus) has the head of a sun conure but sports green feathers on its body. It’s naturally found in Brazil and Paraguay although its current status in the wild is unfortunately listed as “Near Threatened”, as the forest and savanna habitats the species inhabits are shrinking.
Although like many conures they can be a little nippy, gold capped conures can make great pets if socialized properly. They can get pretty loud at times but accepting screeches and screams is really just part of being a parrot owner!
Like other conures, this species is playful and active. It needs a roomy cage, plenty of out of cage time and stimulation in the form of toys and objects to chew. Many gold capped conures do also love a cuddle, though.
Tip: The genus Aratinga contains one additional living conure species, Aratinga maculata (sulphur-breasted conure). Fossils of an extinct relative, Aratinga vorohuensis, also exist.
Types of conures: Genus Pyrrhura
Green cheeked conure (Pyrrhura molinae)
Meet the most common conure kept in captivity: the green cheeked conure, Pyrrhura molinae. This one can be a bit difficult to recognize if you’re not familiar with types of conures, because although wild birds all sport the same look, selective breeding has made for a whole lot of man-made green cheeked conure varieties.
Wild type green cheeked conures have a dark brown head cap, green cheeks (bet ya didn’t see that one coming!), a greyish collar, green wings and a dark red lower belly and tail area. Domestic varieties range from a light tan to mainly red or even blue. They might lack the head cap and some don’t even have the typical green cheeks!
Green cheeked conures are naturally found in forested areas in the heart of South America, where flocks live in the treetops. In captivity, they’re appreciated for their quiet nature, which is a far cry from the classic screeching of most of the Aratinga genus we discussed above.
Pet green cheek conures are appreciated for their huge personalities: they’re often referred to as the clowns of the parrot world. Many like to be held and cuddled and some can even learn to speak a few words.
Playtime is very important for these conures and although an overly excited green cheek can be prone to nipping, proper socialization can prevent this behavior.
Tip: Did you know that green cheeked conures have an amazing lifespan? They can live for up to 30 years in lucky cases! More about their lifespan and what influences it can be found in the article on green cheek conure lifespan.
Crimson bellied conure (Pyrrhura perlata)
When it comes to spectacular colors it’s hard to beat the crimson bellied conure, Pyrrhura perlata. This gorgeous conure is naturally found in the Amazon rainforest in Brazil and Bolivia, although unfortunately its natural habitat is rapidly disappearing and the species is classified as Vulnerable.
Although they can be a bit difficult to find, crimson bellied conures make lovely pets. Like the previously mentioned green cheeked conure they’re relatively quiet: they do more soft chirping than screaming flock calls. They are very active but most of them also love a good cuddle.
If you understand Latin at all, the scientific name for the crimson bellied conure is a little confusing. Perlata means pearly and we’re discussing the pearly conure in a bit, so why was the name ‘pearly’ not used for that species?
Well, as it turns out, the bird they used as the example of a pearly conure (the type specimen) was actually a young crimson bellied conure, so in the end that caused the reclassification of the crimson bellied conure to the name ‘pearly’. Scientific oopsie!Source: Wikipedia
Black capped conure (Pyrrhura rupicola)
Don’t confuse this one with the black-hooded conure, which is a common name for the previously mentioned nanday conure! The black capped conure can easily be told apart from this species by its beautiful gray scalloped “necklace” of pearly feathers.
The black capped conure can naturally be found in both the lowland forests of the southern Amazon basin as well as higher altitude areas on the eastern side of the Andes mountains. Like a number of the other species on this list, the natural population is threatened by habitat loss. This has lead to black capped conures being listed as Near Endangered.
Although they don’t sport the spectacular colors of a crimson bellied conure and aren’t available in a wide range of mutations like green cheeks, you shouldn’t overlook black capped conures if you’re looking for a pet bird. As long as they receive enough attention they’re pretty quiet and most of them love scritches and cuddles.
Your pet black capped conure will quickly become bored if you don’t offer enough stimulation so you should always ensure it has plenty of fresh toys to entertain itself with.
Pearly conure (Pyrrhura lepida)
Like many other types of conures of the Pyrrhura genus, the pearly conure (Pyrrhura lepida) is naturally found in the Amazon rainforest of Brazil. And as with other Brazilian species, it’s unfortunately in danger of losing its natural habitat, since the country’s logging laws are still pretty lax. It’s considered Vulnerable by the IUCN Red List of threatened species.
This species looks very similar to the crimson bellied conure we discussed earlier, with one big difference: it lacks that typical red belly. Still, scientific research indicates that the two appear to be closely related.
Like other conures, the pearly conure makes the perfect pet for someone looking for a ‘partner in crime’. They are active, clownish and sometimes mischievous, maybe a bit too smart for their own good. That is if you can find one; they’re unfortunately not all that common in the pet trade.
Blue throated conure (Pyrrhura cruentata)
Also known as the ochre-marked conure, the blue throated conure (Pyrrhura cruentata) is a beautifully colored parrot that can naturally only be found in Brazil.
Despite having been named after its blue neck area, the most striking feature of the blue throated conure might actually be its dark red belly. Unlike with crimson bellied conures, this is not a bright red but more of a red wine color.
In the wild, blue throated conures can be found in humid rainforest habitats. Unfortunately, like some of the other parrots on this list, the species is under threat from their natural foraging and nesting grounds being turned into agricultural land. This leads to the disappearance of trees and has resulted in a IUCN Red List status of Vulnerable.
Blue throated conures are not among the most common conures in the pet trade but those who manage to find one can count themselves lucky. They’re not too loud as far as conures go and have that typical conure intelligence level that both gets them in trouble and makes them so much fun. They love having lots of toys and frequent access to a dish to bathe in.© Megan Butler
Painted conure (Pyrrhura picta)
The absolutely spectacular painted conure (Pyrrhura picta) is a combination of all the colors and patterns a conure can have. It sports pearly neck feathers, a blueish hat, green chest and wine red belly. Truly a beautiful bird to behold!
Naturally found in forests in the northern areas of South America, this species is a bit of a taxonomic mess. It was first thought to include a few others that are now classified as separate species in the Pyrrhura genus and there are also a few subspecies, which is confusing. The subspecies can have slightly differing colors and patterns.
Whatever subspecies of painted conure you’re looking for, all of them are relatively expensive and difficult to find. If you do manage to obtain one, congratulations, they make lovely pets. They’re considered quite laid back as far as conures go and are generally very sweet.
That being said, they’re still inquisitive and active like typical conures so they need plenty of attention and stimulation!
© Farinoza on Adobe Stock.
Tip: We’ve discussed seven species from the Pyrrhura genus here that are relatively commonly types of conures to be kept as pets. The genus has way more members, though, and also contains a bunch of subspecies.
Types of conures: Genus Eupsittula
Peach fronted conure (Eupsittula aurea)
The peach fronted conure (Eupsittula aurea) is a pretty, relatively small species with a large range in the middle and eastern countries of South America. Here, it inhabits relatively open habitats like savanna, although it also makes good use of the presence of humans by frequenting their farmlands.
As long as you can supply a roomy cage, plenty of out of cage time and lots of attention, the peach fronted conure is a great option for those looking for a pet parrot. They’re in the moderate area as far as conure loudness goes and they’re guaranteed to be the life of any party with their lively personalities.
You probably won’t have much trouble training your peach fronted conure and it might even learn to say a few words! Do keep in mind that lots of stimulation really is crucial for these birds and they might turn to plucking their feathers and loud screaming if they’re bored.
Orange fronted conure (Eupsittula canicularis)
Orange fronted conures (Eupsittula canicularis) are also quite commonly referred to as half-moon conures. They are naturally found in Mexico and Central America down to Costa Rica, where they inhabit half-open habitats like forest edges and savannaland. They feed on a variety of fruits, seeds and flowers and they can form large flocks.
Like dusky headed conures, orange fronted conures tend to nest in termite nests in trees. At a maximum weight of only around 80 grams they are relatively small.
Like other conures, the orange fronted conure is much appreciated by parrot enthusiasts as a pet. The species is not too loud; aside from normal flock calls they will usually do more chattering than screaming. As always, you’ll have to provide your orange fronted conure with plenty of attention, toys and out of cage time to keep it happy and healthy.
Tip: The genus Eupsittula contains three more, less commonly kept conures. They are Eupsittula nana (olive-throated conure), pertinax (brown-throated conure) and cactorum (Caatinga conure).
Types of conures: Genus Psittacara
Red masked conure (Psittacara erythrogenys)
It’s not difficult to spot a red masked conure (Psittacara erythrogenys): the combination of a green body with a bright red face and red splotches trailing down from the head area is hard to miss. This distinctive coloration has gained them the additional common names of red-headed conure and cherry-headed conure.
Red masked conures naturally occur in Perú and Ecuador. Here, they can be found in forested areas, although they’ve also made their home in areas more densely populated by humans. Feral populations even exist in the southern US as well as Spain. This is not surprising because as far as South American parrots go, they’re relatively popular in the pet trade and escapes or releases are bound to happen.
Red masked conures are known as one of the most talkative types of conures. They’re intelligent and generally easy to train, so you should be able to teach yours a few words or phrases.
With this talkative nature does come a certain degree of loudness, so you might have to pass on this one if your home has thin walls. Daily screaming fits are not unheard of in red masked conures!© Ian on Adobe Stock.
Scarlet-fronted conure (Psittacara wagleri)
If you think you’re seeing double, that’s because scarlet-fronted conures (Psittacara wagleri) do look pretty similar to red masked conures when it comes to their color pattern. The size of the red face patch can vary in both species, making it difficult to distinguish between the two (as well as a few of the other Psittacara species).
To add to the confusion, the genus Psittacara wasn’t even really a thing until recently, so you might still see the scarlet-fronted conure referred to by its former name, Aratinga wagleri.
The difference is in the size (the scarlet-fronted conure is one of the largest conures) as well as the size of the red head patch. This colored area is usually (though not always) smaller than in red masked conures.
Naturally found in the northwestern tip of the South American continent (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Perú), the scarlet fronted conure inhabits forested areas that can be at relatively high altitudes.
Like all conures this is a very social parrot by nature, making it a great pet and a friend for life as long as you have plenty of time to invest in your bird.
Scarlet fronted (left) and blue crowned conure (right, see next paragraph)
Tip: The genus Psittacara contains a bunch of additional types of conures that we can’t all discuss here. The genus as a whole is recognizable by its members’ green body color, usually with red accents that are generally (though not always) on the head.
Types of conures: Other genera
Blue crowned conure (Thectocercus acuticaudatus)
The blue crowned conure (Thectocercus acuticaudatus) can be found in both open habitats and more forested areas in its very wide natural range in South America. This species occurs as far north as Colombia and as far south as northern Argentina!
Blue crowned conures are relatively popular and they do make lovely pets with their typical conure intelligence and activity levels. They are usually very open to learning new things and will establish a strong bond with their owner. Their clownish personalities are extremely endearing and although they can be mischievous as well, it’s hard to stay mad at them.
Blue crowns are pretty good talkers as far as conures go, although unfortunately their voices are pretty raspy, which can make it rather difficult to understand what they’re actually trying to say. As with the previously mentioned red masked conure, this talkative nature does also mean that they can get up to at least a moderate noise level.
Golden conure (Guaruba guarouba)
Golden conures (Guaruba guarouba) are very closely related to the jenday conure, which was discussed in the section on Aratinga conures. In fact, golden conures used to be classified as members of the Aratinga genus as well, although they are now the only species in the genus Guaruba. They’re also sometimes referred to as Queen of Bavaria conures and are among the largest of their kind at around 270 grams.
Wild golden conures have always had a relatively limited range, only occuring in Northern Brazil. Unfortunately their natural habitat has only shrunk in recent years, leaving them gone from areas that they formerly inhabited and causing the species to be listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.
The fact that locals sometimes consider them pests and extensive hunting for the pet trade certainly hasn’t helped golden conures. It’s easy to imagine why they became popular as pets, though: their almost neon yellow coloration with strongly contrasting patches of green is spectacular to say the least.
Golden conures have more to offer their owners than just their beautiful appearance: they make great companions. Although they need a lot of attention to prevent screaming fits and feather plucking, they’re also usually very cuddly and extremely curious and intelligent.
Fact: Golden conures are nomads that can usually be found in tall dryland forests for much of the year but move to more open areas when it’s time for them to breed.
Patagonian conure (Cyanoliseus patagonus)
Now this is a pretty special conure! The Patagonian conure (Cyanoliseus patagonus) is naturally found in Argentina and occasionally Chile and Uruguay, where it inhabits a variety of habitats. Some of these can be harsh and unwelcoming, like the arid steppe areas in the Monte Desert which make up their main living space. Here, the Patagonian conure lives in flocks, although males and females pair off and stay monogamous.
At one point things were going quite badly for this species, with capture for the pet trade and their status as agricultural pests causing a lot of trouble for them, although luckily their situation has improved since then.
The Pagatonian conure is the only member of its genus, Cyanoliseus. It’s unusual in that it’s the largest conure, with a maximum weight of a whopping 280 grams even in the lesser subspecies (Cyanoliseus patagonus patagonus). Greater Patagonian conures (Cyanoliseus patagonus byroni) can weigh up to a 100 grams more than that, though you generally won’t see these in the trade.
Patagonian conures make absolutely lovely pets, even if you consider their rather harsh voices and tendency to be somewhat noisy. They’re very good at imitating sounds and generally appreciate a cuddle. Things really can’t get boring with a “Pattie”, as they’re just the perfect combination of friendly and fun.
Fact: Since their open habitats don’t feature much in the way of suitable nesting spots, Patagonian conures often nest in burrows. That’s why they’re also referred to as the burrowing conure.
If you have any more questions about the different types of conures discussed on this list or if you want to share your own experiences with these birds, don’t hesitate to leave a comment below!
Types of electronic signature | Differences in the types of EDS - Certification Center SKB Kontur
In Russia, three types of signatures can be used in electronic document management: simple, enhanced unqualified and enhanced qualified. Let's see how they differ from each other, under what conditions they are equivalent to handwritten and give signed files legal force.
Types of electronic signature
- Simple Electronic Signature (SES)
- Unqualified electronic signature (NES)
- Qualified Electronic Signature (QES)
Simple electronic signature, or PES
A simple signature is familiar to everyone access codes from SMS, codes on scratch cards, “login-password” pairs in personal accounts on websites and in e-mail. A simple signature is created by means of the information system in which it is used and confirms that a specific person created the electronic signature.
Where is a simple electronic signature used?
A simple electronic signature is most often used in banking operations, as well as for authentication in information systems, for receiving public services, for certifying documents within corporate electronic document management (hereinafter referred to as EDF).
A simple electronic signature cannot be used when signing electronic documents or in an information system that contain state secrets.
Legal force of PEP
A simple signature is equated to a handwritten one if it is regulated by a separate legal act or an agreement has been concluded between the EDF participants, where it is written:
- rules by which a signatory is determined by his simple electronic signature.
- the user's obligation to keep the private part of the PES key confidential (for example, the password in the login-password pair or the SMS code sent to the phone).
In many information systems, the user must first verify his identity during a visit to the system operator in order for his PES to be valid in the future. For example, to receive a verified account on the State Services portal, you need to personally come to one of the registration centers with an identity document.
Unqualified electronic signature, or NEP
An enhanced unqualified electronic signature (hereinafter referred to as the NES) is created using cryptographic programs using the private key of the electronic signature. The NEP identifies the identity of the owner, and also allows you to check whether changes were made to the file after it was sent.
A person receives two electronic signature keys in a certification center: private and public. The private key is stored on a special key carrier with a pin code or on the user's computer - it is known only to the owner and must be kept secret. With the help of a private key, the owner generates electronic signatures with which he signs documents.
The public key of the electronic signature is available to everyone with whom its owner conducts EDF. It is associated with a private key and allows all recipients of the signed document to verify the authenticity of the ES.
The fact that the public key belongs to the owner of the private key is written in the electronic signature certificate. The certificate is also issued by a certification authority. But when using the NEP, a certificate can not be created. Requirements for the structure of an unqualified certificate are not established in Federal Law No. 63-FZ "On Electronic Signature".
Where is an unqualified electronic signature used?
NEP can be used for internal and external EDI, if the parties have previously agreed on this.
Legal force of NEP
EDI participants must comply with additional conditions so that electronic documents certified by the NEP are considered equivalent to paper documents with a handwritten signature. The parties must necessarily conclude an agreement between themselves on the rules for using the NEP and the mutual recognition of its legal force.
Qualified electronic signature or QES
Enhanced Qualified Electronic Signature is the most state-regulated type of signature. Just like the NEP, it is created using cryptographic algorithms and is based on a public key infrastructure, but differs from the NEP in the following:
- Must have a qualified certificate in paper or electronic form, the structure of which is determined by order of the Federal Security Service of Russia No. 795 dated 12/27/2011.
- The software for working with CEP is certified by the Federal Security Service of Russia.
- Only a certification authority that is accredited by the Russian Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications can issue a CEP.
If you have not yet received an electronic signature, issue an ES at an accredited certification center. The Circuit CA has signatures for employees and managers, auctions, reporting and personal files.
Where is a qualified electronic signature used?
CEP is needed to submit reports to regulatory authorities, participate as a supplier and customer in electronic trading, work with state information systems, exchange formalized documents with the Federal Tax Service, and conduct electronic document management within the company or with its external counterparties.
Legal force of CEP
CEP is a signature that gives documents legal force without additional conditions. If organizations conduct EDF by signing CEP documents, their legal force is automatically recognized in accordance with Federal Law No. 63-FZ “On Electronic Signature”.
EDI with contractors | Electronic document management with counterparties
There are two ways to switch to EDI with counterparties - directly or through an electronic document management operator. Let's consider each of them.
- Ways to switch to electronic document management with counterparties
- Rules for switching to EDI with counterparties
- How to draw up an EDI agreement between legal entities
- How to start the transition to electronic document management with counterparties
- How to invite a counterparty to EDI
Direct document exchange
Contractors exchange documents via e-mail or a special solution. In this case, an EDI operator does not need to be involved. Organizations will need on their own:
- set up the generation of electronic documents according to the established formats of the Federal Tax Service of Russia,
- agree with counterparties on the direct exchange of electronic documents,
- conclude an agreement (additional agreement) on the use of EDI with each business partner,
- organize the technical possibility for the exchange of documents,
- ensure the security of the exchange.
The main limitation in the direct exchange of documents is that invoices cannot be transferred in this way. According to the requirements of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation, it is mandatory to use a qualified electronic signature and transfer invoices in electronic form only through an EDF operator. As a third party, the operator fixes the date of sending and receiving the document, verifies the authenticity of the enhanced qualified electronic signature of the seller and the buyer, saves all official documents confirming the fact of sending and receiving.
Connect to Diadoc and evaluate the possibilities of electronic document management
Exchange through an electronic document management operator
Organizations send and receive documents in the electronic document management system of the EDF operator. It is enough to connect to the ready-made service and join the operator's regulations. This simplifies interaction with contractors, since an operator is responsible for the exchange of documents, who:
- receives all the necessary licenses to work in the legal field,
- creates technological capabilities and complies with other conditions for the legal exchange of invoices electronically,
- supports formats approved by the tax authorities for formalized documents,
- notifies the Federal Tax Service of the accession of new participants to the EDF,
- guarantees the security of data transmission and protects against interception of documents,
- records actions with documents by all participants in the transaction. If a dispute arises, the data from the operator may become evidence in court,
- keeps documents for as many years as required by law.
In addition, the operator supports clients in the process of launching EDI, connecting counterparties and working in the service.
After the organization has chosen an EDI operator, you need to send him an application for participation in electronic document management. In Diadoc, such a statement will be generated automatically. When a new user tries to send a formalized document for the first time, the system will prompt you to confirm sending the application. Then, based on the application, the operator prepares an information message and sends it to the Federal Tax Service. This is necessary to notify the tax authority that the company is exchanging documents with counterparties in electronic form. In the future, at the request of the Federal Tax Service, it will be possible to submit electronic documents.
Connect to Diadoc and evaluate the possibilities of electronic document management
You can agree with the counterparty on the transition to EDI orally or fix your decision in the form of a contract or an additional agreement. Also, consent to the exchange of electronic documents is considered the action of the counterparty, reflecting his will to establish legal relations. That is, in fact, companies switch to EDI with each other when they exchange invitations and accept them in the service.
To work in Diadoc, it is enough to register in the service and sign a license agreement. Since QEP is used for signing, there is no need to fulfill any other conditions. An electronic document signed by the CEP is recognized as legally significant at the level of federal law, clause 1 of Art. 6 63-FZ.
It is also possible to establish electronic document management with foreign counterparties. The legitimacy of documents in international EDI is ensured by the law "On Electronic Signature" (Article 7 63-FZ) and a tripartite agreement between a Russian company, its foreign counterparty and the operator SKB Kontur on the recognition of the electronic signature used. Representatives of a Russian company sign CEP documents, and their foreign partners sign with an enhanced unqualified electronic signature. As a result, the documents are recognized as legally significant, you can transfer them to the tax, customs service or bank.
When counterparties want to describe in detail the terms of interaction through EDI, they prepare an additional agreement. You can sign it electronically through Diadoc.
As a rule, organizations prescribe the procedure for working with electronic documents, indicate in the agreement the obligations of the parties, the types of documents transferred, the rules for using an electronic signature, and exceptional cases when documents will be duplicated on paper.
If you need a sample agreement, download the sample.
Connect to Diadoc and evaluate the possibilities of electronic document management
The transition to a new format of interaction with counterparties begins within the organization. At the preparatory stage, you can make changes to the accounting policy, Art. 8 402-FZ. You yourself determine how to supplement the accounting policy. We recommend paying attention to the following items:
- method of exchanging electronic documents (direct or with the involvement of an operator),
- list of documents that you will work with electronically,
- type of electronic signature,
- positions of employees with the right to sign with an electronic signature,
- the procedure for storage and submission to the Federal Tax Service upon request.
When you have prescribed in the accounting policy the possibility of using electronic documents and the rules for working with EDI, follow these steps.
1. Set up a workflow
How do you work with documents on paper? Determine which employee approves and signs documents, in what order documents are moved between departments. The same scheme can be translated into electronic format.
Most often, when switching from paper to EDI, the process can be optimized. For example, thanks to the automatic distribution of documents in Diadoc, manual sorting can be excluded from the chain. The process is accelerated, and the resources of employees are used to solve other important tasks.
2. Get an electronic signature
A Qualified Electronic Signature (QES) will be required for employees who will sign electronic documents. You can purchase CEP at an accredited certification center. Surely an accountant or manager already has a CEP if the organization submits tax returns in electronic form.
3. Select an operator and a way to work with EDF
To select an operator, first find out if your counterparties are connected to the system. Diadoc has special tools for this: you can check counterparties by TIN and name on the website and in the web service itself. It is convenient to search for companies in bulk by uploading a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet with a TIN list.
Make sure that the operator supports roaming with the vast majority of other providers and guarantees data security. A company with an information security audit certificate, file backup, and a high level of SLA will become a reliable partner when exchanging documents between counterparties.
Do you only want to receive documents or fully exchange them? Choose a technical solution based on your goals, the estimated volume of electronic document management and the type of accounting system:
- Less than 100 documents per month - the web version of the service will do.
- Large volume of documents - install the ready-made Diadoc module if you use 1C.
- You need an individual solution - set up integration via connectors or the Diadoc API.
- For integration with the SAP ERP system, Diadoc has a certified solution.
4. Connect partners
Send business partners invitations in the service. When the company accepts the invitation, you can start exchanging electronic documents. The number of counterparties with which the company can switch to EDI will be increased by the activation of counterparties by the operator. Therefore, it is important to clarify whether the provider provides such a service.
Diadoc has a department that helps responsible persons in the company to connect contractors. For mass information about the transition to EDI, you can use ready-made templates for emails, news and banners on your company's website. The Diadoc team is ready to help and share other useful materials so that you can invite and connect as many counterparties as possible to EDF. The more connections a company has, the greater the benefits of switching to electronic document management.
Connect to Diadoc and evaluate the possibilities of electronic document management
In Diadoc, the exchange of documents is possible only after both parties have added each other to the list of counterparties. To do this, you need to exchange invitations.
How to accept an invitation
1. Go to the "Accounts" tab and select "Invite you". If there are new requests from counterparties, then there will be a certain number opposite it.
2. Move the cursor over the line with the required organization and click the "Accept Invitation" button. The organization will be added to the list of your counterparties.
3. If you do not plan to exchange documents with this organization, click on the "Reject" button. A denial of the request will be sent to the counterparty, the organization will be included in the "Blocked" list.