Different types of depression and their symptoms

SAMHSA’s National Helpline | SAMHSA

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  • SAMHSA’s National Helpline is a free, confidential, 24/7, 365-day-a-year treatment referral and information service (in English and Spanish) for individuals and families facing mental and/or substance use disorders.

    Also visit the online treatment locator.

SAMHSA’s National Helpline, 1-800-662-HELP (4357) (also known as the Treatment Referral Routing Service), or TTY: 1-800-487-4889 is a confidential, free, 24-hour-a-day, 365-day-a-year, information service, in English and Spanish, for individuals and family members facing mental and/or substance use disorders. This service provides referrals to local treatment facilities, support groups, and community-based organizations.

Also visit the online treatment locator, or send your zip code via text message: 435748 (HELP4U) to find help near you. Read more about the HELP4U text messaging service.

The service is open 24/7, 365 days a year.

English and Spanish are available if you select the option to speak with a national representative. Currently, the 435748 (HELP4U) text messaging service is only available in English.

In 2020, the Helpline received 833,598 calls. This is a 27 percent increase from 2019, when the Helpline received a total of 656,953 calls for the year.

The referral service is free of charge. If you have no insurance or are underinsured, we will refer you to your state office, which is responsible for state-funded treatment programs. In addition, we can often refer you to facilities that charge on a sliding fee scale or accept Medicare or Medicaid. If you have health insurance, you are encouraged to contact your insurer for a list of participating health care providers and facilities.

The service is confidential. We will not ask you for any personal information. We may ask for your zip code or other pertinent geographic information in order to track calls being routed to other offices or to accurately identify the local resources appropriate to your needs.

No, we do not provide counseling. Trained information specialists answer calls, transfer callers to state services or other appropriate intake centers in their states, and connect them with local assistance and support.

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Last Updated: 08/30/2022

Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs

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Misusing alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs can have both immediate and long-term health effects.

The misuse and abuse of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and prescription medications affect the health and well-being of millions of Americans. SAMHSA’s 2020 National Survey on Drug Use and Health reports that approximately 19.3 million people aged 18 or older had a substance use disorder in the past year.



  • In 2020, 50.0% of people aged 12 or older (or 138.5 million people) used alcohol in the past month (i.e., current alcohol users) (2020 NSDUH)
  • Among the 138.5 million people who were current alcohol users, 61. 6 million people (or 44.4%) were classified as binge drinkers and 17.7 million people (28.8% of current binge drinkers and 12.8% of current alcohol users) were classified as heavy drinkers (2020 NSDUH)
  • The percentage of people who were past month binge alcohol users was highest among young adults aged 18 to 25 (31.4%) compared with 22.9% of adults aged 26 or older and 4.1% of adolescents aged 12 to 17 (2020 NSDUH)
  • The 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health reports that 139.7 million Americans age 12 or older were past month alcohol users, 65.8 million people were binge drinkers in the past month, and 16 million were heavy drinkers in the past month
  • About 2.3 million adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2019 drank alcohol in the past month, and 1.2 million of these adolescents binge drank in that period (2019 NSDUH)
  • Approximately 14.5 million people age 12 or older had an alcohol use disorder (2019 NSDUH)
  • Excessive alcohol use can increase a person’s risk of stroke, liver cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis, cancer, and other serious health conditions
  • Excessive alcohol use can also lead to risk-taking behavior, including driving while impaired. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that 29 people in the United States die in motor vehicle crashes that involve an alcohol-impaired driver daily


  • STOP Underage Drinking interagency portal - Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Prevention of Underage Drinking
  • Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Prevention of Underage Drinking
  • Talk. They Hear You.
  • Underage Drinking: Myths vs. Facts
  • Talking with your College-Bound Young Adult About Alcohol

Relevant links:

  • National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors
  • Department of Transportation Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance
  • Alcohol Policy Information Systems Database (APIS)
  • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism



  • In 2020, 20.7% of people aged 12 or older (or 57. 3 million people) used nicotine products (i.e., used tobacco products or vaped nicotine) in the past month (2020 NSDUH)
  • Among past month users of nicotine products, nearly two thirds of adolescents aged 12 to 17 (63.1%) vaped nicotine but did not use tobacco products. In contrast, 88.9% of past month nicotine product users aged 26 or older used only tobacco products (2020 NSDUH)
  • Data from the 2019 NSDUH reports that 58.1 million people were current (i.e., past month) tobacco users. Specifically, 45.9 million people aged 12 or older in 2019 were past month cigarette smokers (2019 NSDUH)
  • Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death, often leading to lung cancer, respiratory disorders, heart disease, stroke, and other serious illnesses. The CDC reports that cigarette smoking causes more than 480,000 deaths each year in the United States
  • The CDC’s Office on Smoking and Health reports that more than 16 million Americans are living with a disease caused by smoking cigarettes

Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use data:

  • Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2020 National Youth Tobacco Survey.  Among both middle and high school students, current use of e-cigarettes declined from 2019 to 2020, reversing previous trends and returning current e-cigarette use to levels similar to those observed in 2018
  • E-cigarettes are not safe for youth, young adults, or pregnant women, especially because they contain nicotine and other chemicals


  • Tips for Teens: Tobacco
  • Tips for Teens: E-cigarettes
  • Implementing Tobacco Cessation Programs in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Settings
  • Synar Amendment Program


  • Truth Initiative
  • FDA Center for Tobacco Products
  • CDC Office on Smoking and Health
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse: Tobacco, Nicotine, and E-Cigarettes
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse: E-Cigarettes



  • Among people aged 12 or older in 2020, 3.4% (or 9.5 million people) misused opioids in the past year. Among the 9.5 million people who misused opioids in the past year, 9.3 million people misused prescription pain relievers and 902,000 people used heroin (2020 NSDUH)
  • An estimated 745,000 people had used heroin in the past year, based on 2019 NSDUH data
  • In 2019, there were 10.1 million people age 12 or older who misused opioids in the past year. The vast majority of people misused prescription pain relievers (2019 NSDUH)
  • An estimated 1.6 million people aged 12 or older had an opioid use disorder based on 2019 NSDUH data
  • Opioid use, specifically injection drug use, is a risk factor for contracting HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. The CDC reports that people who inject drugs accounted for 9 percent of HIV diagnoses in the United States in 2016
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Understanding the Epidemic, an average of 128 Americans die every day from an opioid overdose


  • Medication-Assisted Treatment
  • Opioid Overdose Prevention Toolkit
  • TIP 63: Medications for Opioid Use Disorder
  • Use of Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder in Criminal Justice Settings
  • Opioid Use Disorder and Pregnancy
  • Clinical Guidance for Treating Pregnant and Parenting Women With Opioid Use Disorder and Their Infants
  • The Facts about Buprenorphine for Treatment of Opioid Addiction
  • Pregnancy Planning for Women Being Treated for Opioid Use Disorder
  • Tips for Teens: Opioids
  • Rural Opioid Technical Assistance Grants
  • Tribal Opioid Response Grants
  • Provider’s Clinical Support System - Medication Assisted Treatment Grant Program


  • National Institute on Drug Abuse: Opioids
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse: Heroin
  • HHS Prevent Opioid Abuse
  • Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America
  • Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) Network
  • Prevention Technology Transfer Center (PTTC) Network



  • The percentage of people who used marijuana in the past year was highest among young adults aged 18 to 25 (34. 5%) compared with 16.3% of adults aged 26 or older and 10.1% of adolescents aged 12 to 17 (2020 NSDUH)
  • 2019 NSDUH data indicates that 48.2 million Americans aged 12 or older, 17.5 percent of the population, used marijuana in the past year
  • Approximately 4.8 million people aged 12 or older in 2019 had a marijuana use disorder in the past year (2019 NSDUH)
  • Marijuana can impair judgment and distort perception in the short term and can lead to memory impairment in the long term
  • Marijuana can have significant health effects on youth and pregnant women.


  • Know the Risks of Marijuana
  • Marijuana and Pregnancy
  • Tips for Teens: Marijuana

Relevant links:

  • National Institute on Drug Abuse: Marijuana
  • Addiction Technology Transfer Centers on Marijuana
  • CDC Marijuana and Public Health

Emerging Trends in Substance Misuse:

  • Methamphetamine—In 2019, NSDUH data show that approximately 2 million people used methamphetamine in the past year. Approximately 1 million people had a methamphetamine use disorder, which was higher than the percentage in 2016, but similar to the percentages in 2015 and 2018. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Data shows that overdose death rates involving methamphetamine have quadrupled from 2011 to 2017. Frequent meth use is associated with mood disturbances, hallucinations, and paranoia.
  • Cocaine—In 2019, NSDUH data show an estimated 5.5 million people aged 12 or older were past users of cocaine, including about 778,000 users of crack. The CDC reports that overdose deaths involving have increased by one-third from 2016 to 2017. In the short term, cocaine use can result in increased blood pressure, restlessness, and irritability. In the long term, severe medical complications of cocaine use include heart attacks, seizures, and abdominal pain.
  • Kratom—In 2019, NSDUH data show that about 825,000 people had used Kratom in the past month. Kratom is a tropical plant that grows naturally in Southeast Asia with leaves that can have psychotropic effects by affecting opioid brain receptors. It is currently unregulated and has risk of abuse and dependence. The National Institute on Drug Abuse reports that health effects of Kratom can include nausea, itching, seizures, and hallucinations.


  • Tips for Teens: Methamphetamine
  • Tips for Teens: Cocaine
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse

More SAMHSA publications on substance use prevention and treatment.

Last Updated: 04/27/2022

90,000 symptoms, causes, types. Treatment in Kyiv

Depression is not just a constant decline in mood, pessimism and a desire for solitude. This is a mental disorder that leads to serious consequences. The patient loses the ability to enjoy life, he is not given the solution of difficult problems, he is prone to negative outcomes from any situation. But this condition can be corrected, depression is curable.

Vidkriti Zgornuti

Types of depression

Depression is not always perceived as a disease not only by the patient's relatives, but also by himself. A bad mood lasts for weeks, everything is seen in gloomy colors, you don’t want to move, but you want to hide in a corner and just lie. The patient is accused of deterioration of character, selfishness and laziness. And he needs help. Help of a specialist.

Such help can be needed at any age. Five out of a hundred teenagers and children are familiar with this condition. With age, the number of cases also increases among young people - from 15 to 40%. Among adults, depressive disorders occur in one in ten, and women are twice as likely to experience this disorder. At an older age, about 30% of people have ever been depressed.

Depression as an illness can take many forms.

Depressive episode

This is the most common form of the disorder. Its duration is from two weeks to a year. If such a disorder is recorded only once, it is called unipolar. About 33% of patients experience this condition only once in their lives. As a rule, a depressive disorder is accompanied by a decrease in working capacity. Lack of treatment can lead to relapse.

Periodic depressive disorder

Characterized by recurring episodes. It is also called recurrent, as well as classical or clinical depression. It usually first occurs in childhood or adolescence. Duration from several months to several years. Phases of the disease alternate with remission. Seriously affects working capacity and requires an appeal to a child psychologist in the early stages of the development of the disease.


Duration from two years to decades. Although the symptoms are less severe than in recurrent disorder, they last longer. Dysthymia is also called chronic depression. The transition of this type to a severe form is called a double depression.

Bipolar depression type I

It is characterized by a change in the phases of the disease, remission and manic phases. This disorder is also called manic-depressive psychosis. When the patient goes through the last phase, he is characterized by hyperactivity, combined with a good mood, but at the same time with anxiety and insomnia. The patient loses the ability to think critically. As a result - financial problems, the risk of casual sex. After this phase, the patient becomes depressed. This is bipolar disorder.

Bipolar II depression

Similar to depressive episodes. Changes of phases are also observed, but without an excessive increase in mood. During remission, there is an illusion of recovery.

Depressive psychotic episode

Hallucinations, delusions are observed in this disorder. Such patients in most cases require hospitalization.

Atypical depression

A mild type of depression, accompanied by drowsiness and excessive eating, mood swings, hypersensitivity, a tendency to panic attacks.

Seasonal depressive disorders

Occur most often in autumn or winter. They pass when the season changes.

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Causes of depression

There is no single point of view among doctors on the causes of depression. Allocate the influence of heredity, as well as the environment. Nearly half of people with depression have close relatives with the same condition. There is a high probability of illness of one of the identical twins if the second is sick.

Depression can also be caused by external factors. It can be stress caused by the loss of a loved one, loss of a job, divorce. Those who have previously suffered from depression are also at risk. People with a passive life position, with increased anxiety, with mental disorders are also more likely to get sick.

A high risk of depression in women is associated with stress and increased emotionality. And also, with some features of female physiology, for example, a tendency to thyroid dysfunction, hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle and menopause. Also, pregnancy and the postpartum period due to increased stress on the body can lead to postpartum depression.

Vidkriti Zgornuti

Depression can also be caused by a number of diseases, such as:

  • Thyroid diseases
  • Diseases of the adrenal glands
  • Brain tumors
  • Stroke
  • AIDS
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Parkinson's disease, etc.

Vidkriti Zgornuti

The development of the disease can be caused by uncontrolled intake of certain drugs, alcoholism and drug addiction.

Signs and symptoms of depression

Signs of depression are divided into 4 groups:

1. Emotional.
Depressed mood, impaired activity, decreased interest in life, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation or lethargy, fatigue, loss of energy, recurrent thoughts of death or suicide, suicide attempts, low self-esteem, impaired concentration, difficulty making decisions, hopelessness .

2. Physiological.
Cognitive, psychomotor and other types of dysfunctions, increased fatigue, decreased sexual desire, loss of interest or pleasure in previously enjoyable activities, sleep disturbances, decreased or increased appetite, body pain, constipation.

3. Behavioral.
Anxiety, tension, nervousness, irritability, anger, mood swings, bouts of sadness, tearfulness, exacerbation of interpersonal conflicts, passivity, a tendency to solitude, abandonment of former hobbies, craving for alcohol and psychotropic substances.

4. Thinking.
Inability to concentrate, make a decision, slow thinking, pessimism.

Vidkriti Zgornuti

Symptoms of depression are divided into major and minor.

The main ones are:

  • deterioration in mood without external causes for at least two weeks;
  • increased fatigue for at least a month;
  • persistent loss of interest from favorite activities.

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Additional symptoms of depression include:

  • pessimism;
  • suicidal thoughts;
  • feelings of depression, attacks of fear or guilt;
  • drop in self-esteem;
  • any disturbance of sleep and appetite.

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The presence of two main and three additional symptoms of depression in a patient allows making an appropriate diagnosis.

Depression in children has its own characteristics. Young children tend to feign illness in order to skip school or kindergarten, they are dependent on their parents and tormented by the fear of their death. Older children are constantly in a bad mood, their academic performance decreases, they perceive everything “with hostility” and complain of misunderstanding. The complexity of the diagnosis lies in the fact that sometimes it is not easy to separate the signs of depression and growth difficulties. In such cases, professional advice should not be abandoned.

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Sequelae of depression

If treatment is refused, the consequences of depression can be severe. With each episode of untreated depression, the risk of a recurrence of the disease increases. In addition, each subsequent episode will be more difficult, with greater loss of performance and negative impact on physical health. Episodes will occur with increasing frequency, and cases of prolonged depression are possible. If treatment for depression has been incorrect or incomplete, it can lead to the development of a form of the disease that is difficult to treat.

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Diagnosis of depression

When diagnosing depression, it is important to rule out diseases that present with similar symptoms, such as viral infections. To do this, the patient must undergo a routine physical examination and pass tests.

After ruling out other problems, a psychological evaluation is carried out. The patient is being interviewed. Diagnosis of depression is carried out using special tests that reveal the level of anxiety, suicidal tendencies, anhedonia and other symptoms.

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Treatment of depression

Treatment of depression begins with psychological help. The patient is set up for an optimistic outlook on life, helps to get out of a state of constant fixation on negative aspects. The doctor also works with family members. They must establish a benevolent climate, support the patient in everything.

Tactics of treatment depends on the condition of the patient. Treatment is carried out on an outpatient basis or in a hospital. Treatment includes psychotherapy, drug therapy and social therapy. Antidepressants are used to treat depression. Only a doctor can choose the right drug. After all, the group under the general name of antidepressants includes drugs of different effects - stimulating, removing anxiety, sedatives. The dosage is selected by the doctor individually. The action of drug therapy begins two weeks after administration, and they cannot be canceled on their own. The duration of treatment is determined only by the doctor.

Also, auxiliary methods are used in the treatment - art therapy, hypnotherapy, aromatherapy, light therapy, magnetotherapy, meditation. For each patient, an individual course of treatment is selected.

Vidkriti Zgornuti

Prevention of depression

The support of family and friends plays an important role in the treatment of depression. They should avoid criticism of the patient, offer him joint activities. If the patient trusts them, then it is worth talking about his condition, emphasizing that his condition is temporary, and the treatment will definitely give a positive effect.

Since some types of depression recur, it is important to know how to prevent them. Prevention of depression is simple actions that give great results. Doctors advise:

  • sleep at least 8 hours, be sure to go to bed before midnight;
  • diet with enough omega-3 fatty acids;
  • sufficient physical activity;
  • communication with friends, with people who are positive;
  • it is highly desirable to receive psychotherapeutic assistance;
  • maximum use of daylight hours, if necessary, light therapy.

Vidkriti Zgornuti

The article is for informational purposes only. Please remember: self-medication can harm your health.

Vidkriti Zgornuti


  • World Health Organization
  • Ministry of Health of Ukraine
  • Public Health Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine

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The author of the article:

Kulik Maria Sergeevna

Doctor-psychologist of the second category

Which doctor treats depression?

Where to go for help? Which doctor will help? It is better to start with a visit to a therapist. The general practitioner examines the patient, gives a referral for tests. The second specialist who will help is a psychotherapist.

Treatment of depression in Kyiv can be done at the MEDICOM clinic under the supervision of experienced specialists in comfortable clinics in Obolon and Pechersk. Do not stay with depression on your own. Contact the experts and return to a happy and healthy life as soon as possible!

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10/31/2022 16:35

Natalya Natalya

The article is built correctly, with a gradual disclosure of the topic. Disease is dealt with step by step. Forms of the disease, exemplary methods of treatment are indicated. For those who suspect that they have this disorder, the article gives a complete description in a brief form. This is of interest to start treatment with narrow specialists.

06/23/2022 10:15


Why do you have a psychologist and not a psychiatrist prescribing antidepressants in your clinic? Psychologists do not have the right to recognize whether they are medicines.

12.01.2022 01:16


My husband started having problems with his mood - everything is bad all the time, he is not interested in anything, he sees everything in a negative light. And I signed him up with a psychotherapist. At the consultation, pathopsychological and neuropsychological diagnostics were performed, after which it became clear that my husband had depression. Prescribed treatment with antidepressants, sessions of psychotherapy, magnetotherapy. Each case has its own treatment regimen. It's been a month and a half since the treatment started. Gradually, the negative and bad mood disappears, we will continue.

11/18/2021 20:22

Kubrak Masha

I liked the article, thank you! Very informative without complex medical terms, understandable for the perception of an ordinary person.

09/05/2021 09:06

To Svitlana

Depression is the greatest state of the soul, if nothing makes you happy. I experienced this stage a couple of times and I was helped several times to get a new one in the MEDIKOM clinic - my love psychologist Kulik Mariya Sergievna. Vaughn took antidepressants and gave psychological help. Shiro dyakuyu!

07/30/2021 19:27


Depression began after the death of his father, and was aggravated by a divorce from his wife. Became irritable, insomnia, always all in gloomy shades. Through the selection of drugs and work with a psychotherapist, colors began to appear in life.

05/07/2021 10:57


I have postpartum depression after the birth of my long-awaited daughter. She couldn't figure it out on her own. A good psychologist works at the MEDICOM clinic. Without pills, I was able to help cope with depression - only herbal remedies and consultations. I begin to feel the happiness and joy of motherhood. Thanks a lot!

11.02.2021 17:17

Tetyana Oleksandrivna

The child began to notice a change in behavior and character development. No one knows anything, no wine is needed for anyone, everything is the opposite. I turned back to the psychologist for help, so that nothing bad happened. The doctor spent the interview with the son, prescribing calming preparations. Xing is slowly returning to normal.

04.11.2020 19:11

Nadya Reznichenko

For a long time I could not know the work behind the fah, problems with the person, my mother was sick. All in one compartment. Maria Sergievna Kulik helped me, I asked how you can change it, don’t pay attention to it, but look at it. I prescribed calmness, I relaxed, stopped sіpatisya and nervousness. You won't believe it after a couple of days, I knew the job! With a person, slowly getting better, trying to smooth out the kuti, even if it’s for the sake of strength. I took my mother to the Medicom to a good fakhivtsya, it was recognized as a likuvannya. Start thinking about yourself, hunt for help and help you!

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Total 9 reviews

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Types of depression - iFightDepression [EN]

There are different types of depression, which are different.

Signs and symptoms vary in number, time, severity and frequency, but are generally very similar. Because different types of depression are treated differently, it is important to pinpoint the type of depression. Depending on gender, age and cultural characteristics, people have different symptoms and severity of depression.

Neurotic, reactive (minor) depression is treated with psychotherapy.

Somatic and psychotic - medication. These terms are used by psychiatrists.

Studies have shown that depression has a phasic course. Periods of normal mood alternate with depressive episodes. Sometimes, instead of a depressive phase,

there may be a manic phase, which is manifested by irritability and high mood. If so, then it is not depression, but bipolar disorder (a more serious illness).

1. Depressive episode

The most common and typical form of depression is the depressive episode. An episode lasts from a few weeks to a year, but is always longer than 2 weeks. A single depressive episode is called a unipolar episode. Approximately one third of affected people experience only one episode, or "phase", during their lifetime. However, if a person does not receive appropriate treatment for depression, there is a risk of recurrent depressive episodes in the future. Depressive episodes always affect a person's performance to one degree or another.

2. Intermittent (recurrent) depressive disorder

When a depressive episode recurs, it is recurrent depressive disorder or major depressive disorder, which usually begins in adolescence or early adulthood. With this kind of depression, depressive phases, which can last from several months to several years, alternate with phases of normal mood. This type of depressive disorder can seriously affect performance and is unipolar in nature (no manic or hypomanic phase). This is the so-called "classic" or "clinical" depression.

3. Dysthymia

Dysthymia presents with milder and less severe symptoms than a depressive episode or recurrent depression. However, the disorder is permanent, with symptoms lasting much longer, at least 2 years, sometimes decades, which is why it is called "chronic depression". This disorder is unipolar and also affects performance. This type of depression sometimes develops into a more severe form (major depressive episode) and if this happens it is called double depression.

4. Bipolar depression, type I

This is the type of depression in bipolar disorder, formerly called manic-depressive illness, and is less common than unipolar depression. It consists of alternating depressive phases, phases of normal mood and so-called manic phases.

Manic phases are characterized by excessively high mood associated with hyperactivity, anxiety, and decreased need for sleep.

Mania affects thinking, judgment and social behavior causing serious problems and difficulties. When a person is in a manic phase, he makes frequent casual unsafe sex, makes unwise financial decisions. After a manic episode, such people often experience depression.

The best way to describe these "emotional upheavals" is "to be on top of the world and fall into the depths of despair".

Symptoms of the phases of depression in bipolar disorder are sometimes difficult to distinguish from unipolar depression.

5. Bipolar depression type II

More like recurrent depressive disorder than bipolar disorder. In this disorder, multiple depressive phases alternate with phases of mania, but with less pronounced euphoria. During these phases, family and loved ones may even mistakenly assume that the person is doing well.

6. Mixed anxiety-depressive disorder

In anxiety-depressive disorder, the clinical picture is very similar to depression, however, in depression, depressive syndromes always come first. In this case, both anxious and depressive symptoms are evenly combined.

7. Depressive psychotic episode

A special form of depressive episode is psychotic or delusional depression.

Learn more