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Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Manchester is a city in North West England. In 2013 there were 514,417 people living there, which makes it the fifth largest city in the United Kingdom.

It is a city and metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, England. Manchester was given city status in 1853. The city is in the middle of the Greater Manchester Urban Area, which has 2,240,230 people,[4] and is the United Kingdom's third largest built-up place.

Manchester is a very important city in England, and is often called the "Capital of the North".[5] Manchester has many places for the arts, places for learning, businesses providing media as well as lots of shops. In a poll of British managers in 2006, Manchester was named the best place in Britain to have a business. [6] A report in 2007 said Manchester is a fast-growing city (meaning lots of jobs are being created).[7] Manchester was the host of the 2002 Commonwealth Games. It has two well-known football teams, Manchester United and Manchester City.[8]

Manchester was the first city to industrialise,[9] because of the Industrial Revolution. It became the main place for making cloth and fabric.[10] During the 19th century it had the nickname Cottonopolis,[10] because it had so many cotton mills. The middle of Manchester is important because of its network of canals and mills built during its 19th-century development.[11]

The Peterloo Massacre of 1819 saw fifteen-twenty deaths and several hundred injured.

In the late 18th century, Manchester was much smaller than it is today with about 40,000 people living there.[12] This changed at the start of the Industrial Revolution. During this time, there were revolts about the living conditions for workers. The most well known of these revolts was the Peterloo Massacre. Fifteen to twenty people were killed during the Peterloo Massacre and hundreds of other people were hurt. [13] In 1780, Richard Arkwright built the first cotton mill in the area.[14]

Later in the 1800s, Manchester became most important cotton town in the world. It was also the first 'industrialised' city, meaning that it was the first city to have a big amount of industry in it.[15] Only a small amount of cloth is still made in the city and the trade has mainly stopped. This left a big number of old buildings from that time including the Town Hall, Free Trade Hall and Central Library and left a lot of other buildings empty.

The Manchester Ship Canal was created by the digging of canals in the rivers Irwell and Mersey for 36 miles (58 km) from Salford to the Mersey estuary. This let ocean going ships sail into the Port of Manchester.

The county of Greater Manchester was made in 1974. The county was made from cities and towns in southern Lancashire and northern Cheshire (the two main areas which make up Greater Manchester), and some mainly rural districts of Derbyshire and Yorkshire.

In 1996, the Irish Republican Army put a bomb in a truck in the centre of the city. Nobody was killed, but it did a lot of damage.[16]

On 22 May 2017, a bombing occurred at the Manchester Arena which killed 22 people and injured 55.[17] It was a suicide bombing.[18]

The City of Manchester, the area is almost all "built-up".

Manchester is 160 miles (257 km) northwest of England's capital, London. The city has many canals and rivers which were important to its growth, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries.[19] The largest open space in the city is Heaton Park. It has an area of about 618 acres (250 ha).[20] Heaton Park is a place that attracts many people every year. People go there to see the many animals and the beauty of the countryside. Much of Manchester is built-up (or 'urbanised'). Much of Manchester's rain comes over from the Pennines, which are hills to the east of the city. [21] The city is mainly urban areas but also has some areas which are mainly of farmland. To the south of the centre is Manchester Airport. This is the third largest airport in the United Kingdom.[22]

A revival of the city's importance started in the 1980s. This was partly led by a vibrant music scene whose spirit was called 'Madchester'. It was led by bands such as The Happy Mondays and Joy Division.[23] Indie band The Smiths also came from Manchester. The scene was partly fuelled by the number of students attending the universities and further education colleges in the city. Manchester has the most students in the United Kingdom in term time.[24]

The University of Manchester is the largest university in the UK. It has over 30,000 students.[25] The city also has the UK's fourth largest university, the Manchester Metropolitan University.[26]

The city has two Premier League football teams, Manchester City and Manchester United. Football is a very important part of the culture of the city. Many of the people support or show interest in the sport.[27]

A Metrolink tram going through the city centre.

Manchester and North West England are served by Manchester Airport. The airport has the most passengers in the UK outside London, with 22.1 million passengers in 2007. Planes fly to lots of destinations in Europe, North America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East and Asia (with more destinations from Manchester than from London Heathrow).[28]

Manchester is very well served by train and in terms of passengers, Manchester Piccadilly was the busiest English train station outside London in 2005 and 2006.[29]Northern Rail operates all over the north of England, and other operators include Virgin Trains. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway was the first passenger railway in the world. Greater Manchester has a very big railway network. The city centre has over a lot of park and ride sites. [30] Manchester became the first city in the UK to get a new tram system when the Manchester Metrolink opened in 1992. There are lots of new lines being built.[31]

The city has one of the biggest bus networks outside London with over 50 bus companies operating in the Greater Manchester area around the city. First Manchester and Stagecoach Manchester are the main bus operators.[32] First Manchester also operates three free bus services called Metroshuttle which carry workers around Manchester's business areas.[33]

A big canal network runs though the city, built in the Industrial Revolution, today mainly used for leisure. The Manchester Ship Canal is open, but not many boats use it.[34]

Manchester's buildings display many different types of building styles, from Victorian to contemporary architecture. The very common use of red bricks characterises the look of the city. Much Manchester's architecture dates back to its days as a global centre for the trade of cotton. [14] Just outside the city centre is a large number of former cotton mills, some of which have been left mostly untouched since they were closed, while many others have been turned into apartment buildings and office spaces.Manchester Town Hall, in Albert Square, was built in the gothic revival style and is thought of by many to be one of the most important Victorian buildings in all of England.[35]

The entrance to Whitworth Hall, part of the University of Manchester campus

There are two universities in the city of Manchester. The University of Manchester, created in 2004 when Victoria University of Manchester and UMIST were combined, is the largest full-time non-collegiate university in the United Kingdom.[26] The Manchester Business School, at the University of Manchester, was the first school to offer an MBA course in the United Kingdom in 1965. Manchester Metropolitan University was created as Manchester Polytechnic on the merger of three colleges in 1970. It was given university status in 1992, and in the same year, combined with Crewe and Alsager College of Higher Education, in South Cheshire.[36]

Manchester has twinning plans (or "friendship agreements") with lots of places.[37][38] In addition, the British Council has a "metropolitan centre" in Manchester.[39] Although not an official twin city, Tampere, Finland is known as "the Manchester of Finland" – or "Manse" for short. Also, Ahmedabad, India became the centre of a booming textile industry, and it got the nickname "the Manchester of the East."[40][41]

Country Place County / District / Region / State Date
Nicaragua Bilwi Puerto Cabezas n/a
Germany Chemnitz[42] Saxony 1983
Spain Córdoba Córdoba n/a
Israel Rehovot Center District n/a
Russia Saint Petersburg Northwestern Federal District 1962
China Wuhan Hubei 1986
Pakistan Faisalabad Punjab 1997
  1. "Manchester's Lord Mayor". Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  2. "2011 Census – Key statistics for local authorities in England and Wales". ONS. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
  3. 3.03.1"Global city GDP 2013–2014". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  4. United Kingdom Census 2001 (2001). "Key Statistics for urban areas in England and Wales". Retrieved 2007-06-29.
  5. "Manchester "the north's dynamite capital"". England's North West. 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
    "About Manchester". The University of Manchester. 2003. Archived from the original on 2006-10-27. Retrieved 2006-10-24.
    "Northern Soul Club UK Life Guide". British Council. 2003. Retrieved 2006-10-24.
  6. "Britain's Best Cities 2005–2006 Executive Summary" (PDF). OMIS Research. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-11-26. Retrieved 2007-09-08.
  7. "Manchester – The State of the City". Manchester City Council. 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
  8. ↑ Note: Manchester United's ground is in Greater Manchester but outside Manchester city limits; it is in the borough of Trafford
  9. Kidd, Alan (2006). 'Manchester: A History'. Lancaster, Lancashire: Carnegie Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1859361285.
    Frangopulo, Nicholas (1977). Tradition in Action. The historical evolution of the Greater Manchester County. Wakefield: EP Publishing. ISBN 0715812033.
    "Manchester United in Celebration of City". European Structural Funding. 2002. Archived from the original on 2006-12-07. Retrieved 2006-12-18.
  10. 10.010.1"Manchester Cottonopolis". – Manchester City Council. 2005. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2006-10-24.
  11. "Manchester and Salford (Ancoats, Castlefield and Worsley)". UNESCO. 1999. Retrieved 2006-10-24.
  12. Arrowsmith, Peter. "The population of Manchester from Ad 79 to 1801" (PDF). Greater Manchester Archaeological Journal: 99–102.
  13. "Information". The Peterloo Massacre Memorial Campaign. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
  14. 14.014.1Hartwell, Clare (2001). Pevsner Architectural Guides: Manchester. London, England: Penguin Books. pp. 11–17, 155, 256, 267–268. ISBN 0140711317.
  15. Kidd, Alan (2006). 'Manchester: A History'. Lancaster, Lancashire: Carnegie Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1859361285. Archived from the original on 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2008-11-14.
  16. Hylton, Stuart (2003). A History of Manchester. Phillimore & Co Ltd. pp. 227–230. ISBN 1860772404.
  17. Rawlison, Kevin (22 May 2017). "Police warning after reports of explosion at Manchester Arena". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  18. "Police respond to Manchester Arena blast reports". BBC News. 22 May 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  19. "Waterways in Manchester". Pennine Waterways. Retrieved 2009-10-04.
  20. "". Heaton Park. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2009-10-04.
  21. Thomas, Lesley (2008-08-28). "Don't rain on our parade, Nemanja Vidic". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-10-04.
  22. "Manchester Airport". Manchester City Council. Archived from the original on 2009-11-20. Retrieved 2009-10-04.
  23. "Rochdale claims its place in pop history". Manchester Evening News. 2009-09-26. Retrieved 2009-10-04.
  24. "Local Area Info". Archived from the original on 2010-05-14. Retrieved 2009-10-23.
  25. "Manchester still top of the popularity league". University of Manchester. 18 January 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
  26. 26.026.1"Manchester still top of the popularity league". University of Manchester. 18 January 2007. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  27. "Football fever". Visit Manchester web pages. Visit Manchester. Retrieved 2007-09-23.
  28. Wilson, James (26 April 2007). "A busy hub of connectivity". Financial Times – FT report – doing business in Manchester and the NorthWest. The Financial Times Limited.
  29. "Passenger Numbers 2005-06". Archived from the original on 2013-01-22. Retrieved 2007-10-01.
  30. "GMPTE Park & Ride – Stations and Stops". GMPTE. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-10-09. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
  31. "Metrolink: a network for the twenty-first century" (PDF). GMPTE. 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-27. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
  32. "GMPTE Trends and Statistics 2001/2002" (PDF). GMPTE. 2002. pp. 28–9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-27. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
  33. Satchell, Clarissa (22 September 2005). "Free buses on another city route". Manchester Evening News. M.E.N media. Retrieved 2007-09-18.
  34. "North West Cities". Waterscape. British Waterways. 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-10-24. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
    Pivaro, Nigel (20 October 2006). "Ship canal cruising is all the rage". Manchester Evening News. M.E.N media. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
  35. ↑ Robinson (1986), The Architecture of Northern England, p. 153
  36. Fowler, Alan (1994). Many Arts, Many Skills: Origins of Manchester Metropolitan University. Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University. pp. 115–20, 226–8. ISBN 1-870355-05-9.
  37. Stevens, Val (18 May 2007). "Questions to the Deputy Leader in 2007". Manchester City Council web pages. Manchester City Council. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
  38. "Friendship Agreements". Manchester City Council. Archived from the original on 2008-06-11. Retrieved 2008-01-11.
  39. "British Council Annual Report". British Council. 2006. Archived from the original on 2009-01-17. Retrieved 2007-07-07.
  40. Engineer, Ashgar Ali (2003). The Gujarat Carnage. Orient Longman. p. 196. ISBN 8125024964.
  41. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (2006). "Profile of the City Ahmedabad" (PDF). Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Ahmedabad, Urban Development Authority and CEPT University, Ahmedabad. Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-08-19. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
  42. ↑ At the time of the twinning agreement, the city was in the German Democratic Republic and named Karl-Marx-Stadt. See "Friendship Agreements". Manchester City Council. Archived from the original on 2008-06-11. Retrieved 2008-01-11.
  • General
    • Beesley, Ian (1988). Victorian Manchester and Salford. Keele: Ryburn. ISBN 1-85331-006-9.
    • Hylton, Stuart (2003). A History of Manchester. Chichester: Phillimore & Company. ISBN 1-86077-240-4.
    • Kidd, Alan J (1993). Manchester. Town and City Histories. Keele: Ryburn. ISBN 1-85331-016-6.
    • The Mancunian Way. Manchester: Clinamen Press Ltd. 2002. ISBN 1-903083-81-8.
    • Redhead, Brian (1993). Manchester: a Celebration. London: Andre Deutsch Ltd. ISBN 0-233-98816-5.
    • Schofield, Jonathan (2005). The City Life Guide to Manchester. Manchester: City Life. ISBN 0-9549042-2-2.
  • Culture
    • Champion, Sarah (1990). And God Created Manchester. Manchester: Wordsmith. ISBN 1-873205-01-5.
    • Gatenby, Phill (2002). Morrissey's Manchester: The Essential "Smiths" Tour. Empire Publications. ISBN 1-901746-28-3.
    • Haslam, Dave (2000). Manchester, England. New York: Fourth Estate. ISBN 1-84115-146-7.
    • Lee, C P (2002). Shake, Rattle and Rain – Popular Music Making in Manchester 1955–1995. Hardinge Simpole. ISBN 1-84382-049-8.
    • Lee, C P (2004). Like The Night (Revisited): Bob Dylan and the Road to the Manchester Free Trade Hall. London: Helter Skelter Publishing. ISBN 1-900924-33-1.
    • The Hacienda Must Be Built. International Music Publications. 1992. ISBN 0-86359-857-9.
  • "Manchester City Council". Retrieved 2009-10-24.
  • "Visit Manchester, the official tourist board". Retrieved 2009-10-24.
  • "The Official Manchester City Guide". Retrieved 2009-10-24.
  • "BBC Manchester". Retrieved 2009-10-24.
  • "Rail map of Greater Manchester" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2009-10-24.
  • "National Statistics Profile". Retrieved 2009-10-24.

Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

England is a country in Europe. It is a country with over sixty cities in it. It is in a union with Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. All four countries are in the British Isles and are part of the United Kingdom (UK).

Over 55 million people live in England (2015 estimate). This is 84% of the population of the UK.[4] The capital city of England is London, which is also the biggest city in the country. Other large cities in England are Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester and Leeds.

The English flag is a red cross on a white background. This cross is the cross of Saint George, who is the patron saint of England. Some other symbols used for England are a red rose and three lions.

The earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, about 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date to 500,000 years ago. The Beaker culture arrived around 2,500 BC. They used drinking and food vessels made from clay, and vessels used as reduction pots to smelt copper ores.

It was during this time that major Neolithic monuments such as Stonehenge and Avebury were constructed. By heating together tin and copper, plentiful in the area, the Beaker culture people made bronze. Later on they made iron from iron ores. The development of iron smelting allowed the construction of better ploughs, advancing agriculture (for instance, with Celtic fields), as well as the production of more effective weapons.

During the Iron Age, Celtic culture, deriving from the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, arrived from Central Europe. Brythonic was the spoken language during this time. Society was tribal; according to Ptolemy's Geographia there were around 20 tribes in the area. Earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons were not literate. Like other regions on the edge of the Empire, Britain had long enjoyed trading links with the Romans. Julius Caesar of the Roman Republic attempted to invade twice in 55 BC; although largely unsuccessful, he managed to set up a client king from the Trinovantes.

The Romans invaded Britain in 43 AD during the reign of Emperor Claudius, later conquering much of Britain. The area was added to the Roman Empire as the Province of Britannia. The best-known of the native tribes who attempted to resist were the Catuvellauni led by Caratacus. Later, an uprising led by Boudica, Queen of the Iceni, ended with Boudica's suicide following her defeat at the Battle of Watling Street.

The author of one study of Roman Britain suggested that from 43 AD to 84 AD, the Roman invaders killed somewhere between 100,000 and 250,000 people from a population of perhaps 2,000,000. The Greco-Roman culture prevailed with the introduction of Roman law, Roman architecture, aqueducts, sewers, many agricultural items and silk. In the 3rd century, Emperor Septimius Severus died at Eboracum (now York), where Constantine was proclaimed emperor a century later. Rich in resource and goods, Roman Britain was a wealthy and flourishing trading province of the Roman Empire.

Roman military withdrawals left Britain open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors from north-western continental Europe, chiefly the Saxons, Angles, Jutes and Frisians who had long raided the coasts of the Roman province. These groups then began to settle in increasing numbers over the course of the fifth and sixth centuries, initially in the eastern part of the country. Their advance was contained for some decades after the Britons' victory at the Battle of Mount Badon. Later it resumed, overrunning the fertile lowlands of Britain and, by the end of the 6th century, reducing the area under Brittonic control to a series of enclaves in the more rugged country to the west. Contemporary texts describing this period are extremely scarce, giving rise to its description as a Dark Age.

The nature and progress of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is unclear. It occurred on a large scale in the south and east but was less substantial to the north and west, where Celtic languages continued to be spoken even in areas under Anglo-Saxon control. Roman-dominated Christianity had, in general, been replaced in the conquered territories by Anglo-Saxon paganism, but was reintroduced by missionaries from Rome led by Augustine from 597 onwards. Disputes between the Roman- and Celtic-dominated forms of Christianity ended in victory for the Roman tradition at the Council of Whitby (664), which was superficially about tonsures (clerical haircuts) and the date of Easter, but more significantly, about the differences in Roman and Celtic forms of authority, theology, and practice.

The early Anglo-Saxon period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds. Christianity was established with a great flowering of literature and language. Charters and laws were also established. Anglo-Saxon material culture can still be seen in architecture, dress styles, illuminated texts, metalwork and other art. Behind the symbolic nature of these cultural emblems, there are strong elements of tribal and lordship ties. The lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous tribal territories, but by the 7th century, when substantial evidence of the situation again becomes available, these had coalesced into roughly a dozen kingdoms including Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex, East Anglia, Kent and Sussex. Over the following centuries, this process of political consolidation continued.

The 7th century saw a struggle for hegemony between Northumbria and Mercia, which in the 8th century gave way to Mercian preeminence. In the early 9th century Mercia was displaced as the foremost kingdom by Wessex. Later in that century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia. Wessex under Alfred the Great was left as the only surviving English kingdom, and under his successors, it steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the Danelaw. After many battles, King Alfred the Great of Wessex became king of the whole of England. The old kingdoms (Mercia, Northumbria, etc.) became provinces, called "Earldoms" and each governed by an Earl. By AD 927 Alfred's grandson Athelstan was the king of all of England not controlled by the Danes. War with the Danes continued and from 1016 to 1042. The king of Denmark (Knut or Canute), died in 1035, and then his sons ruled England.

This brought about the political unification of England, first accomplished under Æthelstan in 927 and definitively established after further conflicts by Eadred in 953. A fresh wave of Scandinavian attacks from the late 10th century ended with the conquest of this united kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in 1013 and again by his son Cnut in 1016, turning it into the centre of a short-lived North Sea Empire that also included Denmark and Norway. However, the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor in 1042. When King Edward the Confessor died, Harold Godwinson (the Earl of Wessex) became king. William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy (today part of northern France), said that Harold had promised to make William the king. He invaded England and fought King Harold at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. William won, and became king of England.

Subsequently, the House of Plantagenet from Anjou inherited the English throne under Henry II, adding England to the budding Angevin Empire of fiefs the family had inherited in France including Aquitaine. They reigned for three centuries, some noted monarchs being Richard I, Edward I, Edward III and Henry V. The period saw changes in trade and legislation, including the signing of the Magna Carta, an English legal charter used to limit the sovereign's powers by law and protect the privileges of freemen. Catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage. The Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during the 13th century and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope.

During the 14th century, the Plantagenets and the House of Valois both claimed to be legitimate claimants to the House of Capet and with it France; the two powers clashed in the Hundred Years' War. The Black Death epidemic hit England; starting in 1348, it eventually killed up to half of England's inhabitants. From 1453 to 1487 civil war occurred between two branches of the royal family – the Yorkists and Lancastrians – known as the Wars of the Roses. Eventually it led to the Yorkists losing the throne entirely to a Welsh noble family the Tudors, a branch of the Lancastrians headed by Henry Tudor who invaded with Welsh and Breton mercenaries, gaining victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field where the Yorkist king Richard III was killed.

For several centuries the religion of England was Roman Catholicism. The bishops (church leaders) of England and all their churches obeyed the Pope and the church in Rome. During the Protestant Reformation many did not agree with this. In the 1530s, the Pope told King Henry VIII that he could not divorce his wife. King Henry VIII created the Church of England (a "Protestant" church) partly so that he could divorce his wife. He made Protestantism the official church in England. For the next 200 years, there was struggle over whether the King (or Queen) of England should be "Roman Catholic" or "Protestant".

Queen Elizabeth I was Henry's second daughter. She was a powerful queen who ruled for more than 40 years. Elizabethan England represented the apogee of the English Renaissance and saw the flowering of art, poetry, music and literature. The era is most famous for its drama, theatre and playwrights. When Queen Elizabeth I died, she had no children, and in 1603 James VI of Scotland (the son of Mary, Queen of Scots) became King James I of England. He called his two countries "Great Britain", but they were still separate countries with their own parliaments and laws, even though they were in personal union. They shared the same monarch.

Portrait of Charles I of England

James' son, Charles I and the English Parliament fought each other in the English Civil War (Scotland and Ireland were involved as well, but the story is complicated!). Oliver Cromwell became leader of the Parliamentary Army (the "Roundheads") and defeated the Royalist Army (the "Cavaliers"). King Charles was beheaded in 1649 and Oliver Cromwell became dictator ("Lord Protector"). When Cromwell died, his son Richard was not strong enough to rule, and Charles II, the son of Charles I, was invited to come to England and be king in 1660.

When King Charles II died, his brother James II was the next king. A lot of people did not like James because he was Roman Catholic. William of Orange was invited to invade England.[5] He was the ruler of part of the Netherlands and husband of Mary, the daughter of King James. Many people welcomed William because he was a Protestant. James left the country without a fight and Parliament asked William and Mary to become King and Queen together. When Mary II of England died, William ruled alone. Queen Mary's sister Anne became the next queen. While she was queen, England and Scotland were officially joined as one country. This was called the Acts of Union 1707. It also merged their separate parliaments. The parliament in London now included Scottish Members of Parliament ("MPs"), and was called the Parliament of Great Britain.

After this, the history of England becomes the history of Great Britain and United Kingdom. Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other English initiatives combined with the Scottish Enlightenment created innovations in science and engineering, while the enormous growth in British overseas trade protected by the Royal Navy paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire. Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution, a period of profound change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development.

The United Kingdom was formed in 1800, when the Irish Parliament merged with the British one. later on, many in Ireland fought against this merger. The result was the separation of the Republic of Ireland. This is not the whole island of Ireland. The rest of the island, Northern Ireland, is now the only part of Ireland still in the UK. England is the only country of UK not to have its own government, Parliament or Assembly, but is governed by Parliament of the United Kingdom. Seats in Parliament are decided by the number of electors in the various parts of the UK.

England is the largest part of the island of Great Britain, and it is also the largest constituent country of the United Kingdom. Scotland and Wales are also part of Great Britain (and the UK), Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. To the east and south, and part of the west, England is bordered by sea. France is to the south, separated by the English Channel. The Channel Tunnel, (Chunnel) under the English Channel, connects England to northern France (and the rest of mainland Europe). Ireland is a large island to the west, divided into Northern Ireland which is part of the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland.

London is the largest city and the capital. The longest river in England is the River Severn. Other large rivers are the Thames (which runs through London), the Trent and the Humber.

In geological terms, the Pennines, known as the "backbone of England", are the oldest range of mountains in the country, originating from the end of the Paleozoic Era around 300 million years ago. Most of England's landscape consists of low hills and plains, with upland and mountainous terrain in the north and west of the country.

Glenridding, Cumbria.

The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills, Chiltern Hills, North and South Downs; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover. This also includes relatively flat plains such as the Salisbury Plain, Somerset Levels, South Coast Plain and The Fens.

The United Kingdom is reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It has met Kyoto Protocol target of a 12.5% reduction from 1990 levels and intends to meet the legally binding target of a 20% cut in emissions by 2010. In 2019, the British Parliament became the first national government in the world to officially declare a climate emergency.

England has been central to many aspects of the modern world. Global exploration and trade, the British Empire, modern science, modern agriculture, railways, the Industrial Revolution, the development of modern representative democracy. In all these developments England was deeply involved. In some of them, such as the Industrial Revolution, England was the place that modern developments first occurred.

The Royal Society is a society for science and scientists. It was founded in 1660 by Charles II. It is the oldest society of its kind still in existence.

Main article: English language

The English language is a West Germanic language spoken in many countries around the world. With around 380 million native speakers, it is the second most spoken language in the world, as a native language. As many as a billion people speak it as a second language. English is an influence on, and has been influenced by, many different languages.

William Shakespeare was an English playwright. He wrote plays in the late 16th century. Some of his plays were Romeo and Juliet and Macbeth. In the 19th century, Jane Austen and Charles Dickens were novelists. Twentieth century writers include the science fiction novelist H.G. Wells and J.R.R. Tolkien. The children's fantasy Harry Potter series was written by J.K. Rowling. Aldous Huxley was also from the United Kingdom.

English language literature is written by authors from many countries. Eight people from the United Kingdom have won the Nobel Prize in Literature.

All of Great Britain has an oceanic climate. There can be a temperature difference of 5–10°c between the north and the south (the north is generally colder), and there is often snow in the north before there is in the south.

The prevailing wind for most of the year is from the Atlantic, to the west of England. Therefore, there is more rain on the western side of the country. The east is colder and drier than the west. The country usually has a mild climate because the Gulf Stream to the western side is warm water. The climate is warmer than it was 200 years ago, and now ice and snow are rare in the southern part of the country. Occasionally, air from the Arctic Circle comes down the eastern side of the country and the temperature can drop below 0oC.

Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom

As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system. It has a monarch (meaning a king or queen is the head of that country). The head of state is King Charles III, who is became King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland upon his Mother's death on 9/8/2022, after her historical 70 year reign. In the House of Commons which is the lower house of the British Parliament based at the Palace of Westminster, there are 532 Members of Parliament (MPs) for constituencies in England, out of the 650 total.

The English people are represented by members of Parliament, not ruled by monarchs. After the English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector, and the monarchy was disbanded. Although the monarchy was restored after his death, the Crown slowly became the secondary power, and Parliament the first. Members of Parliament (called MPs) were elected, but until the early twentieth century, only men who owned property could vote. In the nineteenth century, more people were given suffrage. But in 1928, all men and women got the vote: this is called universal suffrage. Parliament is in Westminster in London, but it has power over the whole of the United Kingdom.

Almost all members of Parliament belong to political parties. The biggest parties are the Conservative Party, Labour Party, Liberal Democrats and Green Party. Members of the same party agree to act and vote more or less together. A party with more than half the seats (a majority) forms the government; the leader of the party becomes the Prime Minister, who then appoints other ministers. Because the government has a majority in Parliament, it can normally control what laws are passed.

England's economy is one of the largest and most dynamic in the world, with an average GDP per capita of £28,100 or $36,000.

Usually regarded as a mixed market economy, it has adopted many free market principles, yet maintains an advanced social welfare infrastructure. The official currency in England is the pound sterling, whose ISO 4217 code is GBP. Taxation in England is quite competitive when compared to much of the rest of Europe – as of 2014 the basic rate of personal tax is 20% on taxable income up to £31,865 above the personal tax-free allowance (normally £10,000), and 40% on any additional earnings above that amount.

The economy of England is the largest part of the UK's economy, which has the 18th highest GDP PPP per capita in the world. England is a leader in the chemical and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace, the arms industry, and the manufacturing side of the software industry. London, home to the London Stock Exchange, the United Kingdom's main stock exchange and the largest in Europe, is England's financial centre, with 100 of Europe's 500 largest corporations being based there. London is the largest financial centre in Europe, and as of 2014 is the second largest in the world. Manchester is the largest financial and professional services sector outside London and is the mid tier private equity capital of Europe as well as one of the growing technology hubs of Europe.

The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England and one of the busiest cities in the world. It is considered a global city and has a population larger than any other country in the United Kingdom besides England itself.

Other urban areas of considerable size and influence tend to be in northern England or the English Midlands. There are 52 settlements which have designated city status in England, while the wider United Kingdom has 70. City status in England is granted by the monarch to a select group of communities.

While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Newcastle, Bradford, Nottingham, population size is not a prerequisite for city status. Traditionally the status was given to towns with diocesan cathedrals, so there are smaller cities like Wells, Ely, Ripon, Truro and Chichester.

State primary schools and secondary schools exist. These consist of academy schools, grammar schools, foundation schools, faith schools, free schools, studio schools, university technical colleges and city technology colleges. The most common specialist schools are performing arts schools, science schools, maths schools, business schools and technology schools.[6] Independent public or prep schools also exist. Eton College and Harrow School are the best known independent schools.

The National Curriculum was introduced in 1988, to give pupils a broad and balanced curriculum. The school curriculum aims to promote the spiritual, moral, cultural, mental and physical development of pupils. Its purpose is to prepare them for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of later life. The basic areas of learning covers English literature, English language, maths, science, art and design, citizenship, religious education, geography, history, computing, design and technology, ancient and modern foreign languages, music and physical education.[5]

Many prominent people who have reached the top in their fields have been products of English higher education. There have been universities in England since the Middle Ages. Ancient universities started in this time and in the Renaissance. The two oldest and most prestigious universities are Oxford University and Cambridge University. Imperial College, University College London and Manchester University are also highly rated by independent lists. There are now about a hundred universities.

Road traffic in the United Kingdom drives on the left hand side of the road (unlike the Americas and most of Europe), and the driver steers from the right hand side of the vehicle. The road network on the island of Great Britain is extensive, with most local and rural roads having evolved from Roman and Medieval times.

The system of rail transport was invented in England, so it has the oldest railway network in the world. It was built mostly during the Victorian era. The extensive railway network is managed by the state-owned public body Great British Railways (GBR). The system of underground railways in London, known as the Tube, has been copied by many other cities around the globe. England is home to the largest airport and is one of the most important international hubs in the world.

The BBC is an organisation in the United Kingdom. It broadcasts in the United Kingdom and other countries on television, radio and the Internet. The BBC also sells its programmes to other broadcasting companies around world. The organisation is run by a group of twelve governors who have been given the job by the Queen, on the advice of government ministers. The BBC is established under a royal charter, which allows the BBC to broadcast.

National newspapers produced in England include The Times, The Guardian and the Financial Times. Magazines and journals published in England that have achieved worldwide circulation include Nature, New Scientist, The Spectator, Prospect, NME and The Economist.   

See English literature, English Heritage, Aldeburgh Festival, The Royal Society

English culture can be compared with Northern European countries, in the way that it is considered a bad thing to show off, as opposed to the US, where this is more acceptable. Humour, tradition and good manners are characteristics commonly associated with being English.

Sport[change | change source]

England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world. Sports originating in England include association football, cricket, rugby union, rugby league, tennis, boxing, badminton, squash, rounders, hockey, snooker, billiards, darts, table tennis, bowls, netball, thoroughbred horseracing, and greyhound racing. It has helped the development of golf, sailing and Formula One.

The English football team won the World Cup in 1966. They came close in Italy 1990, closely losing in the semi-final against West Germany on penalties. In the 2006 World Cup they got to the quarter finals, then lost to Portugal after penalty kicks. In the 2018 FIFA World Cup, they came close again only to be knocked out in the semi-final, losing 2-1 to Croatia. After winning the 2019 Cricket World Cup, England became the first country to win the World Cups in football, rugby union and cricket.[7]

English people invented:

  • Football
  • Rugby football
  • Cricket
  • Billiards and snooker
  • Lawn tennis
  • Rounders
  • Rowing
  • Darts
  • Hockey
  • Tennis

There are many well known English people. Here are just a few of them:

  • Geoffrey Chaucer (1343–1400), poet
  • William Shakespeare (1564–1616), playwright, poet
  • Sir Christopher Wren (1632–1723), architect
  • Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727), mathematician and physicist
  • King Henry VIII, founder of the Church of England
  • John Wesley, founder of the Methodist Church
  • Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775–1851), landscape and marine artist
  • John Constable (1776–1837), landscape painter
  • Jane Austen (1775–1817), novelist, Pride and Prejudice
  • William Wordsworth (1770–1850), poet
  • Michael Faraday (1791–1867), discoverer of electromagnetism
  • Charles Dickens (1812–1870), writer
  • Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806–1859), engineer
  • Charles Darwin (1809–1882), biologist, natural selection and The Origin of Species
  • J.J. Thomson (1856–1940), physicist
  • Howard Carter (1874–1939), archaeologist (Egypt)
  • Sir Winston Churchill (1874–1965), twice Prime Minister, led country during World War II
  • J. R.R. Tolkien (1892–1973), author and scholar, The Lord of the Rings
  • Francis Crick (1916–2004), co-discovery of the structure of DNA
  • Sir Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web
  • The Beatles, musical group: (1962–1970)
  • Led Zeppelin, rock band
  • The Rolling Stones, rock band
  • Diana, Princess of Wales (1961–1997)
  • Margaret Thatcher (1925–2013), Prime Minister 1979–1990
  • Sir Stanley Matthews (1915–2000), footballer, 1956 Ballon d'Or winner
  • Bobby Moore (1941–1993), footballer, captain of the England team that won the 1966 FIFA World Cup.
  • Sir Bobby Charlton, footballer, 1966 Ballon d'Or winner
  • Ronnie O'Sullivan, snooker player
  • Mo Farah, athlete
  • Lewis Hamilton, Formula 1 driver and world champion 2008, 2014, 2015, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020
  • Amy Winehouse (1983–2011), singer
  • J.K. Rowling, author
  • Stephen Hawking (1942-2018), theoretical physicist

Flag of the English county of Somerset

England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties, which are also known as geographic counties. The counties of England are areas used for different purposes, which include administrative, geographical, cultural and political demarcation. The original county structure has its origins in the Middle Ages. The historic counties of Yorkshire, Cumberland, Westmorland, Huntingdonshire and Middlesex are the five defunct ceremonial counties which were historically counties.

With their abolition as ceremonial counties, Yorkshire is divided for that purpose into the East Riding of Yorkshire, North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire and West Yorkshire, Cumberland and Westmorland were combined with a former exclave of Lancashire to form Cumbria, Huntingdonshire merged into Cambridgeshire, and the vast majority of Middlesex became part of Greater London.

There is no well-established series of official symbols or flags covering all the counties. From 1889 the newly-created county councils could apply to the College of Arms for coats of arms. A recent series of flags, with varying levels of official adoption, have been established in many of the counties by competition or public poll. County days are a recent innovation in some areas. There are seventeen first-class county cricket teams that are based on historical English counties.

Twelve of the 51 cities in England are in metropolitan counties and their city councils are single-tier metropolitan district councils. Outside the metropolitan counties eleven cities are unitary authorities, and fifteen have ordinary district councils, which are subordinate to their local county council.

  • Shire
  1. "2011 Census: KS201EW Ethnic group: local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  2. ↑ Region and Country Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October 2013, ONS. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  3. "Population estimates for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland – Office for National Statistics".
  4. 4.04.1Jonathan, McMullan (28 June 2018). "Population estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland". Office for National Statistics.
  5. 5.05.1 Colley, Linda 1992. Britons: forging the nation, 1701–1837. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-05737-9
  6. "Types of school". GOV.UK. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  7. "England 1st country to win Cricket World Cup, Football World Cup and Rugby World Cup". India Today. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  • The website for tourism in England
  • The British Government website Archived 2007-01-23 at the Wayback Machine

Team members stubbornly refuse to accept my suggestions

"During discussions, team members stubbornly refuse to accept my suggestions on user interface, layout, content."

Andrey, ah fil yor payne. The problem is that you do not fully understand how decisions are made in the project, what is expected of you and in what form. Expectations do not match reality, hence the dissatisfaction.

First of all, you need to understand who makes the final decision. If this is not a project manager, but a team, then the matter is even more complicated.

Then you need to figure out who attracted you to the project and what exactly is expected of you. If you were invited by the project manager, then you need to arrange a personal meeting and conduct full-fledged negotiations. Find out exactly what he wants from you, when and in what form, draw up and approve a plan, decide who will accept work from you and how exactly, think about how you will coordinate with other team members and how to avoid double work. Discuss how the extra work will affect your main job (if not, then the question arises why you are idling :-)

The negotiating agenda itself suggests that the initial statement of the problem is wrong. Once again, I will emphasize the questions: why did sketches and content become your responsibility? What does a designer do? Typesetter? Editor? Why is your opinion important to the team? What is this format of a general discussion and what is its use?

Without answers, it is pointless to continue with the project and wait for gratitude. Unsolicited work is often not needed by anyone.

A few more important thoughts.

Be careful about thinking colleagues are incompetent. Allowing yourself to be wrong can help you build healthy relationships with your co-workers.

Do you really care so much about users and their habits? Or is it more unpleasant for you that they do not agree with you and do not appreciate your work? There is nothing bad in the second option, but be honest with yourself.

If you are just offended by the attitude of colleagues, feel free to leave the project, to whom and what are you trying to prove?

About unsolicited work

  • About believing that the website is flawed

  • About unsolicited advice

  • About free design

  • About navigating the clinic

If you're really worried that the company is losing profit (and if it's not about profit, why is it so important?), negotiate only with the owner of the project at first. Don't discuss the rule of inside and outside, but solve the fundamental question: how do you act if you think that the current design will hurt the company and you want to help avoid a mistake. First you must allow speak out. At first glance, it sounds strange, but no one likes unsolicited advice, even if they are very practical.

On uninvited work

  • On the conviction of the site

  • On uninvited tips

  • On free design

  • On the clinic


P.S. This was Friday's negotiation and customer relationship advice. Submit questions.

Customer Relationship








What is the SCO?

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is a permanent intergovernmental international organization.

The main goals of the SCO include: strengthening mutual trust and good neighborliness between member states; promotion of their effective cooperation in the political, trade, economic, scientific, technical and cultural fields, as well as in the field of education, energy, transport, tourism, environmental protection and others; joint provision and maintenance of peace, security and stability in the region; moving towards the creation of a democratic, just and rational new international political and economic order.

In relations within the organization, the SCO member states adhere to the idea of ​​the "Shanghai spirit" and the principles of consensus and mutual trust, mutually beneficial cooperation, equality, mutual consultations, respect for the diversity of cultures and the pursuit of common development; and in foreign relations - the principles of openness, non-affiliation with blocs and non-direction against third countries.

History of the SCO

The establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) was announced on June 15, 2001 in Shanghai (PRC) by the Republic of Kazakhstan, the People's Republic of China, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan and the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Prior to this, all these countries, with the exception of Uzbekistan, were members of the "Shanghai Five" - ​​a political association based on the Agreement on Confidence Building in the Military Field in the Border Area (Shanghai, 1996) and the Agreement on Mutual Reduction of Armed Forces in the Border Area (Moscow, 1997). These two documents laid the foundation for a mechanism of mutual trust in the military field in the border areas and contributed to the establishment of truly partnership relations. After the inclusion in the organization of Uzbekistan (2001), the “five” became the “six” and was renamed the SCO.

The tasks of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization initially lay in the sphere of mutual intra-regional actions to suppress terrorist acts, separatism and extremism in Central Asia. In June 2002, at the St. Petersburg Summit of the SCO Heads of State, the Charter of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization was signed, which entered into force on September 19, 2003. This is the basic statutory document that fixes the goals and principles of the organization, its structure and main activities. In addition, in 2006 the SCO announced plans to fight the international drug mafia as a financial backbone of terrorism in the world, and in 2008 - active participation in the normalization of the situation in Afghanistan.

At the same time, the activities of the SCO also received a broad economic focus. In September 2003, the heads of government of the SCO member states signed a 20-year program of multilateral trade and economic cooperation. As a long-term goal, it is envisaged to create a free trade zone in the SCO space, and in the short term - to intensify the process of creating favorable conditions in the field of trade and investment.

At the meeting of the Council of Heads of State of the SCO Member States in Ufa on July 10, 2015, it was decided to launch the procedure for admitting new members of the Organization - India and Pakistan. An agreement was reached on raising the status of participation in the work of the SCO of the Republic of Belarus to an observer state. In addition, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Cambodia and Nepal are joining the SCO family as dialogue partners.

On June 8-9, 2017, Astana hosted a historic meeting of the Council of Heads of State of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, during which the status of a member state of the Organization was granted to the Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

Which countries are participating in the work of the SCO?

Eight countries are SCO member states - the Republic of India, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the People's Republic of China, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan and the Republic of Uzbekistan;

Four countries have the status of an observer state in the SCO - the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, the Republic of Belarus, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Republic of Mongolia;

Six countries are dialogue partners of the SCO - the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Republic of Armenia, the Kingdom of Cambodia, the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, the Republic of Turkey, the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.

How is the working process of the SCO organized?

The highest decision-making body in the SCO is the Council of Heads of State (CHS). It meets once a year and makes decisions on all important issues.

The Council of Heads of Government of the SCO (CGP) meets once a year to discuss the strategy of multilateral cooperation and priority areas for development, address fundamental and topical issues of economic and other cooperation, and also approves the annual budget of the organization.

In addition to the meetings of the CHS and the CHP, there is a mechanism of meetings at the level of heads of parliaments, law enforcement agencies, supreme and arbitration courts, secretaries of security councils, prosecutors general, as well as ministers of foreign affairs, defense, emergency situations, economy, transport, culture, education and healthcare.

The Council of National Coordinators of the SCO (CNC) serves as the coordination mechanism within the SCO.

The Organization has two permanent bodies - the Secretariat in Beijing (PRC) and the Executive Committee of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure in Tashkent (Republic of Uzbekistan).

The Secretary General and the Director of the Executive Committee are appointed by the Council of Heads of State for a term of three years. Since January 1, 2016, these posts have been occupied by Rashid Kutbiddinovich Alimov (Republic of Tajikistan) and Evgeny Sergeevich Sysoev (Russian Federation), respectively.

Russian and Chinese are recognized as official working languages ​​of the SCO.

What is the SCO RATS?

The Executive Committee of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) of the SCO is a permanent body. The headquarters of the organization is located in the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan - the city of Tashkent.

The SCO RATS Executive Committee in its activities is guided by the provisions of the SCO Charter, the Shanghai Convention on Combating Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism, the Agreement between the SCO Member States on the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure, as well as other documents and decisions adopted within the SCO.

What is the SCO Business Council?

The Business Council of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (BC SCO) was established on June 14, 2006 in Shanghai (China) and is a non-governmental structure that brings together the most authoritative representatives of the business community of the SCO member states in order to expand economic cooperation, establish direct ties and dialogue between business and financial circles, promoting the practical promotion of multilateral projects. Among the priority areas of interstate cooperation, along with energy, transport, telecommunications, credit and banking, the Council highlights the interaction of the SCO countries in the field of education, science and innovative technologies, healthcare and agriculture.

The SCO BC is an independent structure capable of making advisory decisions and providing expert assessments on promising areas for involving representatives of the business community of the SCO member states in trade, economic and investment cooperation within the organization.

The supreme body of the SCO BC is the annual session, which determines priorities and develops the main directions of its activities, resolves the most important issues of relations with business associations of other states.

The permanent Secretariat of the SCO BC is located in Moscow.

What is the SCO Interbank Association?

The SCO Interbank Association (IBC SCO) was established by the decision of the Council of Heads of Government on October 26, 2005 to organize a mechanism for financing and banking investment projects supported by the governments of the SCO member states. The meeting of the SCO IBC is held with the general consent of the parties as necessary, but at least once a year. The chairmanship of the council is carried out on the principle of rotation.

Members of the IBO SCO include: the Development Bank of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the State Development Bank of the People's Republic of China, the Settlement and Savings Company of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan JSC "RSK Bank", Vnesheconombank of the Russian Federation, the State Savings Bank of the Republic of Tajikistan "Amonatbonk" and the National Bank for Foreign Economic Affairs Republic of Uzbekistan.

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