Descriptive research study design
Descriptive Research Design - Voxco
When conducting a study, researchers generally try to find an explanation for the existence of a phenomenon. They want to understand “why” the phenomenon occurred.
However, before identifying why a phenomenon occurred, it is integral to answer other questions first. You need to have answers to the “what”, “when”, “how”, and “where” before you can understand the “why”. This is where descriptive research comes in.
The descriptive research design involves using a range of qualitative and quantitative research methods to collect data that aids in accurately describing a research problem.
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What is Descriptive Research Design?
Descriptive research design is a type of research design that aims to systematically obtain information to describe a phenomenon, situation, or population. More specifically, it helps answer the what, when, where, and how questions regarding the research problem rather than the why.
A researcher can conduct this research using various methodologies. It predominantly employs quantitative data, although qualitative data is sometimes used for descriptive purposes.
It is important to note that in the descriptive research method, the researcher does not control or manipulate any variables, unlike in experimental research. Instead, the variables are only identified, observed, and measured.
Surveys and observation are the most used method to conduct this research design. You can leverage online survey tools or offline survey tools to gather data as per your research objective.
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What are the Characteristics of Descriptive Research Design?
Let’s take a look at the defining characteristics of the descriptive research design:
1.Quantitative in nature
Descriptive research involves the collection of quantifiable and systematic data that can be used for the statistical analysis of the research problem.
2. Uncontrolled variables
One of the most prominent characteristics of descriptive research is that, unlike in experimental research, the variables are not controlled or manipulated. Instead, they are simply identified, observed, and measured.
3. A basis for further research
The data collected in descriptive research provides a base for further research as it helps obtain a comprehensive understanding of the research question so that it can be answered appropriately.
4. Cross-sectional studies
The descriptive research method is generally carried out through cross-sectional studies. A cross-sectional study is a type of observational study that involves gathering information on various variables at the individual level at a given point in time.
Example of Descriptive Research Design
To gain a deeper understanding of the descriptive method of research, let’s consider the following example:
Company XYZ is a girls’ shoe brand catering to girls specifically between the ages of 4 to 14.
They want to start selling shoes for boys of the same age group as well and therefore want to gather information on the kind of shoes boys want to wear. They decide to conduct market research & choose the observational method to learn about different shoes boys wear nowadays.
Naturalistic observation can be conducted by observing boys’ shoes in schools, malls, playgrounds, and other public spaces.
This will help company XYZ identify the kind of shoes boys wear nowadays so that they can create the kind of products that will appeal to this audience.
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Why use Descriptive Research Design?
Descriptive research allows researchers to thoroughly investigate the background of a research problem before further research can be carried out.
There are many different contexts in which the use of a descriptive research design is beneficial, including the following:
1. To measure data trends
The descriptive method of research can be used to measure changes in variables over a period of time, allowing trends to be identified and analyzed.
2. To compare variables
Descriptive research can be used to compare different variables and how different demographics respond to different variables.
3. To define the characteristics of subjects
It can also be used to determine the different characteristics of the subjects. This can include characteristics such as opinions, traits, behavior, etc.
4. To verify or validate existing conditions
Descriptive research can prove to be a useful tool when trying to test the validity of an existing condition as it involves conducting an in-depth analysis of every variable before drawing conclusions.
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Advantages of Descriptive Research Design
The following are a few advantages of using a descriptive research design:
1. Multiple methods of data collection
A research can use a wide range of methods for data collection, such as case study, observational, and survey methods. They can also decide how they want to collect the data, online, offline, or via phone.
2. Fast and cost-effective
As the descriptive research design often employs the use of surveys, data can be collected from a very large sample size quickly and cost-effectively.
Researchers aiming to conduct market research using this research design should leverage integrated market research software. It will enable them to conduct product, customer, brand, and market research using suitable channels.
Descriptive research often uses quantitative and qualitative research in amalgamation, providing a more holistic understanding of the research topic.
4. External validity
Results obtained through the descriptive method of research often have high external validity as research is conducted in the respondent’s natural environment and no variables are manipulated.
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Disadvantages of Descriptive Research design
The following are a few disadvantages of using a descriptive research design:
1. Cannot test or verify the research question
The descriptive method of research cannot be used to test or verify the research problem as the data collected does not help explain the cause of the phenomena being studied.
2. Lack of reliability
If the research problem isn’t formulated well, then the data collected may not be entirely reliable. This also makes it more tedious to carry out a credible investigation.
3. Risk of untrue responses
Descriptive research relies on the responses of people, especially when conducted using surveys. There may be instances when people provide false responses, compromising the validity of the data collected and the research results.
4. Risk of sampling error
The descriptive research method generally employs random sampling while selecting a sample group. The randomness may lead to sampling error if the sample group isn’t representative of the larger population. Sampling error would lead to unreliable and inaccurate results.
What are the different methods of descriptive research design?
Three key methods are used to carry out descriptive research:
In survey research, questionnaires or polls are used to collect information on a specific topic from respondents. Surveys should involve a mix of closed-ended and open-ended questions, as both have their own advantages.
Online survey tools allow multiple data collection channels such as email, website, and SMS surveys.
They are also popularly used in market research to collect customer feedback to optimize products and strategies and improve customer experience (CX). Some popular market research surveys are Net Promoter Score (NPS) surveys, brand tracking surveys, and conjoint analysis surveys.
2. Case Studies
The case study method involves the in-depth research of individuals or groups of individuals. Case studies involve gathering detailed data on a narrowly defined subject rather than gathering a large volume of data to identify correlations and patterns.
Therefore, this method is often used to describe a specific subject’s different characteristics rather than generalizable facts.
Case studies allow researchers to create hypotheses that can widen the scope of evaluation while studying the phenomenon. However, it is important to note that case studies cannot be used to outline the cause-and-effect relationship between variables as they cannot make accurate predictions due to the risk of researcher bias.
3. Observations method
In this method, researchers observe respondents in their natural environment, from a distance, and therefore do not influence the variables being studied. This allows them to gather information on the behaviors and characteristics being studied without having to rely on respondents for honest and accurate responses.
The observational method is considered the most effective method for carrying out descriptive research. It involves the collection of both qualitative and quantitative data. You can leverage offline survey tools to gather data digitally, even without the internet.
Quantitative observation should be related to or understood in terms of quantity and can be analyzed with the use of statistical data analysis methods. A few examples of quantitative observations include age, weight, height, etc.
Qualitative observations, on the other hand, involve monitoring variables whose values do not need to be related to numerical measurements.
When employing this research method, the researcher can choose to be a complete observer, an observer as a participant, a participant as an observer, or a full participant.
The observational method is generally used in psychological, social, and market research to obtain data that explains how people behave in real-life settings.
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What are the types of descriptive research design surveys?
The following are the different types of descriptive survey studies:
A census survey is a kind of survey where information is gathered from all units of a population. Data collected through a census study is highly generalizable to the population as all or most units of the population are sampled.
2. Sample survey
A sample survey involves gathering information from a small subgroup of the entire population. When selecting a sample, the aim is to select a group of individuals representing the target population so that the data collected can be generalized to the larger population. Sample groups allow research to be conducted in a fast and cost-effective way.
3. Cross-sectional survey
In this type of survey, the standardized data is collected from a cross-section of the pre-determined population at a given point in time. There are two main types of cross-sectional surveys; those with a single variable and those with two or more variables.
4. Longitudinal survey
Longitudinal surveys are used in longitudinal studies where the same variables are observed over a long period of time. This allows researchers to investigate the status of variables at different points in time. There are three main types of longitudinal studies; trend, panel, and cohort.
5. Comparative survey
Comparative surveys are used to compare the status of two or more variables. The variables are compared using specific criteria that must be delineated as criterion variables.
6. Evaluative survey
An evaluative survey is generally used to evaluate a program, policy, or curriculum. It involves gathering information that can be used to rate the effectiveness and worthwhileness of a program or policy, or institution.
7. Documentary survey
A documentary survey involves gathering and analyzing information using pre-existing data that is already available. This data can be research papers, review articles, books, official records, etc. In documentary studies, the researcher evaluates the available literature on the research topic.
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6 Steps to conduct a descriptive research design
Use the following steps to conduct a study using the descriptive method of research:
Step-1: Outline the research objective
The next step is to identify and outline the objectives of your research and then translate these objectives into criteria of investigation. You must clearly identify the different issues and questions in the context of which the knowledge of the situation must be surveyed.
This must be framed in the form of objectives. Once you’ve clearly stated your criteria and objectives, you must also specify the nature of the data that must be gathered.
Step-2: Determine the tools and techniques to be used for data collection
In this step, you must determine the tools you will employ for the data collection process. Some examples of different tools that can be used are interviews, questionnaires, observation schedules, reaction scales, etc.
In this stage, you will have to identify which tools and techniques are relevant and valid to your study. Leverage robust survey software that offers you multiple channels, thus enabling you to utilize various channels to gather insights.
Step-3: Define the target population and sample group
In the fourth step, you will have to outline your target population. The target population is the group of individuals that you are examining in your research study. Additionally, unless you are conducting a census study and collecting data from the entire population, you must select a sample group.
You can also use an audience panel to accelerate your research. A survey panel gives you access to diverse respondents so you can create your ideal panel.
Additional read: Types of sampling methods.
Step-4: Select a method for data collection
In the data collection stage, you must have a clear plan of how your data will be collected. This involves clearly outlining the type of data you require, the tools that will be used to gather it, the level of training required by researchers to collect the data, the time required for data collection and fieldwork, and so on.
As you collect data, keep your research question and objectives in mind and aim to gather authentic and objective data without personal bias.
Step-5: Analyse the data collected
Once you’ve collected your data, you reach the sixth stage of descriptive research: data analysis. In this stage, you will have to evaluate all the data collected from all your different sources, quantify and qualify them, and then categorize them component-wise.
If you are working with quantitative and qualitative data, you must employ a range of different quantitative and qualitative analysis techniques to analyze the data collected.
Leverage survey analytics software that allows you to run statistical analysis and observe data on a live dashboard.
Step-6: Write the report
The final step of survey research involves writing the report. As survey research involves working with extensive data, it is important to keep the focus of the investigation in mind. The report must be precise and objective-oriented.
This sums up our article on descriptive research design. This research method helps uncover the hidden element of a customer’s behavior. It helps you create a foundation for your research by helping you create an outline of your research subject.
Descriptive Research | Definition, Types, Methods & Examples
Published on May 15, 2019 by Shona McCombes. Revised on October 10, 2022.
Descriptive research aims to accurately and systematically describe a population, situation or phenomenon. It can answer what, where, when and how questions, but not why questions.
A descriptive research design can use a wide variety of research methods to investigate one or more variables. Unlike in experimental research, the researcher does not control or manipulate any of the variables, but only observes and measures them.
Table of contents
- When to use a descriptive research design
- Descriptive research methods
Descriptive research is an appropriate choice when the research aim is to identify characteristics, frequencies, trends, and categories.
It is useful when not much is known yet about the topic or problem. Before you can research why something happens, you need to understand how, when and where it happens.
Descriptive research question examples
- How has the Amsterdam housing market changed over the past 20 years?
- Do customers of company X prefer product X or product Y?
- What are the main genetic, behavioural and morphological differences between European wildcats and domestic cats?
- What are the most popular online news sources among under-18s?
- How prevalent is disease A in population B?
Descriptive research methods
Descriptive research is usually defined as a type of quantitative research, though qualitative research can also be used for descriptive purposes. The research design should be carefully developed to ensure that the results are valid and reliable.Surveys
Survey research allows you to gather large volumes of data that can be analyzed for frequencies, averages and patterns. Common uses of surveys include:
- Describing the demographics of a country or region
- Gauging public opinion on political and social topics
- Evaluating satisfaction with a company’s products or an organization’s services
Observations allow you to gather data on behaviours and phenomena without having to rely on the honesty and accuracy of respondents. This method is often used by psychological, social and market researchers to understand how people act in real-life situations.
Observation of physical entities and phenomena is also an important part of research in the natural sciences. Before you can develop testable hypotheses, models or theories, it’s necessary to observe and systematically describe the subject under investigation.Case studies
A case study can be used to describe the characteristics of a specific subject (such as a person, group, event or organization). Instead of gathering a large volume of data to identify patterns across time or location, case studies gather detailed data to identify the characteristics of a narrowly defined subject.
Rather than aiming to describe generalizable facts, case studies often focus on unusual or interesting cases that challenge assumptions, add complexity, or reveal something new about a research problem.
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Shona has a bachelor's and two master's degrees, so she's an expert at writing a great thesis. She has also worked as an editor and teacher, working with students at all different levels to improve their academic writing.
Types and design of clinical trials
Clinical trial of a drug - a systematic study of a drug through its use in humans to assess its safety and / or efficacy, as well as to identify and / or confirm its clinical, pharmacological, pharmacodynamic properties, assessment of absorption, distribution , metabolism, excretion and / or interaction with other drugs.
Such research is conducted in accordance with the founding ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, GCP (Good Clinical Practice) and applicable regulatory requirements. nine0003
Risk-benefit assessment and review and approval of the study protocol and other documentation related to the conduct of clinical trials are the responsibility of the Institutional Review Board/Independent Ethics Committee (IRB/IEC). Once approved by the IRB/IEC, the clinical trial can proceed.
There are several types of clinical trials:
1. Pilot study
2. Randomized clinical trial
3. Controlled and uncontrolled
4. Parallel and crossover studies
5. Open and blind studies
7. Single center and multicenter
9. Case-control study
All clinical trials are classified according to certain characteristics: goals, duration of time, presence of interference in the usual tactics of patient management, etc. patients; nine0003
- screening studies - the search for the best ways to detect certain diseases or conditions;
- diagnostic studies - the search for ways to diagnose a particular disease or condition;
- therapeutic studies are conducted to study the efficacy and safety of experimental drugs, new combinations of drugs, or new techniques in surgery or radiotherapy;
- quality of life studies are conducted to explore ways to improve the quality of life of patients suffering from chronic diseases; nine0003
- Expanded access programs (in exceptional circumstances, involve the use of an experimental drug in patients with serious or life-threatening diseases who cannot be included in a clinical trial because they do not meet the inclusion criteria.
Studies on the presence of interference with usual patient management ( standard procedures for the examination and treatment of the patient):
- observational (observational) study - a clinical study in which the researcher collects data by simply observing events in their natural course, without actively interfering in them;
- non-interventional study ("non-interventional study") - a study in which a medicinal product is prescribed in the usual way in accordance with the conditions set out in the marketing authorization.
- intervention study - a study of new, unregistered drugs, immunobiological agents, medical equipment, or a study in which drugs, immunobiological agents, medical equipment are prescribed or used in a way different from the conditions set forth in the registered instruction (whether it is a new indication, a new dosage of a drug, a new route of administration, a new route of administration, or a new category of patients). nine0003
- retrospective (historical) study - a study in which the outcomes of previous clinical trials or studies are studied, that is, the outcomes have already occurred before the study was started. The researcher reviews medical records and selects patients according to certain criteria in order to study the results of treatment.
is a prospective study - a study in which patients are recruited according to the criteria set out in the study protocol. nine0011 Patients receive an investigational drug and are followed up for some time. The formation of groups receiving or not receiving the investigational medicinal product occurs before the results are recorded. Most clinical studies are prospective.
Studies by duration:
- cross-sectional study - examines the impact of risk factors on a population and / or the prevalence of a disease (condition) in it at a certain point in time. nine0011 - continuous (longitudinal) - collecting data several times over a long period.
- longitudinal study - a long-term clinical study in which long-term periodic observation of the same individuals is carried out.
- international study - a study conducted in several countries;
- multicenter study - a study conducted in accordance with a single protocol in several research centers; nine0011 - meta-analysis - data from different studies on the same topic are summarized.
Studies on the degree of randomness of the experiment:
- randomized - when, after signing the consent to the experiment, the participants (scientists and subjects) draw lots - who should conduct which type or part of the experiment.
- not randomized. At the moment, they are not taken seriously in the scientific world. Participants may consciously or unconsciously collude and sabotage the results.
Study on the awareness of participants about the course of the study process:
Blind or masked study - there is no information on which group - experimental or control group.
Masked studies are used to eliminate bias in clinical studies.
Research on the effectiveness of the results obtained:
- direct - definitely leads to an improvement in the patient's life. Direct criteria for effectiveness include recovery, reduction in mortality and complications, reduction in hospital stay, improvement in quality of life; nine0011 - indirect (surrogate) - lead to the normalization of some medical indicator (for example, blood pressure), which, theoretically, should improve the patient's life.
All studies are divided into three classes.
Class I studies include the "Gold Standard" - randomized controlled (prospective) trials with double or triple "blind" control. The materials of these trials and the meta-analysis based on them should be used in medical practice as a source of the most reliable information. nine0011 Class II includes well-designed open experimental studies, observational prospective and retrospective, which, with a certain degree of criticality, the results of these tests can be applied in practice.
Class III - studies in which significant errors were made, description of cases and series of cases. They, as well as individual medical experience, the opinion of experts or "authorities" are considered as having no sufficient scientific basis.
Clinical trials are also classified according to their design. They can be classified as follows:
* Depending on the method used to allocate participants to treatment and control groups (non-randomized and randomized controlled trials).
* Depending on the knowledge of participants or investigators (or both) as to which group the participants are assigned to (single-blind or double-blind studies).
* Depending on the perceived degree of difference between treatment and control groups (tests to confirm greater or lesser effectiveness). nine0003
In non-randomized controlled clinical trials, the investigator assigns participants to treatment groups and control groups. In these trials, the control groups may be concurrent or historical. If historical controls are used, all patients in the trial receive investigational medicinal product; the results are compared with the patient's previous condition (for example, in a patient with a chronic disease) or with a control group from a previous study. nine0003
In randomized controlled trials, trial participants are randomly assigned to either treatment or control groups. The process of randomly assigning trial participants to treatment or control groups is called "randomization". Different methods are used for randomization (closed envelopes, computer generated sequence, random numbers). Randomization requires two components: the creation of a random sequence and the application of a random sequence, preferably in such a way that the participants do not know this sequence. Randomization eliminates potential systematic errors. nine0003
Comparative Trial Designs
There are several different types of comparative trials:
* Higher performance - to confirm that an investigational drug is better than a control.
* Equivalences - to confirm that the endpoint score is no different (neither better nor worse) than the control.
* Not less effective - to confirm that the investigational drug is not worse than the control.
* Dose-effect tests to determine rates for different doses, including starting dose and maximum dose. nine0003
1) Case Study Design:
The case study design is used to explore a subject in depth and in detail. This method is usually used to narrow down a large problem to small, discrete problems that are easy to investigate.
Case study design is useful for testing the applicability of a particular theory or model to real life phenomena. Case study design is useful in scenarios where not much information about a phenomenon is known or available. nine0003
Case study design has an important place in various disciplines and professions such as sociology, political science, clinical science, social science, administrative science and psychology.
1. The case study design provides a detailed description of a clear and rare case.
2. Case study design is widely used by sociologists to test contemporary real life situations and provides an extension of existing concepts. nine0003
3. The design of a case study can change what is already known from previous studies.
4. This gives researchers the freedom to apply different methodologies and include any number of resources to investigate a problem.
5. Case study design is great for establishing relationships between a limited number of events or conditions and also helps us understand complex issues.
Disadvantages of using case study
1. Sometimes studies done on a small sample cannot be applied to a large population. Therefore, case study design is difficult to establish reliability and generalize.
2. The investigator may be biased against opening a case due to the intense impact of the trial.
3. The design of the case study does not allow for the assessment of causality.
4. The absence of important information can make it difficult to interpret the case. nine0003
5. Sometimes a case may not be a representation of a larger case under investigation.
6. If a particular situation or phenomenon is being investigated, the results may be applicable to that particular case.
2) Action research design:
The action research design follows a feature-based path where the research position was initially chosen and an understanding of the problem was developed and certain intervention strategies were developed. nine0003
Interventions collect various forms of relevant observations. The same path was repeated with new intervention strategies and continued until a sufficient understanding of the problem was realized.
The path traveled is cyclical or iterative in order to provide a deeper understanding of the situation, starting with hypotheses and refining the problem and moving forward through multiple interventions and assessments.
1. This is an exploratory design that can be used in work or community situations due to its cooperative and adaptive exploratory nature.
2. Action research design focuses on practical, solution-oriented research rather than testing various theories.
3. Action research design increases the chances of conscious learning from experience, which is why it is also considered a learning cycle. nine0003
4. The results of the action research plan have clear implications for practice.
5. No information can be hidden or controlled by the researcher.
Disadvantages of using action research design
1. It is difficult to conduct routine research because the researcher has a responsibility to induce change for research.
2. Investigator overinvolvement can skew test results. nine0003
3. There is no standard format for writing an action study, so it is difficult to document.
4. Due to its cyclical nature, action studies are complex and time-consuming to conduct.
3) Cohort study design:
A cohort study is usually conducted on a defined population (having some commonality or similarity) over a defined period of time. Cohort research is commonly used in the medical and social sciences. A cohort study records statistical occurrence with a specialized subset of the population that has similar characteristics related to the problem under study, rather than studying statistical occurrence with the general population. nine0003
A cohort can be either open or closed, but not both. Cohort studies collect data using an observational method using a qualitative framework. Open cohort studies use a dynamic population divided by the state of the problem being studied.
The size of a cohort study is not fixed because the start and end dates are determined by the individual. Frequency based data are collected in open cohort studies. A closed cohort study includes a defined population where all participants enter the study at a certain point, and no new participant is allowed to participate later. nine0003
Thus, the number of participants in a closed cohort study remains constant and in rare cases can only decrease.
1. In risk-based research, the use of action research is mandatory because it is unethical to recruit random people.
2. Both primary and secondary data can be used in a cohort study.
3. Cohort research is inherently flexible and can be used to provide information about effects over time and different types of change, such as social, political, economic and cultural. nine0003
4. Cohort studies can evaluate a possible cause before an outcome occurs. He can establish that these causes led to the result. So avoid arguing about what is cause and what is effect.
Design weaknesses in cohort studies
1. Due to the lack of randomization, the external legitimacy of a cohort study is lower than other studies that select random participants.
2. Cohort studies usually take a long time because the researcher must wait for certain conditions within the group. Therefore, there is a possibility that the variables may change over time, which will affect the validity of the results. nine0003
3. When two cohort groups are compared, factors that differ between the two groups cannot be controlled for.
4) Causal design:
This type of study is used to analyze the phenomena of conditional statements such as "if A, then B". the purpose of using this type of study is to assess the impact of a particular change on existing standards and conventions.
Most social research requires a causal explanation to test a hypothesis. Causality can be determined by observing the change in variables that are assumed to cause other variables to change. nine0003
Causal research is difficult to perform and one can never be sure that the results are not influenced by some other factor, especially when the research involves people's emotions and attitudes. But there may be other deeper psychological causes that even the subject is not aware of.
There are three conditions in total for determining causality:
1. Empirical association: effective inference is based on finding a correlation between the independent variable and the dependent variable. nine0003
2. Corresponding time order: independent variable must be processed before dependent variables.
3. Irrelevancy: the relation between two variables that does not depend on variation is called the third variable.
1. There is a high chance of repetition in this type of study design.
2. This study has internal validity due to the systematic selection of subjects. nine0003
3. By proving causality between variables and ruling out other possibilities, it helps people understand the world better.
Disadvantages of using causal research
1. All relationships cannot be causal. There is a chance that two unrelated events appear to be related.
2. It is difficult to draw conclusions about causation because of the various redundant and confusing variables that exist in the social environment. Therefore, a causal relationship can only be inferred, never proven. nine0003
3. Cause must precede effect if two variables are related to each other. In causal terms, it is difficult to tell which variable is the cause and which is the effect.
5) Descriptive design:
This type of study design is used to describe the characteristics of the population or phenomena being studied. This study provides an answer to the question "what", but does not answer the questions "how", "when" and "why". Descriptive research does not require internal validity to describe population characteristics. This study type is used to calculate frequencies, means, and data statistics. nine0003
1. This approach collects a large amount of data for research.
2. With the help of this study, a lot of data can be obtained for future reference.
3. A more focused study can be designed, using study limitations as a useful tool.
4. The descriptive design provides a general overview of the study, which helps to identify useful pointers for which variables are worth examining. nine0003
Disadvantages of using descriptive study design
1. This study is completely dependent on instruments for observation and measurement.
2. The result of a descriptive design cannot be used to disprove a hypothesis.
3. The results of descriptive plans cannot be reproduced because the results of this plan are collected using the observational method.
6) Cross section design:
This type of research plan can make calculations only among or from a set of people, phenomena or objects at the place of change. It has three distinguishing features, such as the absence of time measurements, dependence on existing differences, and selection of groups based on differences rather than random selection.
1. The design of a cross-sectional study is inexpensive because it is done using surveys. nine0003
2. Results are more reliable because they are performed on a population.
3. This study provides characteristics of the result at a specific point in time.
4. Grouping of the population is based on their differences and is not chosen randomly.
5. A cross-sectional study can use a large number of subjects, unlike many other study designs.
Disadvantages of a crossover study
1. It is difficult to find people, events or objects of the same interest.
2. The results are time-bound and do not provide the reliability of historical events.
3. This study cannot be used to establish a causal relationship.
4. AS results are time bound, so there are chances of getting different results in different time frames.
7) Research design:
This type of study design is used for studies that have not previously been studied and have no studies to refer to. The purpose of research design is to gain understanding and knowledge for subsequent research. This study determines whether a future study is possible and later methods may be developed for additional studies.
1. This helps prioritize the study. nine0003
2. It is useful to collect background data on a particular topic.
3. This study answers all questions like "what", "why", "how".
Disadvantages of using research design
1. The findings of the research team do not apply to the entire population.
2. The results of this study are preliminary due to its unstructured research style.
8) Experimental design:
This type of research design is often used when there is a priority of time, for example, a cause always precedes an effect, and when there is consistency in causation, for example, a particular cause always leads to the same effect, and the degree of relationship is large. .
An experiment design is an outline of a procedure that allows researchers to control all factors in an experiment. Experimental designs use more groups and more measurements over a longer period of time. nine0003
1. It provides a high level of evidence for a single study.
2. This study determines what is causing what is happening.
3. It helps researchers determine placebo effects from treatment effects.
Disadvantages of Using Experimental Study Design
1. Experimental studies are unrealistic and may not correspond to the real world. nine0003
2. The parameters of the experiment can change the behavior of the subjects.
3. Experimental studies are sometimes expensive due to the use of special equipment and facilities.
4. There are several types of problems that cannot be experimented with for ethical or technical reasons.
9) Longitudinal design:
The longitudinal study design provides for repetitive experiments and multiple observations. In this type of study, the same group of people are interviewed at regular intervals. Thus, the researcher monitors their behavior and identifies the variables that caused changes in their behavior. This study is a type of observational study and is also known as a panel study. nine0003
1. Observation can be made during a certain event.
2. Future results can be predicted based on earlier factors.
3. Let the study establish a causal relationship between various variables.
4. Explain the nature of the change.
Disadvantages of using a longitudinal study
1. Experimental methods may change over time. nine0003
2. The original pattern may change over time.
3. More than one variable cannot be shown in this type of study.
4. In this type of study, the researcher assumes that current trends will remain the same in the future.
5. This kind of research takes a lot of time.
10) Historical design:
In this type of research, data from the past is collected, evaluated and a hypothesis is defended based on the results. To conduct this type of research, many resources are used, such as journals, documents, notes, diaries, reports, official records, archives, rather than textual data (maps, images, drawings, audio). this research is difficult to conduct because the documents must be authentic and authorized. nine0003
1. It is useful for trend analysis.
2. This can provide a contextual background for a better understanding of the research problem.
3. There is no chance for the researcher to be emotionally involved in the subject.
4. Historical resources can be reused.
Shortcomings in the design of historical research
1. The success of research depends entirely on the quality of historical resources. nine0003
2. External variables cannot be controlled in this type of study; thus research remains weak.
3. Gaps in research are difficult to recognize due to missing pieces of historical resources.
4. Interpreting historical sources takes a lot of time.
11) Observational study design:
This type of study design is used to obtain results by comparing subjects with a control group. Observational research can be of two types. In the first type, your subjects know that you are watching them, and in the second type, you are watching your subjects without letting them know. An observational study plan allows you to get an idea of a particular phenomenon without bothering to create a large project. nine0003
1. This is a flexible type of study and does not require adherence to a hypothesis.
2. You can collect detailed information about this phenomenon.
3. Results can be generalized to real life events.
4. It can act as a preliminary study before starting any other experiment.
5. This explains the complexity of group behavior.
Weaknesses of the observational study
1. Subjects examined are not equally trustworthy.
2. There is a high chance that this study will be biased because the researcher may notice what he wants to notice.
3. The results of this study are limited to a small group and cannot be generalized.
4. Subjects may behave differently due to the presence of the researcher.
12) Sequential study design:
This type of study is based on a phased approach, whereby you can only proceed to the next stage after completing the study in the first stage. The results of one stage are used in the next stage, and this process continues until enough data is collected to test the hypothesis.
Sample size may vary throughout the study. After analyzing each step, the study may accept the null hypothesis, or choose a different hypothesis, or even run the experiment again. this means that in this type of study design, there is no limit to the number of subjects the researcher can choose.