Symptoms of ads

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - Symptoms

Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

The symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be categorised into 2 types of behavioural problems:

  • inattentiveness (difficulty concentrating and focusing)
  • hyperactivity and impulsiveness

Many people with ADHD have problems that fall into both these categories, but this is not always the case.

For example, around 2 to 3 in 10 people with the condition have problems with concentrating and focusing, but not with hyperactivity or impulsiveness.

This form of ADHD is also known as attention deficit disorder (ADD). ADD can sometimes go unnoticed because the symptoms may be less obvious.

ADHD is more often diagnosed in boys than girls. Girls are more likely to have symptoms of inattentiveness only, and are less likely to show disruptive behaviour that makes ADHD symptoms more obvious. This means girls who have ADHD may not always be diagnosed.

Symptoms in children and teenagers

The symptoms of ADHD in children and teenagers are well defined, and they're usually noticeable before the age of 6. They occur in more than 1 situation, such as at home and at school.

Children may have symptoms of both inattentiveness and hyperactivity and impulsiveness, or they may have symptoms of just 1 of these types of behaviour.

Inattentiveness (difficulty concentrating and focusing)

The main signs of inattentiveness are:

  • having a short attention span and being easily distracted
  • making careless mistakes – for example, in schoolwork
  • appearing forgetful or losing things
  • being unable to stick to tasks that are tedious or time-consuming
  • appearing to be unable to listen to or carry out instructions
  • constantly changing activity or task
  • having difficulty organising tasks

Hyperactivity and impulsiveness

The main signs of hyperactivity and impulsiveness are:

  • being unable to sit still, especially in calm or quiet surroundings
  • constantly fidgeting
  • being unable to concentrate on tasks
  • excessive physical movement
  • excessive talking
  • being unable to wait their turn
  • acting without thinking
  • interrupting conversations
  • little or no sense of danger

These symptoms can cause significant problems in a child's life, such as underachievement at school, poor social interaction with other children and adults, and problems with discipline.

Related conditions in children and teenagers with ADHD

Although not always the case, some children may also have signs of other problems or conditions alongside ADHD, such as:

  • anxiety disorder – which causes your child to worry and be nervous much of the time; it may also cause physical symptoms, such as a rapid heartbeat, sweating and dizziness
  • oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) – this is defined by negative and disruptive behaviour, particularly towards authority figures, such as parents and teachers
  • conduct disorder – this often involves a tendency towards highly antisocial behaviour, such as stealing, fighting, vandalism and harming people or animals
  • depression
  • sleep problems – finding it difficult to get to sleep at night, and having irregular sleeping patterns
  • autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) – this affects social interaction, communication, interests and behaviour
  • dyspraxia – a condition that affects physical co-ordination
  • epilepsy – a condition that affects the brain and causes repeated fits or seizures
  • Tourette's syndrome – a condition of the nervous system, characterised by a combination of involuntary noises and movements (tics)
  • learning difficulties – such as dyslexia

Symptoms in adults

In adults, the symptoms of ADHD are more difficult to define. This is largely due to a lack of research into adults with ADHD.

As ADHD is a developmental disorder, it's believed it cannot develop in adults without it first appearing during childhood. But symptoms of ADHD in children and teenagers often continue into adulthood.

The way in which inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness affect adults can be very different from the way they affect children.

For example, hyperactivity tends to decrease in adults, while inattentiveness tends to remain as the pressures of adult life increase.

Adult symptoms of ADHD also tend to be far more subtle than childhood symptoms.

Some specialists have suggested the following as a list of symptoms associated with ADHD in adults:

  • carelessness and lack of attention to detail
  • continually starting new tasks before finishing old ones
  • poor organisational skills
  • inability to focus or prioritise
  • continually losing or misplacing things
  • forgetfulness
  • restlessness and edginess
  • difficulty keeping quiet, and speaking out of turn
  • blurting out responses and often interrupting others
  • mood swings, irritability and a quick temper
  • inability to deal with stress
  • extreme impatience
  • taking risks in activities, often with little or no regard for personal safety or the safety of others – for example, driving dangerously

Related conditions in adults with ADHD

As with ADHD in children and teenagers, ADHD in adults can occur alongside several related problems or conditions.

One of the most common is depression. Other conditions that adults may have alongside ADHD include:

  • personality disorders – conditions in which an individual differs significantly from the average person in terms of how they think, perceive, feel or relate to others
  • bipolar disorder – a condition affecting your mood, which can swing from one extreme to another
  • obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) – a condition that causes obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviour

The behavioural problems associated with ADHD can also cause problems such as difficulties with relationships and social interaction.

Page last reviewed: 24 December 2021
Next review due: 24 December 2024

Personality disorders - NHS

A person with a personality disorder thinks, feels, behaves or relates to others very differently from the average person.

There are several different types of personality disorder.

This page gives some information about personality disorders in general, linking to other sources for more detail.

Symptoms of a personality disorder

Symptoms vary depending on the type of personality disorder.

For example, a person with borderline personality disorder (one of the most common types) tends to have disturbed ways of thinking, impulsive behaviour and problems controlling their emotions.

They may have intense but unstable relationships and worry about people abandoning them.

A person with antisocial personality disorder will typically get easily frustrated and have difficulty controlling their anger.

They may blame other people for problems in their life, and be aggressive and violent, upsetting others with their behaviour.

Someone with a personality disorder may also have other mental health problems, such as depression and substance misuse.

Find out more about the different types of personality disorder on the Mind website

Treatment for a personality disorder

Treatment for a personality disorder usually involves a talking therapy. This is where the person talks to a therapist to get a better understanding of their own thoughts, feelings and behaviours.

Treatment can last several months or years, depending on the severity of the condition and other problems the person may have.

As well as listening and discussing important issues with the person, the therapist may identify strategies to resolve problems and, if necessary, help them change their attitudes and behaviour.

Therapeutic communities

Therapeutic communities (TCs) are places where someone visits or stays for an intensive form of group therapy. The experience of having a personality disorder is explored in depth.

The person usually attends for a number of weeks or months.


Medicine may be prescribed to treat problems associated with a personality disorder, such as depression, anxiety or psychotic symptoms.

For example, moderate to severe symptoms of depression might be treated with a type of antidepressant called a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).

Read more about the treatment for borderline personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder.

You can also visit the Royal College of Psychiatrists website, and charity websites Mind and Rethink Mental Illness for their patient information on treatment for other types of personality disorder.


Many people with a personality disorder recover over time. Psychological or medical treatment is often helpful, but support is sometimes all that's needed.

There's no single approach that suits everyone – treatment should be tailored to the individual.


It's not clear exactly what causes personality disorders, but they're thought to result from a combination of the genes a person inherits and early environmental influences – for example, a distressing childhood experience (such as abuse or neglect).

Support for people living with a personality disorder

Having a personality disorder can have a big effect on the person's life, as well as their family and friends, but support is available.

If you'd like support for yourself or someone you know, you may find the following links useful:

  • Mind: useful contacts
  • Rethink mental illness: personality disorders
  • Royal College of Psychiatrists: personality disorder
  • Time to Change: personal stories of personality disorders

Ask a GP about support groups for personality disorders near you. Or find out what mental health services exist and how to access them.

Page last reviewed: 12 October 2020
Next review due: 12 October 2023

Definition of Advertising - Advertising Industry

Advertising is a special type of communication activity that has an economic basis and accompanies humanity throughout the history of its development. There are three fundamental conditions for the emergence and subsequent development of advertising in the evolution of society:

  1. The emergence of a market for goods and services.
  2. The emergence of a market for the means of disseminating information about goods and services offered for sale. nine0010
  3. Emergence of a consumer market for advertised goods and services.

Historically, for a long time the concept of advertising meant everything related to the dissemination of information about goods and services in society using all the means of communication available at that time. Gradually, the development of advertising led to the fact that such communication areas as public relations separated from it and began to develop independently ( Public Relations ), direct marketing ( Direct Marketing ), promotion of goods and services ( Sales Promotion ), point of sale advertising ( Point of Sale ), exhibition activities ( Exhibition Activities ), sponsorship ( Sponsorship ) , branding ( Branding ) and others. At the end of the 20th century, the entire set of communication areas related to informing and influencing consumers began to be called the marketing communications system ( SMK ).

Universal Advertising Definition

Advertising is a unidirectional form of non-personal communication carried out on a paid basis in order to draw attention to the object of advertising.

To date, there are two main approaches to the definition of the term "advertising". In a narrow sense, the concept of "advertising" means an announcement in the media. This point of view is most common in Western practice. In Russian practice, the concept of "advertising" is interpreted in a broader sense. Advertising also includes exhibition events, commercial seminars, brochures, catalogs, posters, and so on. nine0007

Legal definition of advertising

Advertising activities in the Russian Federation are regulated by legal acts of federal legislative authorities. Currently, the basis for advertising activities in Russia is the Federal Law of the Russian Federation "On Advertising" dated March 13, 2006 No. 38-FZ.

The Federal Law "On Advertising" defines advertising: "Advertising is information distributed in any way, in any form and using any means, addressed to an indefinite circle of persons and aimed at drawing attention to the object of advertising, forming or maintaining interest in it and its promotion in the market" .

The Federal Law "On Advertising" uses the following basic concepts related to the definition of advertising:

  1. Object of advertising - a product, a means of its individualization, a manufacturer or seller of a product, the results of intellectual activity or an event (including a sports competition, concert, contest, festival, risk-based games, bets), to attract attention to which advertising.
  2. Commodity is a product of activity (including work, service) intended for sale, exchange or other introduction into circulation. nine0010
  3. Inappropriate advertising - advertising that does not comply with the requirements of the legislation of the Russian Federation.
  4. Advertiser - a manufacturer or seller of goods or another person who determined the object of advertising and (or) the content of advertising.
  5. Advertiser - a person who fully or partially converts information into a form ready for distribution in the form of advertising.
  6. Advertiser - a person who distributes advertising in any way, in any form and using any means. nine0010
  7. Consumers of advertising - persons whose attention is drawn to the object of advertising by advertising.

The Federal Law "On Advertising" regulates relations arising in the process of production, placement and distribution of advertising in the markets for goods and services, and also helps to navigate the legal space of advertising, and, accordingly, to distinguish advertising from other information. The law is not comprehensive and, in particular, does not apply to:

  • political advertising and election campaigning;
  • reference and information and analytical materials that do not have as their main purpose the promotion of goods on the market;
  • messages of state authorities, other state bodies, local governments;
  • signboards and signs that do not contain information of an advertising nature;
  • announcements of individuals or legal entities not related to entrepreneurial activities; nine0010
  • information about the product, its manufacturer, importer or exporter, placed on the product or its packaging;
  • any elements of product design placed on a product or its packaging and not related to another product.

The statutory definition of advertising is often criticized for defining advertising solely as "information". It is considered by some experts to be limited, not expressing the specifics of advertising. In practice, such a definition of advertising as "information" gives rise to a whole direction of social criticism of advertising, primarily due to the difference in approaches to the definition of the concept of "information" and the associated difficulties in identifying specific informational messages as advertising messages. nine0007

Analysis of the wording of the statutory definition of advertising reveals the following:

  1. The statutory definition gives a broad interpretation of advertising, according to which advertising is almost limitless information in any expression and on any media; in other words, these are both informational and property objects that have an advertising function.
  2. The statutory definition uses the term "any", the term "information" without specifying its type, and the term "indefinite" in relation to the addressee of the advertisement three times in the format of one sentence, which indicates the possibility of arbitrary interpretation of the legislative wording. nine0010
  3. The legislative definition indicates that advertising is addressed to an indefinite circle of people, therefore, there is ambiguity regarding such forms of advertising as targeted advertising messages, where the circle of people is always defined.

These facts of the vagueness of the legislative definition lead to a misunderstanding by market participants of the rules of advertising under the law. A fuzzy definition of the object in relation to which legislative norms are introduced can provoke violations and difficulties in qualifying violations in the advertising market. This, in turn, can lead to an increase in administrative methods of influencing the market, which negatively affects the development of civil society institutions. nine0007

Other definitions of advertising

Today, there are many definitions of the concept of "advertising". This indicates, on the one hand, the complexity of the phenomenon itself, on the other hand, the existence of different points of view on its system-forming characteristics. In Russian practice, to date, there have been three main groups of approaches to the definition of advertising:0005 integral .

The first group of approaches to the definition of the concept of "advertising" identifies advertising, first of all, as information - a message that presents the audience with some object, phenomenon, process, and the like. It is this point of view that is reflected in the Federal Law "On Advertising".

The second group of approaches to the definition of the concept of "advertising" is fundamentally different from the first - advertising is not reduced to "information" and "message", but is understood in these definitions as advertising activities, that is, to create such "messages" and bring them to recipients. The concept of "advertising" is thus equated with the concept of "advertising activity" and is presented as a system of activities. It is this position that the main part of the Russian advertising corporate community, represented by their professional associations, adheres to. It believes that advertising is not "advertising information", but a type of activity. Accordingly, legislative norms should also be aimed at regulating “activity”, and not “message”. nine0007

Therefore, the emergence of a third, integral point of view on the definition of the concept of "advertising" was inevitable, according to which this phenomenon includes both advertising activities and advertising information. Within the framework of the integral approach, the definition of advertising is formulated as follows: "Advertising is a type of activity, or information products produced as a result" . 1

Analysis of the wording of this definition of advertising shows the following. In communication theory, a message is information received by an addressee. Consequently, some information only becomes an advertising message when it is prepared in a special way and brought to the audience. Until that moment, the message can be called the result of the professional activity of a specialist, but this message will become an advertisement only when it is transmitted to the audience through mass communication channels. The transmission of an advertising message is an activity. Therefore, in advertising, the message and activity are inextricably linked, they cannot, in fact, exist without each other. Therefore, advertising can be considered as a systemic unity of two components - advertising information and advertising activities. Advertising, therefore, is identified as an area of ​​social practice, with relations, processes, and results inherent in this practice. The validity of this approach can also be confirmed by the fact that the latest version of the Federal Law of the Russian Federation "On Advertising" is aimed at the legal regulation of both advertising messages and advertising activities. nine0007

Signs of advertising

Regardless of the considered definitions of advertising, each of them has a number of fundamental elements that define the main content of advertising and allow you to clearly identify advertising messages and advertising activities, to separate them from other activities and other messages. These include the following:

  1. Payment for the creation and transmission of a message. Advertising is a paid form of communication, since an advertising message is created and transmitted to the audience on a reimbursable basis, that is, for a fee from the advertiser. The advertiser pays for both the development and production of the advertising message itself and its placement on the advertising communication channel. The common expression "free advertising" is figurative and implies that advertising is paid not by the one whose offer is advertised, but by the other party. So, in some cases, advertising is placed free of charge on a mass communication channel, but this is always associated either with a legal requirement or with the charitable activities of the mass communication channel itself. In this case, it is more correct to talk about the ethical position of refusing to profit, since the channel pays for advertising by not receiving profit from the commercial use of advertising space or time. nine0010
  2. The source of advertising funding is explicitly stated. Advertising is carried out by a non-anonymous advertiser - the source of the advertising message, identified by the audience. It is traditionally assumed that the source of advertising communication is the one who pays for it. The advertiser pays for advertising in order to convince people of the benefits of their offer. At the same time, he wants the advertising audience to clearly identify the advertised object, the advertiser himself, and sometimes both at once. nine0010
  3. Advertising message is not personalized. Advertising communication is a kind of mass communication, that is, an impersonal exchange of information. Thus, advertising information is intended not for a single individual or legal entity, but for a group of such individuals. The group of individuals or legal entities to which the advertisement is intended is defined as the target audience of the advertisement. Advertising audiences can be both global (covering the population of countries or regions of the world) and local (covering the population of individual regions, cities or districts). nine0010
  4. The presentation of the advertised offer is non-personal. Advertising information is received by representatives of the advertising audience not personally from the advertiser, but through intermediaries, which are most often mass communication channels.
  5. Advertising information is persuasive. An advertising message is aimed at drawing attention to the object of advertising and contains an element of persuasion in the advantages of this offer compared to analogues. Advertising limited to the presentation of "neutral" information and not containing a component related to the goal of persuading the audience of the advertisement to take certain actions in relation to the advertised object is not advertising in the usual sense. nine0010

This review under the concept of "advertising" considers a phenomenon that satisfies the five above criteria. The same signs are used to identify this phenomenon. If the activity of any organization produces products that meet these requirements, it is called promotional products. Based on these features, it is also possible to determine whether any enterprise belongs to the field of advertising. To be defined as a subject of the advertising market, such an enterprise must be an advertising producer, that is, produce advertising products, or an advertising distributor, that is, distribute advertising information. nine0007

Advertising: concept, essence. Purpose, tasks, functions of advertising. Classification of types, means and forms of advertising activities

The word "advertising" comes from it. reclamare and fr. reclamo and in translation means "shout out"

Advertisement is a paid, one-way and non-personal appeal carried out through the media and other forms of communication, with the aim of making consumers perform the action desired by the advertiser. nine0007

Main features of advertising communication:

    • Clear advertiser identification
    • Impersonality (presence of mandatory intermediaries in the advertiser-consumer chain)
    • Paid (paid information)
    • One-way directionality (lack or delay of feedback to advertising message)
    • Effect uncertainty (probability of all methods for determining effectiveness)
    • Public character (compliance with the law and moral and ethical standards of society)
    • Impartiality (any advertising message tends to highlight the advantages and not mention the disadvantages)

The main goal of advertising: to force the consumer to perform the action desired by the advertiser (convince the consumer to buy a product, use a service, make the company famous, promote the popularity of a politician, inspire the audience with socially significant thoughts, etc. )

Advertising tasks:

  • Informing - creating awareness and knowledge about a new product, a specific event, about a company
  • Persuasion - gradual, consistent formation of preferences corresponding to the consumer's perception of the image of the company and its products; persuading the buyer to make a purchase; encouragement of the fact of purchase
  • Reminder - maintaining awareness, keeping in the memory of consumers information about the product in the intervals between purchases; reminder where you can buy this product
  • Positioning (repositioning, repositioning) of a product or company
  • Retention of customers loyal to the advertised brand
  • Imaging , creating an image of the company that is different from the images of competitors.

Advertising functions:

  • Economic

This is the most obvious function. It consists in the fact that it is impossible to form a civilized market without developed advertising - it contributes to economic growth and development

  • Social

Advertisements seek to inculcate certain consumer habits and preferences in the target audience. For example, jogging in the morning, choosing healthy foods, going to the movies on weekends, etc.

  • Ideological

seeks to create a society with certain worldview characteristics, introduces new ideological values ​​- for example, the right of citizens to private property, diligence and entrepreneurship as the basis of wealth and prosperity
In the specialized literature, other functions of advertising are also distinguished, for example

  • marketing

Advertising is a tool of marketing activities and is subordinated to the implementation of the main goals and objectives of the marketing mix

  • communicative

Advertising is a way of transferring information from an advertiser to a consumer, a communication chain between them

  • etc.
  • nine0101

    The main participants in the advertising process

    According to the Federal Law of the Russian Federation "On Advertising", advertising as a process consists of four components:

  • Advertiser - a legal or natural person who fully or partially converts advertising information to a form ready for distribution

  • Advertiser - a legal or natural person who places and (or) distributes advertising information by providing and (or) using property, incl. technical means of radio broadcasting, television broadcasting, as well as communication channels, airtime and other means
  • Consumers of advertising - legal or natural persons who are or may be brought to the attention of advertising, which results in or may result in a corresponding effect of advertising on them. nine0010

Classifications of advertising activities

There is no unified classification, and it is not needed, since the list of modern varieties of advertising influence is extremely wide. There are several most common classifications, which are applied as necessary in different situations.

Sponsor type:

  • Manufacturer's advertisement
  • Advertisement for resellers
  • nine0009 Social and political advertising

By type of target audience:

  • Advertising aimed at legal entities
  • Advertising directed to the individual consumer

By concentration
on a certain audience segment:

  • Selective (selective) advertising
  • Mass advertising (not aimed at a specific audience)

By area covered

  • Local advertising (distribution area - from the point of sale to the territory of the settlement)
  • Regional advertising (distribution area - a certain part of the country)
  • Nationwide advertising (distribution area - country)
  • International advertising (distribution area - several countries)

On the subject of advertising communication

  • Product advertising (advertising of a specific product, product group, service)
  • Prestigious advertising (shaping the image of the company)
  • Advertising ideas
  • Advertising personality
  • Advertising of the territory (city, region, country…)

By product life cycle stages

  • Introductory (informational) advertising
  • Affirmative (persuasive) advertising
  • Reminder advertising

Depending on the distribution channel
or advertising medium
(this is the classification feature most commonly used by practitioners)

Medium - a distribution channel or carrier of advertising information
Form - a specific genre, form that an advertising message takes within the selected distribution medium

Advertising in 9017 press. Basic forms:

  • Modular advertising
  • Line advertising
  • Sponsorship of headings (including information)
  • Special supplements to periodicals
  • Product samples, etc.

Printed advertising. Basic shapes:

  • Business cards
  • Poster
  • Poster
  • Booklets
  • Avenue
  • Flyer
  • Wall, desk and pocket calendars
  • Notices to consumers
  • Loyalty cards, etc.

Radio advertising. nine0174 Basic shapes:

  • Advertisements
  • Commercials
  • Sponsorship of programs, etc.

TV, video, film advertising. Basic shapes:

  • Commercials
  • Ticker
  • Banner advertising
  • Sponsorship of broadcasts, etc.

Outdoor stationary advertising.

Learn more