Obsessive love relationship

Symptoms, What It is, Causes, and More

What is obsessive love disorder?

“Obsessive love disorder” (OLD) refers to a condition where you become obsessed with one person you think you may be in love with. You might feel the need to protect your loved one obsessively, or even become controlling of them as if they were a possession.

While no separate medical or psychological classification exists for OLD, it can often accompany other types of mental health illnesses. Talk to your doctor if you think you or a loved one may have the disorder. Treatment can help decrease the symptoms while also preventing complications with relationships.

Symptoms of OLD may include:

  • an overwhelming attraction to one person
  • obsessive thoughts about the person
  • feeling the need to “protect” the person you’re in love with
  • possessive thoughts and actions
  • extreme jealousy over other interpersonal interactions
  • low self-esteem

People who have OLD may also not take rejection easily. In some cases, the symptoms could worsen at the end of a relationship or if the other person rejects you. There are other signs of this disorder, such as:

  • repeated texts, emails, and phone calls to the person they’re interested in
  • a constant need for reassurance
  • difficulty having friendships or maintaining contact with family members because of the obsession over one person
  • monitoring the actions of the other person
  • controlling where the other person goes and the activities they engage in

There’s no one single cause of OLD. Instead, it may be linked to other types of mental health disabilities such as:

Attachment disorders

This group of disorders refers to people who have emotional attachment issues, such as a lack of empathy or an obsession with another person.

Types of attachment disorders include disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) and reactive attachment disorder (RAD), and they both develop during childhood from negative experiences with parents or other adult caregivers.

In DSED, you might be overly friendly and not take precautions around strangers. With RAD, you may feel stressed and have problems getting along with others.

Borderline personality disorder

This mental health disorder is characterized by a disturbance with self-image coupled with severe mood swings. Borderline personality disorder can cause you to be extremely angry to extremely happy within a matter of minutes or hours.

Anxious and depressive episodes also occur. When considering obsessive love disorder, personality disorders can cause switches between extreme love for a person to extreme disdain.

Delusional jealousy

Based on delusions (events or facts you believe to be true), this disorder is exhibited by an insistence on things that are already proven false. When it comes to obsessive love, delusional jealousy can cause you to believe the other person has reciprocated their feelings for you, even if they’ve made it clear this is indeed not true.

According to a 2005 study, delusional jealousy may be linked to alcoholism in men.


This disorder is an intersection between delusional and obsessive love disorders. With erotomania, you believe that someone famous or of a higher social status is in love with you. This can lead to harassment of the other person, such as showing up at their home or workplace.

According to Comprehensive Psychiatry, people with erotomania are often isolated with few friends, and they may even be unemployed.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a combination of obsessive thoughts and compulsive rituals. These are severe enough to interfere with your everyday life. OCD can also cause you to need constant reassurance, which can affect your relationships.

Some people are said to have relationship OCD, where obsessions and compulsions are centered around the relationship. However, this isn’t an officially recognized subtype of OCD.

Obsessional jealousy

Unlike delusional jealousy, obsessional jealousy is a nondelusional preoccupation with a partner’s perceived infidelity. This preoccupation can lead to repetitive and compulsive behaviors in response to infidelity concerns. These behaviors resemble OCD more so than delusional jealousy. This can cause significant distress or impair everyday functioning.

OLD is diagnosed with a thorough evaluation from a psychiatrist or other mental health professional. First, they will interview you by asking you questions about your symptoms, as well as your relationships. They’ll also ask you about your family and whether any known mental health illnesses exist.

A medical diagnosis from your primary doctor may also be needed to rule out other causes. Since obsessive love disorder intersects with other forms of mental health disabilities, it’s not classified on the American Psychological Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).

For unknown reasons, OLD affects more women than men.

The precise treatment plan for this disorder depends on the underlying cause. However, it often involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Medications can be used to adjust brain chemicals. In turn, this can reduce the symptoms of the disorder. Your doctor may recommend one of the following:

  • anti-anxiety medications, such as Valium and Xanax
  • antidepressants, such as Prozac, Paxil, or Zoloft
  • antipsychotics
  • mood stabilizers

It can take several weeks for your medication to work. You may also need to try different types until you find the one that works best for you. Talk to your doctor about possible side effects, such as:

  • appetite changes
  • dry mouth
  • fatigue
  • headaches
  • insomnia
  • loss of libido
  • nausea
  • weight gain
  • worsening symptoms

Therapy is also helpful for all forms of OLD. Sometimes it’s helpful for families to be involved with therapy sessions, especially if obsessive love disorder stems from issues during childhood. Depending on the severity of the disorder and your personal preferences, you might engage in individual or group therapy. Sometimes a mental health professional will recommend both types.

Therapy options include:

  • cognitive behavioral therapy
  • dialectical behavioral therapy
  • play therapy (for children)
  • talk therapy

While OLD is gaining more attention, it’s relatively rare. It’s estimated that less than 0.1 percent of people have the disorder.

If you or a loved one has possible symptoms of obsessive love disorder, you should see a doctor. They may refer you to a psychiatrist to help determine whether you truly have OLD. You may also have another mental health illness.

When diagnosed and treated, OLD may have a positive outcome. The key, however, is to not quit therapy or treatment if you think you’re feeling better. Suddenly stopping your treatment can worsen symptoms, or make them return.

Love Bombing: 10 Signs to Know

When you first meet someone, being swept off your feet can feel fun and exciting. Having someone shower you with affection and admiration is especially exhilarating when you’re in the beginning stages of a new relationship.

Love bombing, however, is another story. It happens when someone overwhelms you with loving words, actions, and behavior as a manipulation technique.

“It’s often used to win over your trust and affection so that they can meet a goal of theirs,” explains Shirin Peykar, MA, a licensed marriage and family therapist.

Here’s a look at some of the classic love bombing signs. If you recognize some of these, it doesn’t necessarily mean your partner is toxic, but listen to your intuition if the person trying to woo you seems too good to be true.

Love bombing often involves over-the-top gestures, such as sending you inappropriate gifts to your job (dozens of bouquets instead of one, for example) or buying expensive plane tickets for a vacation, and not taking “no” for an answer.

All of this can seem harmless enough, but the point is to manipulate you into thinking you owe them something.

“Most often, love bombing is done by a narcissist with the intent of drawing in and gaining control over the person who is being love bombed,” says licensed professional counselor Tabitha Westbrook, LMFT.

We all crave admiration, but constant praise can make your head spin. If someone’s expressing their undying love after just a short amount of time, it’s a potential red flag that their feelings aren’t genuine.

Some common, over-the-top phrases they might use include:

  • “I love everything about you.”
  • “I’ve never met anyone as perfect as you.”
  • “You’re the only person I want to spend time with.”

On their own, these phrases aren’t necessarily harmful, but it’s important to consider them in the larger context of someone’s overall behavior.

They call, text, and message you over social media 24/7. While being in constant communication is normal when you’re first dating, it’s a red flag if the communication feels one-sided and becomes increasingly overwhelming.

Take note if they begin texting you early in the morning and every hour on the hour.

When your focus isn’t on the other person, they might become angry. This can look like pouting when you’re on the phone with friends or refusing to leave after you say you have to be at work early the next day.

“True love does not want all your time and energy focused on them alone,” Westbrook emphasizes. “They respect other commitments, ideas, and boundaries.”

Telling you they dreamed that God told them you two should marry is a manipulation tactic. If what they say sounds right out of a film, take heed, Westbrook notes. “Hollywood is great for entertainment, but true love and relationships don’t look like the movies.”

Some other things they might say:

  • “We were born to be together.”
  • “It’s fate that we met.”
  • “You understand me more than anyone.”
  • “We’re soulmates.”

A love bomber might pressure you into rushing things and making big plans for the future. They’ll mention things like marriage or moving in together when you’ve only known each other a short while.

The thing to keep in mind, according to Westbrook, is that real relationships take time to develop. “It’s very unlikely the person really can love you more than anything in the world in 2 weeks. Or two days. Or 2 hours. Or even 2 months,” she explains.

When you try to tell them to slow down, they’ll continue to try to manipulate you to get what they want. Someone who legitimately cares, on the other hand, will respect your wishes and back off.

“Love bombers also get upset about any boundaries with regard to access to you or you accepting their displays of ‘love,’ says Westbrook. “It’s like a tsunami of affection and they expect you to accept it all.”

No matter how much time and access you give them, it never seems to be enough. But ask yourself: Are you bailing on friends because they can’t stand to be alone? Or do you feel obligated to answer every text because they gifted you that expensive iPhone?

Someone toxic will make you feel indebted to them so that they can rely on you day and night.

They never turn down the charm and seem to be running on all cylinders when you’re with them. You never know what to expect from one moment to the next and feel pressured into seeing them round the clock.

Legitimate love has its ups and downs, but it’s respectful and not overbearing, says Westbrook. “It is patient, kind, and gentle.”

Being love bombed can feel intoxicating at first, but you might also feel a bit uneasy, waiting for the other shoe to drop.

Pay attention to these anxious feelings, says Westbrook. “It’s important to be attuned to your intuition, so you can be informed instead of being carried away by love bombing tactics.”

If you’re in the early stages of a relationship and everything feels like it’s happening too soon, check in with your gut. Remember: Falling in love should be savored, not rushed.

If you’re worried your partner has crossed into manipulative territory, try reaching out to a trusted friend, family member, or mental health therapist who can help you assess their behavior.

You can also check out the below resources for additional guidance on next steps:

  • Love is Respect is a national dating abuse helpline that offers support and provides information on unhealthy relationships and behaviors.
  • One Love is a foundation helping put a stop to relationship abuse.

Cindy Lamothe is a freelance journalist based in Guatemala. She writes often about the intersections between health, wellness, and the science of human behavior. She’s written for The Atlantic, New York Magazine, Teen Vogue, Quartz, The Washington Post, and many more. Find her at cindylamothe.com.

Love Addiction: Why Feelings Become a Drug

Sometimes we crave perfect relationships and the very idea of ​​a high feeling so much that we lose sight of what we really need to experience true love.

Love addiction (addiction), like many other types of addictions, is quite real. Many of us have encountered her at some point in our lives, even if we didn't realize it was her. By understanding the symptoms and signs that may indicate love addiction, we will have a chance to overcome it and direct all our energies not to painful attachment, but to building a truly healthy and lasting relationship.

What is love addiction?

Before we talk about what the essence of love addiction is, let's look at more general concepts. Dependence, according to the definition in Ozhegov's Explanatory Dictionary, is subordination to others (another) in the absence of independence, freedom. That is, this is a state in which we perform certain actions not because we want to, but under the influence of something or someone that requires it from us. This is a lack of freedom that brings experiences or even suffering.

But, oddly enough, addiction is usually preceded by exactly the opposite state. We experience pleasure and pleasure, the cause of which is some substance or person. There is nothing wrong with the very essence of pleasant feelings, but when they turn into an obsession, lead to compulsive behavior, interfere with our lives and cause harm to physical or mental health, this is an occasion to seriously take care of the problem. Addiction makes us feel unable to control our desires. We simply follow our inner instinct, perform certain actions, despite the possible damage that they can do to our mental or physical well-being. In this love addiction completely coincides with any other.

For example, some of us found ourselves in a situation where the relationship with a partner was cracking at the seams. And yet something kept us from putting an end to them. As if under the influence of an obsession, we continue to do our best to please our partner in exchange for his attention. Familiar story? Others are in constant search of the ideal relationship. They are focused on the desire to find a mate and feel unbearable discomfort when they are alone. This is a dependence on the very idea of ​​love.

With a love addiction, it is almost impossible to maintain a healthy relationship.

We fully rely on the fact that a certain person, whom we subconsciously consider the source of our happiness, will be there. And we are ready for everything for this. If we don't get the "dose" of the emotions and feelings we need, we can put pressure on our partner to feel loved, or start fantasizing about finding that same love on the side. This can lead to one day waking up in the same bed with another man, or turning the screws on an existing relationship—trying to control all of our partner's activities to meet our needs.

In a healthy relationship, we do not seek total control over our beloved. A partner does not become the only source of positive emotions, although, of course, spending time together and having romantic moments next to him bring us happiness. This is a relationship that you are in not because you desperately need it, but because you sincerely want it. In love addiction, you feel like you can't live without a certain person.

If it seems to you that you are addicted to love, first of all, you should not engage in self-flagellation. It is only natural that you want to love. But love is a feeling that must first originate within you before you can give it to someone else. This does not mean that you need to perfect yourself to the ideal in order to be worthy of love. This means that you can conditionally separate yourself from the relationship you are in and appreciate yourself regardless of what happens between you and your partner.

Symptoms of a love addiction

If you're not sure if you're truly in love with someone or if you're in love, here are some clues to help clear things up.

  • You are obsessed with the idea of ​​love in general. You are constantly visited by fantasies of romantic moments and ideal relationships. You can find inspiration for them in films, books or paintings. These dreams of love give strength to live on. And even if you're already in a relationship, that doesn't stop you from fantasizing about passionate or elevated feelings.

  • You are obsessed with a certain person. These can be obsessive thoughts about your partner or even a potential partner (to achieve the attention and love you want no matter what). You may neglect your own affairs, family interests, friends, or hobbies because your thoughts constantly revolve around this person. However, you may mistake sexual attraction for emotional intimacy.

  • You "cling" to your partner. When you are around him, you can be overly intrusive: you need to know everything about how he feels, what he thinks. You constantly fight for his attention, even in those moments when it is completely inappropriate. Also, you intend to do everything to keep him in a relationship with you.

  • You can't put an end to a destructive relationship. Even if you suffer from emotional or physical abuse, you do not want to leave your partner. Perhaps you are afraid that you will not be able to find another man for yourself, so you prefer to be content with what you already have.

  • You value initial attraction more than long-term intimacy. Do you remember how wonderful the moment is when you meet a new person and there is a flash between you - a physical or emotional attraction. This is the feeling you want to feel again and again. Even if you have a permanent partner, you subconsciously continue to look for this feeling on the side. Love is perceived by you as something sublime, impetuous, elusive. And at the same time, you dream of someday meeting your soul mate - a person with whom you will be happy all your life.

  • You do not feel strong enough to survive the breakup. If your partner wants to leave you and end the relationship, you are filled with the strongest despair. You are ready for anything, just to prevent a breakup.

  • You cannot accept being alone. The pain of not having a partner by your side scares you much more than an unhappy relationship. You are ready to meet and live with any person, just not to be alone. You are putting all your energy and time into finding a partner. In those moments when you are not in a relationship with anyone, you dampen the unbearable feelings that loneliness causes by having sex with a random man or fantasizing to escape from reality.

  • You are ready to sacrifice everything to please your partner. If he is not satisfied with your appearance, behavior or habits, you change them and willingly make sacrifices, just so that he is pleased with you. You may be frightened by what he requires of you, cause inner discomfort, but you will do anything because of the fear that otherwise he will leave you.

  • You want to own a partner. You feel uncomfortable when he mentions the name of another woman in a conversation with you. Even worse, when you notice that he himself communicates at ease with a representative of the beautiful half of humanity. You can try to force him to cut off all social contact with other women because you are afraid that he may be attracted to someone else besides you. If he is going to spend time with friends, you will make him feel guilty about this.

  • You love despite the unrequited feelings. Even if this person rejected you once, you hope that he can change his mind and change his attitude towards you.

  • You need someone close to you to be happy. You perceive your partner as a guarantor of stability, love and happiness. It seems to you that your life will never be complete if you do not find a person who will fill you with love.

Love addiction is similar to drug addiction. A flash of feelings, attraction to a certain person gives rise to a surge of dopamine and norepinephrine in our body - substances that fill us with energy and lead to a state of euphoria. This affects our brain in the same way as taking stimulants or foods high in sugar. Without getting another dose, we suffer.

The good news is that love addiction can be overcome. The first step - as in the treatment of any other addiction - is to recognize it. Then we can dig deeper and try to understand the reasons behind our addiction to love. This will help shed light on what we really want in life and bring us one step closer to a healthy relationship.

Causes of love addiction

Like most other adult problems, the prerequisites for the formation of love addiction can most often be traced back in childhood. For example, if a child experiences abuse, or one of his parents leaves his family, then later he may subconsciously reach out to those people next to whom he feels safe. However, in adult relationships, partners should not play the parent-child role model. In a harmonious relationship, partners support each other equally. Other causes of love addiction include:

  • Low self-esteem which is also rooted in childhood. It is felt as an inferiority that causes discomfort. At the same time, such people think that only thanks to a partner nearby they will be able to feel their integrity. At the same time, they may be tormented by the fact that they consider themselves unworthy of being loved by a good person.

  • A dysfunctional family. In childhood, we form our views on what relationships we consider "normal". If a person grew up in a dysfunctional family, then, most likely, it is precisely such relationships that he will perceive as the norm.

  • Loneliness in childhood. Children sometimes think that loneliness is their personal shortcoming. When they grow up, they try in every possible way to make up for it.

  • Loss of ability to trust. Often, after physical or emotional abuse, a person closes in on himself. He will avoid real intimacy and try to find small occasions for romantic experiences.

  • Comorbidities. Depression, anxiety, and other mental health conditions can affect your ability to find and maintain healthy relationships.

How to cure love addiction?

Since most love addictions are the result of childhood traumatic experiences, many people with this problem choose to seek professional support. A psychologist can analyze a specific case and help you gain a more realistic understanding of yourself, your worth and true desires. Also, together with a professional, the chances of understanding the real reason for love addiction increase. Experts also advise:

  • Pay attention to other possible psychological problems. If you have been stressed or suffering from depression for a long time, throw your energy into restoring your health. To reduce stress, get outdoors more often (take long walks) and play with your pets. It is better to entrust the solution of other, more serious psychological problems to professionals.

  • Take up a hobby. What did you enjoy doing after you became addicted to love? Maybe you enjoyed blogging or making your own jewelry? Hobbies help us take our minds off our love addiction. In addition, if we do what we like and what we are good at, our self-esteem increases. This can be one of the steps to realizing your own uniqueness and usefulness.

  • Spend more time with family and friends. As a result of love addiction, you may have paid less attention to relationships with important people in your life. Try to restore good relations with them.

  • Take care of yourself. Eat healthy food, make sure you get enough sleep every day. If there is a desire to do something pleasant for yourself, by all means do it: take a relaxing bath, go for a manicure or massage, cook your favorite dish. After all, the world doesn't just revolve around love and relationships.

  • Refrain from new relationships. If at the moment you do not have a permanent partner, try not to enter into a relationship for at least a few months. Instead, take the time to become aware of your feelings and thoughts, think about what you really need to be happy, what qualities you want to see in your partner. If you are in a relationship, try not to make important decisions for a while and look at what is happening from the outside.

  • Understand and accept the nature of your feelings. It may not be easy to focus on yourself and understand your emotions. If you delve into the memory, almost every one of us can find painful memories - the past, which we do not want to stir up once again. It can make us feel sad, irritated, or even desperate. However, it is necessary to experience these unpleasant emotions in order to accept certain events and the changes that have occurred in us due to this experience. Being aware of your feelings is part of the process of inner growth. You begin to understand yourself better, and this is an important step towards a healthy relationship.

Photo: Getty Images

Maria Tyumerina

Get out of love addiction | PSYCHOLOGIES

291 133

Know YourselfMan and Woman

Svetlana came for a consultation to get rid of her addiction. She is 40 years old, she does not drink, does not take drugs, but she feels like a real addict. “I can’t imagine a day without Vadim. As soon as he leaves for the weekend to meet with the children from his first marriage, and I’m already crying, I feel like I’m not needed by anyone ... And I constantly call him. I wouldn't wish that kind of passion on anyone."

Even if the absence of a loved one is difficult to bear, then the thought that he can stop loving is unbearable for a dependent person, and the departure of a partner becomes a catastrophe. Love becomes a force that cannot be controlled. “I want him to love me to death,” says 34-year-old Olga, “otherwise he’d rather die.

Suffocating hugs

Love addiction, like other addictions, makes a person strive for the object of passion, while forgetting about himself. A person obsessed with love is often unable to take care of himself: he eats poorly, sleeps poorly, does not pay attention to his health.

Neglecting himself, he spends all his life energy on his partner... thereby causing him to suffer. All attention, all thoughts and feelings are focused on him and only on him, everything else seems meaningless and boring.

“Dependent people cannot define the boundaries of their personality, they seize a loved one, leaving him no free space,” says Valentina Moskalenko. “When love turns into complete control over a partner, it interferes with the development of a full sexual and love union.”

Often there is dependence on a partner who treats the lover badly. Contrary to popular belief, everyone is at risk of becoming a victim of such passion: men and women, young and mature, rich and poor.

Another case is when violent emotions generally become the meaning of existence. Such a person literally “falls” into love. This leap is often driven by the need to dampen the sense of the meaninglessness of life.

“We are looking for in romantic love not only earthly love and human relationships. We are looking for religious experiences and a passionate desire to comprehend our inner world in it, ”says the American Jungian psychoanalyst Robert Johnson.

In his opinion, passionate love, like true faith, can temporarily free us from contradictions and doubts and, like a guiding beacon, illuminate our life, giving it wholeness and certainty, giving us the opportunity to rise above the level of everyday life.

“Everything that belongs to everyday life becomes unbearable,” says Valentina Moskalenko. “Man lives only for this jump.” These two situations have a common denominator - the suffering generated by addiction.

Thirst for sacrifice

People get addicted not only from tender, loving relationships. The opposite and no less frequent case is dependence on a cruel, rude partner.

Before work, Marina covers her bruises with foundation and thinks: “Of course, with my figure… But in fact, he is good…”. Anatoly habitually slouches when his wife calls out, sighing to himself: “Of course, with my salary…”

Living in unbearable relationships, enduring humiliation and even coldness and severity of parents.

“If a person is driven by a desire to fill that long-standing spiritual void, then no treatment, even cruelty, can sober him up,” says Valentina Moskalenko. - His feelings (as if through the mouths of his parents) tell him: "You deserve it, you yourself are to blame."

“Those who become dependent on a “sacrificial” position unwittingly choose aggressive partners for themselves, simultaneously provoking them to humiliating, cruel behavior, adds transactional analyst Vadim Petrovsky. “In order to get rid of such dependence, first of all, it is necessary to realize one’s desire for suffering, inherent in childhood, in order to stop communicating with a partner from the position of a victim.

Steps to liberation

The psychotherapy of too much love applies the principle of the medieval physician and alchemist Paracelsus: everything is poison, everything is medicine, both are determined by the dose. In other words, moderate use is good, but abuse is disastrous.

“As paradoxical as it may sound, you shouldn't love too much,” says Valentina Moskalenko. - Pay attention to love songs: many lyrics exalt the model of dependent relationships. For example, the classic "White light has converged on you like a wedge." To understand that such a perception of love and such an attitude towards a loved one is destructive for both, to recognize one’s own dependence on a partner is a difficult but necessary first step towards healing.

The next step is to awaken the senses and establish a relationship with yourself. “During therapy, I felt like a refrigerator that had finally been defrosted,” says 36-year-old Anastasia. “Suddenly she raised her head and saw: there were people around!”

“Psychotherapy helps a person realize who he is, where he is going in life and who he needs as a companion,” explains Valentina Moskalenko. “After all, an addicted person often lives as if under anesthesia, all his feelings are suppressed, because they are too painful.”

A love addict strives for ideal relationships, which he lacked in childhood. Repressed feelings are often found to be related to childhood experiences: the love addict seeks some kind of ideal relationship that he lacked in childhood.

The child might have been frightened that he was abandoned when his parents went to the store, because he was not told that they had gone away for a short time and would definitely return. If parents considered themselves victims of circumstances, they themselves were dependent on love, alcohol, whatever, then they could not teach children to be responsible for their lives.

In other cases, parents simply did not give us enough love and affection, and now we spend all our energy on making up for this lack of love.

“But don't think that in this case you will suffer all your life,” says Valentina Moskalenko. “An adult is able to cope with his love addiction: to think about why relationships make him suffer, stop blaming himself and understand that he is worthy of love - the way he is.”

Smooth approach

The opposite of addiction is not absolute freedom or isolation. During psychotherapy, people learn to build relationships that develop gradually - starting with falling in love, through gradual rapprochement and the development of trust.

It is important that each partner moves towards the other at his own speed, in contrast to the situation of love addiction, when a person instantly closes the distance and "sticks" to the beloved.

“The psychological benefit of an addict is that he completely entrusts another to take care of himself: “I had a bad life, and now you will love me,” comments Valentina Moskalenko. “But no one from outside can make us happy. We can only find the keys to true happiness within ourselves.”

About the expert

Valentina Moskalenko — addiction specialist, author of the books “When there is too much love” and “Addiction: a family disease?”, leader of psychotherapeutic groups and seminars at the Institute of Psychotherapy and Clinical Psychology.

Learn more