Negative mental health media

Media portrayal of mental illness and its treatments: what effect does it have on people with mental illness?


. 2006;20(2):99-106.

doi: 10.2165/00023210-200620020-00002.

Heather Stuart  1



  • 1 Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Abramsky Hall, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. [email protected]
  • PMID: 16478286
  • DOI: 10.2165/00023210-200620020-00002


Heather Stuart. CNS Drugs. 2006.

. 2006;20(2):99-106.

doi: 10.2165/00023210-200620020-00002.


Heather Stuart  1


  • 1 Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Abramsky Hall, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. [email protected]
  • PMID: 16478286
  • DOI: 10.2165/00023210-200620020-00002


This article reviews dominant media portrayals of mental illness, the mentally ill and mental health interventions, and examines what social, emotional and treatment-related effects these may have. Studies consistently show that both entertainment and news media provide overwhelmingly dramatic and distorted images of mental illness that emphasise dangerousness, criminality and unpredictability. They also model negative reactions to the mentally ill, including fear, rejection, derision and ridicule. The consequences of negative media images for people who have a mental illness are profound. They impair self-esteem, help-seeking behaviours, medication adherence and overall recovery. Mental health advocates blame the media for promoting stigma and discrimination toward people with a mental illness. However, the media may also be an important ally in challenging public prejudices, initiating public debate, and projecting positive, human interest stories about people who live with mental illness. Media lobbying and press liaison should take on a central role for mental health professionals, not only as a way of speaking out for patients who may not be able to speak out for themselves, but as a means of improving public education and awareness. Also, given the consistency of research findings in this field, it may now be time to shift attention away from further cataloguing of media representations of mental illness to the more challenging prospect of how to use the media to improve the life chances and recovery possibilities for the one in four people living with mental disorders.

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Here’s How Social Media Affects Your Mental Health

The social media platform Instagram made headlines last year for suppressing likes in an effort to curb the comparisons and hurt feelings associated with attaching popularity to sharing content. But do these efforts combat mental health issues, or are they simply applying a band-aid to a wound?

It’s a small step in the right direction, says Jacqueline Sperling, PhD, a psychologist at McLean Hospital who works with youth who experience anxiety disorders, about Instagram’s recent restriction. “Even if you remove the likes, there continue to be opportunities for comparisons and feedback. People still can compare themselves to others, and people still can post comments.”

Keep Reading To Learn

  • Why we keep going back to social media
  • The impact of social media on our mental health
  • Tips for healthy social media use in adults and teens

The Risks for the Reward

Social media has a reinforcing nature. Using it activates the brain’s reward center by releasing dopamine, a “feel-good chemical” linked to pleasurable activities such as sex, food, and social interaction. The platforms are designed to be addictive and are associated with anxiety, depression, and even physical ailments.

According to the Pew Research Center, 69% of adults and 81% of teens in the U.S. use social media. This puts a large amount of the population at an increased risk of feeling anxious, depressed, or ill over their social media use.

But what makes users come back for more even when it can literally make them feel sick?

“When the outcome is unpredictable, the behavior is more likely to repeat. Think of a slot machine: if game players knew they never were going to get money by playing the game, then they never would play,” Sperling says.

“The idea of a potential future reward keeps the machines in use. The same goes for social media sites. One does not know how many likes a picture will get, who will ‘like’ the picture, and when the picture will receive likes. The unknown outcome and the possibility of a desired outcome can keep users engaged with the sites.”

Watch Now!

Dr. Lisa Coyne talks to us about the link between social media and mental health

To boost self-esteem and feel a sense of belonging in their social circles, people post content with the hope of receiving positive feedback. Couple that content with the structure of potential future reward, and you get a recipe for constantly checking platforms.

When reviewing others’ social activity, people tend to make comparisons such as, “Did I get as many likes as someone else?,” or “Why didn’t this person like my post, but this other person did?” They’re searching for validation on the internet that serves as a replacement for meaningful connection they might otherwise make in real life.

FOMO—fear of missing out—also plays a role. If everyone else is using social media sites, and if someone doesn’t join in, there’s concern that they’ll miss jokes, connections, or invitations. Missing experiences can create anxiety and depression. When people look online and see they’re excluded from an activity, it can affect thoughts and feelings, and can affect them physically.

A 2018 British study tied social media use to decreased, disrupted, and delayed sleep, which is associated with depression, memory loss, and poor academic performance. Social media use can affect users’ physical health even more directly. Researchers know the connection between the mind and the gut can turn anxiety and depression into nausea, headaches, muscle tension, and tremors.

Is It Time To Power Down?

Are you spending too much time on your devices? Is your social media feed stressing you out? Learn how to spot the signs of screen fatigue and digital burnout.

Fight Digital Burnout

The Digital Age of Vulnerability

The earlier teens start using social media, the greater impact the platforms have on mental health. This is especially true for females. While teen males tend to express aggression physically, females do so relationally by excluding others and sharing hurtful comments. Social media increases the opportunity for such harmful interactions.

Sperling offers the example of a seventh grader whose best friend chooses a new best friend and posts pictures of the pair at the movies or on a weekend trip. “Twenty years ago, the girl may have been excluded from her best friend’s activities, but she may not have known about it unless she was told explicitly,” Sperling says.

In addition to providing young people with a window through which they can view missed experiences, social media puts a distorted lens on appearances and reality. Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat increase the likelihood of seeing unrealistic, filtered photos at a time when teen bodies are changing.

In the past, teens read magazines that contained altered photos of models. Now, these images are one thumb-scroll away at any given time. Apps that provide the user with airbrushing, teeth whitening, and more filters are easy to find and easier to use. It’s not only celebrities who look perfect—it’s everyone.

When there’s a filter applied to the digital world, it can be hard for teens to tell what’s real and what isn’t, which comes at a difficult time for them physically and emotionally.

“Middle school already is challenging for students with all of their developmental changes. As they go through puberty, they’re tasked with establishing their identity at a time when the frontal lobes in their brains are not fully developed, and there is a lack of impulse control. All of this happens while their relationships with peers become more important,” Sperling says.

“It’s a very vulnerable population to have access to something where there is no stopgap before they post or press the send button. I think that’s something of which to be mindful.”

Adults are vulnerable, too. In recent years, plastic surgeons have seen an uptick in requests from patients who want to look like their filtered Snapchat and Instagram photos. A New York Times article that ran in June 2018 features a newlywed couple who nearly separated after their honeymoon. The reason: the wife spent more time on the trip planning and posting selfies than she spent with her husband.

Mental Health Screening

Online screening is one of the quickest and easiest ways to determine whether you are experiencing symptoms of mental illness.

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How Can the Platforms Change?

Sperling acknowledges social platforms have positive aspects, such as their ability to allow people to stay in touch with family and friends around the world.

She realizes the potential pitfalls of completely banning teens from sites that have become a part of life for their generation—not just as a way for them to stay on top of recent parties and conversations but often as an expected source of announcements and news.

Still, she says, the platforms have opened a “Pandora’s box” as they continue to evolve more quickly than we can research their impact.

“I think we need to take a step back and look at the role technology is playing in our society as a whole, in terms of people needing instant gratification, staying home and not interacting in the community by going to local stores or to the movie theater,” she says.

“Even dating apps can decrease motivation for single adults to approach others in the community if they think they just can connect with them on an app first.”

In addition to limiting likes, as Instagram has done, Sperling suggests social platforms consider decreasing mass sharing altogether. They might function more as messaging services by highlighting one-on-one communications. Regardless of how likely social media giants are to change their ways, though, individuals can take control of their own behavior.

Self-Care Is Important

McLean develops free and reliable mental health resources for the public and professionals to promote healthy individuals and communities.

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Distract Yourself From the Distraction

People aren’t usually motivated to change their social media use by simply hearing it’s bad for them. It’s better for individuals to see what their limits are. It’s probably unrealistic for most social media users to quit completely. However, they can monitor their behavior to see how their use impacts them, and how to act as a result.

Michelle knows this all too well. When she was initially treated for anxiety, her therapist asked her if she was active on social media, and she said yes. “It turns out that a lot of my anxiety and impostor syndrome is made worse when I’m online.”

A person experiences impostor syndrome when feeling chronic self-doubt and a sense of being exposed as ‘a fraud’ in terms of success and intellect. “Whether it’s another pretty vacation or someone’s bouquet of flowers, my mind went from ‘Why not me?’ to ‘I don’t deserve those things, and I don’t know why,’ and it made me feel awful.”

She and her therapist decided to set ground rules. “If I was to continue using social media, I had to learn what would trigger my anxiety and how using different platforms made me feel,” says Michelle. The result was her deleting Snapchat for good, and after 5 years, she still doesn’t miss it. She’s still active on several other platforms, though.

Sperling encourages people to conduct their own behavior experiments by rating their emotions on a scale of 0-10, with 10 being the most intensely one could experience an emotion, before and after using social media sites at the same time each day for a week.

If one notices that one feels less happy after using them, then one might consider changing how one uses social media sites, such as using them for less time and doing other activities that one enjoys instead.

Social media usage can have both benefits and detriments, so it’s important to be aware of how it affects you

A 2018 University of Pennsylvania study suggests that such self-monitoring can change one’s perception of social media.

The study’s researchers looked at 143 undergraduates randomly assigned to two groups. The first set was asked to limit Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat to ten minutes per platform per day, while the second was asked to continue to use their social media as usual for three weeks.

The limited group showed significant reductions in loneliness and depression during those three weeks over the group that continued using social media.

Both groups showed significant decreases in anxiety and fear of missing out compared to where they were at the study’s beginning.

“I’d love to say that my use is totally healthy, but I find that I’m still comparing myself to others,” Michelle says. “Now I can recognize what’s going to help or hurt my mental well-being. My therapist and I agreed that I’d set limits on my app usage to two hours a day across all platforms. Now I know when it’s time to log off and take care of myself.”

Set a Good Example

Parents can develop a plan of how much time family members will spend on devices. Strategies like these teach kids healthy media use and good sleep hygiene.

When teens start using social media, parents can ask them to turn in their phones at night with the understanding that parents can review posts and messages. This helps parents be in the know, as sometimes young people will share struggles online while parents have no idea.

Monitoring also encourages teens to remember that everything they share online is a permanent fingerprint. If they don’t want their parents to see it, then it shouldn’t be posted.

Sperling suggests that some families modify the ways they use social media. Try a “no selfie” policy or a rule that kids can post pictures of tangible objects but no photos of themselves. This way, children can share their experiences without emphasizing a focus on their appearance.

A common argument is when children say they are missing out because of restrictions placed on their phone use—that they aren’t allowed on a platform or can’t be online after a certain time.

“Parents’ frequency of electronics use can set the tone for what is permissible to their children. If you want your children to put their phones down at dinner, that will be more likely to happen if you do the same.”– Dr. Jacqueline Sperling

Sperling tells parents to remind kids that a good friend would find a way to spend time with them. She suggests other ways for kids to talk to one another to keep those feelings of FOMO away and be socially present.

“If adolescents know that they cannot use their phone after a certain time or are not allowed to access a site that their friends use, then they can ask their friends to let them know of any plans made when they see each other at school or call the house phone or one of the parent’s phones so that they can remain included.

Of course, Sperling says, the way parents are using social media is the model for their kids. A University of Texas review of research on parents’ use of mobile devices while interacting with their children found that mobile use contributed to distracted parenting, an increase of bids for attention when the parents were distracted, and conflicts with other caregivers.

“Parents’ frequency of electronics use can set the tone for what is permissible to their children,” Sperling says. “If you want your children to put their phones down at dinner, that will be more likely to happen if you do the same.”


  • Anxiety
  • Mood Disorders
  • Jacqueline Sperling


The mass media, today, take an increasing place in a person's life. It is difficult to imagine a modern person not only who never turned on the TV, but also did not hold newspapers in his hands. The media invaded our lives harshly and uncompromisingly, it is impossible to hide from information, especially in a metropolis.

The media do not just distribute information of varying degrees of importance and reliability, but professionally promote the lifestyle, values, norms, social roles preferred by society, and much more. They influence our lives and shape our opinions, especially in matters in which we are not experts.

The influence of the media on the mental and psychological health of a person is interesting. The negative impact lies precisely in the ability to professionally present information. The media broadcast cruel, neurotic information. The depiction of tragedy, death and human suffering is presented in huge volumes, making the viewer nervous and empathetic.

The media show the ideals of beauty, lifestyle, relationships between people and norms of behavior. All this becomes part of the worldview of children and adolescents.

When analyzing social surveys, we saw the following results:

- when polling about preferred channels of information, the following indicators were found: in general, Russians are interested in news about events in Russia and in the world, and only 8% of respondents in the last survey said that they don't care about the news. The following is the rating, more interesting:

  1. Crime chronicle and emergency reports - 51%;

  2. Information concerning international relations - 48%;

  3. Events from the world of culture and art - 46%;

  4. Political news - 43%;

  5. News from the field of computer technology - 12%;

  6. Science news - 14%.

The interests of the older generation and the youth are different. It should be noted that the older generation is most interested in political news (51%), while the younger generation ranks 6th and 7th in terms of attractiveness, next to social life news (35% and 34% respectively).

Next, let's focus on questions of preference for the channel for obtaining information. Below is the rating.

  1. Central television - 90%;

  2. Central newspapers - 30%;

  3. Regional television - 29%;

  4. Internet - 9%.

These are the results for Russia, however, the survey data for Moscow are somewhat different.

  1. Central television - 82%;

  2. Central newspapers - 41%;

  3. Internet - 36%;

  4. Radio -35%;

If you look at the review of the most popular information sources within individual media, the rating of the most frequently read newspapers is headed by AiF and Komsomolka by a wide margin: 21% and 16% respectively. In regional centers, the newspaper “Life” is the most popular (11%). 40% of Russians are interested in local newspapers, and in small towns and villages this figure is 50%. At the same time, interest in printed periodicals is declining today.

When surveying popular radio stations, we observed the following indicators: those who do not listen to the radio today make up an average of 36% in the country (in 2003 - 25%), and in villages it reaches 46%. The most popular radio stations are 'Russian Radio' (20%), 'Europe Plus' (16%) and 'Mayak' (13%). In a survey on media trust and preference, the All-Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VTsIOM) provides data on which media Russians usually receive information from and which media they trust to a greater extent. As before, television remains the main source of information for Russians today. The degree of trust in the Internet is significantly increasing. Central Television marked 98% of respondents, regional - 88%. In second place among the respondents is the press (70% read the central press, 68% read the local press). The third source of information in demand is the Internet (59%), which turned out to be more popular than radio (central - 53%, regional - 46%). Russians least of all receive information from foreign media (26%).

Based on these statistics, we can confidently say that the role of the media in people's lives is increasing year by year. More and more people trust the information provided by the media, which means they rely on this information to form their opinion on various issues: whether it is world politics or fashion trends in clothing.

Absorbing and assimilating the moral norms and values ​​broadcast by the media, a person forms his attitude to the world. This is especially true for teenagers who are in the process of finding themselves.

When analyzing the survey data: “The influence of the media on the personality of a teenager. Attitude towards the media”, which was held at school No. 1315 in Moscow, out of 28 surveyed students of the 8th grade, they answered that most often teenagers prefer to turn to the Internet media, television remains in second place, radio and print media are outsiders. This situation is more understandable. In a big city, there is an Internet connection in almost every house, and getting the necessary information from the Internet is much easier than, for example, waiting for the news to be released on TV. As before, as in the all-Russian surveys, the leading position in the rating of trust is occupied by television. However, in the case of teenagers, the Internet also receives a lot of credit.

Adolescents mostly want to receive interesting information from the media related to their hobbies and hobbies, which, apparently, is associated with an active search for oneself. Information about news and events in the world is less popular. Information of an educational nature takes the third place in the rating, and all kinds of entertainment programs close it. Only 4% of respondents said that they form values ​​based on how they are presented by the media. An equal number of adolescents (22% each) report that the media does not influence their worldview in any way, or that they are guided by the opinion of family and friends. However, most adolescents still take into account the opinion of the media in the formation of their own beliefs. The areas covered by this influence will be discussed below.

60% of the respondents stated that they had a calm attitude towards information from the media. Slightly more than a third of adolescents sometimes experience anxiety due to information received from the media, while often only 7% worry. Despite the huge amount of cruel and shocking information, modern teenagers, for the most part, have learned not to take such information to heart. In such an information-rich environment they lived and adapted from childhood

Every day we receive a huge amount of useless and unnecessary information, but how much does this interfere with modern teenagers? Only 11% get tired of this amount of information, the rest of the respondents said they did not notice anything tired from an overabundance of information (49%), or coped with the flow of data, choosing only what was useful for themselves (33%). Also, not a large number of respondents even like to be constantly in the flow of informational messages.

The results of the questionnaire showed that the media can have the greatest influence on the choice of a profession by a teenager. Such data should be taken seriously, because the choice of a future profession is one of the most important tasks of adolescence and adolescence. In fact, teenagers choose a significant part of their life path based on the media.

Looking for hobbies to their liking with an eye to the media 35%. With regard to this issue, the media should control information that may involve a teenager in extreme activities that are dangerous to life and health.

The norms of behavior and moral guidelines of 33% of adolescents are also influenced by the media, which also causes some concern. Despite the active propaganda of the values ​​accepted in Russian society, it is also not difficult to find information in the media about any ideologies and views from humanistic views to Nazi ideas about the world order. It is pointless to hide information about various norms of moral ideas accepted or rejected by modern society. It is much more important in this situation to create an attractive image of moral values ​​accepted and approved by society, and the behavior corresponding to them.

33% of teenagers are able to change or correct their attitude towards learning. If you correctly use this fact, then the media will be able to slightly increase the motivation of adolescents to learn.

26% of adolescents listen to the opinion of the media regarding the appearance and style of clothing. This fact can be seen as both positive and negative. Demonstrating healthy, natural beauty and recognizing the fact that everyone's appearance is unique and unrepeatable can have a positive impact. Such a position of the media will favorably affect the adolescent's acceptance of himself as he is. A simple example of a negative influence in this case would be the display of anorexic models and recognition of their ideal of beauty.

Only 7% of respondents stated that the media influence their opinion about the opposite sex. And only one person out of all respondents is of the opinion that the media are not able to influence his worldview.

Undoubtedly, the media have a strong influence on the worldview of adolescents. Information received from the media can become a decisive factor in the formation of an image of an ideal "I" in a teenager, and therefore seriously affect psychological health. An example of these words is the spread through the media (especially Internet resources) of dangerous ideas about beauty as an extreme degree of thinness. On the Internet, there are many information portals promoting anorexia. In defense of the media, we can say that they promote both a healthy lifestyle and universal values. Such information also influences teenagers and shapes their worldview.

However, the media is not the only source of information for a child. The most important, overwhelming role in maintaining psychological health and the formation of a stable psyche is played by the family. If a warm, trusting relationship is established between parents and children, then the likelihood of a negative influence of the media on the psychological health of the child is seriously reduced.

Pershikova Ekaterina Dmitrievna,


The influence of information on the moral, mental health and education of the younger generation Radchenko,

Ph.D. social Sciences, Professor of the Faculty of Management and Economics of the Humanitarian Institute. P.A. Stolypin, Moscow.

L. E. Radchenko,

candidate. SOC. Sciences, Professor of the Faculty of Management and Economics Humanities Institute. P. A. Stolypin, Moscow.

E-mail: [email protected]

The effect of information on emotional, mental health and upbringing of the

younger 9013 generation The article provides an analysis of the types and methods of influence of the mass media (mass media) on the formation of moral and psychological health and the upbringing of the younger generation. The author presents the results of research on the proposed issues, highlights the main features and characteristics of the globalization of the information space as the most powerful factor influencing a minor.

Abstract: the article analyzes forms and methods of influence of mass media (mass-media) on the formation of moral and psychological health and education of the younger generation. The author presents results of research on the proposed issues, and the main features and peculiarities of globalization of information space as a powerful factor of influence on minors.

Key words: minor, moral and psychological health, mass media.

Key words: minor, moral, and psychological health, the media.

In our age of rapid informatization, when the volume of information doubles in just ten years, when, with the advent of electronic media, boundaries are erased, and in the conditions of world globalization a single information space is being formed, the power of mass media influence is growing uncontrollably. The ubiquity and role of the Internet is hardly negotiable - borders have been torn down, now information can flow from one end of the globe to the other in real time. The era of globalization and informatization has come. These phenomena can be treated differently, but it makes no sense to deny their presence

The mass media (mass media), due to their accessibility and diversity, have the widest possibilities. The media, along with other factors, play a significant role in shaping public opinion, moods, traditions and formations, such as knowledge, habits, values, motives and worldview in general.

Widespread use of the media has become an integral part of local wars and armed conflicts of the last quarter of the 20th century, this is due to the fact that in modern conditions the press, radio, television and the Internet are an important factor in the formation of morale and patriotic feelings of citizens. Success in modern political, public, advertising and other companies increasingly depends on the skillful information and psychological impact on society. Conversely, underestimation of this impact can lead to the most negative consequences and even failure to achieve the initial political and military goals.

The influence of the media is carried out through the influence on the mind and feelings of a person. The rational model of mass communications is designed to convince people with the help of information and argumentation, built in accordance with the laws of logic. However, various political forces widely use methods of emotional influence to promote their ideas and values. The word and visual image have a great power of emotional influence on a person, which can overshadow rational arguments and arguments. This is widely used by media leaders, abundantly saturating the programs with emotional content that overwhelms the human mind.

The experience of history shows that the media can serve various political purposes: how to educate people, develop their self-esteem, desire for freedom and social justice, promote and assist their competent participation in politics, enrich the individual, and spiritually enslave, misinform and intimidate the population, incite mass hatred and sow distrust and fear.

The greatest danger to people is the use of the media for manipulation purposes. It must be remembered that the mechanism of using manipulations has always been given a special place in the system of professional knowledge on how to communicate with people, without these tricks it is impossible to imagine business contacts. Tricks-manipulation are present in almost all areas of interpersonal relationships. In practice, there are three groups of interpersonal manipulations:

- organizational and procedural;

- psychological;

- logical.

In the modern world, the theory and practice of political manipulation have received a fairly deep scientific development and wide practical application. The general technology of global, nationwide manipulation is usually based on the systematic introduction into the mass consciousness of socio-political myths - illusory ideas that affirm certain values ​​and norms and are perceived primarily on faith, without rational, critical reflection.

Since the manipulation of public consciousness has become a technology, professional workers have appeared who own this technology (or parts of it). There was a system of personnel training, scientific institutions, scientific and popular science literature. It is believed that the success of its application in the field of advertising contributed to the establishment of psychoanalysis as the basis of the mind manipulation doctrine.

Mass Media - are institutions created for open, public transfer of various information to any person using special technical tools - this is a relatively independent system, characterized by

multiplicity of constituent elements: content, properties, forms, methods and certain levels of organization (in the country, in the region, in production).

The media, of course, have a huge psychological impact on the mind and subconscious of the child. The reality that today's media offer us is, of course, mediated by someone's opinion, it is simplified and does not offer reflection, analysis. In some cases, this information can be dangerous, since the child accepts it ready-made without hesitation, and a lot can be instilled in him. Therefore, it is often easier to plunge into the flow of information than to perceive it critically. The media today is a powerful factor influencing the mental state.

The media manifest themselves in completely different areas, in each of which the media perform their specific function (information, social communication, recreational, etc.). Thanks to the use of these communication tools, several areas of the media have arisen: print, radio, television, the Internet, each of which consists of a huge number of channels - individual newspapers, magazines, almanacs, book products, radio and television programs, information sites, chats, blocks capable of spread both around the world and in small regions (regions, districts, districts).

The globalization of the information space and technological advances have turned the media into a powerful factor influencing the picture of the world, both as an individual and as political and economic entities. Let's highlight its main features and features.

First, the development of mass media (in this case, we are talking about the entire array of mass media) gave rise to the phenomenon of "deficit from abundance." This means that with a huge amount of information, from which causal relationships are deliberately removed, a person ceases to perceive it, and comes to the conclusion that nothing can be trusted. Thus, with a large-scale information flow, as a result of the loss of confidence in the information provided, a person finds himself, as it were, in an information vacuum.

The second feature of the modern presentation of information through the media is "performance" (from the English "performance" - presentation). A person

, as in childhood, feels a craving for entertainment, sensations, mass spectacles. The presentation of information is increasingly acquiring the character of a show, this is also transferred to everyday life, people strive to become a participant in some kind of enchanting action.

The third thing is visualization. Visual (visual) communication between people has become the basis of human communication. Visual images and codes have replaced all other ways of conveying information (language, gestures, etc.). In this regard, TV and the Internet come out on top in terms of popularity. The danger lies in the fact that as a result a person loses the ability to think figuratively, creatively, others create visual images for him and for him, having the opportunity to control the recipient's mind with their help.

The issue of media standards is widely discussed and is no less relevant than the issue of freedom of the media. It is important to consider these aspects at the earliest stages of personality formation [1].

The basic standards of "quality of information" in general terms can be formulated as follows:

1. Mass media (especially the press and television) must fully provide people with current news and commentary on events in society and the world.

2. Information must be objective in the sense of accuracy, frankness, truth about reality, reliability, separation of facts and opinions.

3. Information must be balanced and unbiased, reflecting alternative points of view presented in a non-sensational manner.

4. Mass media should provide channels of mutual communication and support for those groups to which their activities are oriented (at the national, local levels).

5. Mass media can promote social inclusion by giving particular attention to individuals and groups that are socially disadvantaged or subordinated.

6. Mass media should not undermine the state of law and order through the symbolic encouragement of crime and social disorder.

7. The content of mass media must reflect and express the language and contemporary culture of the people they serve (nationally, locally, regionally).

8. Some advantage must be given to the educational role of these media, and to their reflection of the best materials in the cultural heritage of the country.

9. Mass media should promote the manifestation of cultural creativity, originality and the creation of high quality works

(corresponding to aesthetic, moral, intellectual, professional criteria) [2].

In most documents, both adopted in the regions of Russia and in foreign countries, devoted to the protection of minors from negative information impact, harmful information is divided into types, or categories, depending on its impact on minors. Products containing propaganda of antisocial behavior, criminal acts, violence, cruelty, pornography and drugs are completely prohibited from sale.

Information products that are potentially dangerous for the psyche of minors, in particular, frightening, cruel, pornographic, discrediting the family and parents, provoking children to potentially dangerous acts, and also containing profanity, are partially restricted for distribution in accordance with the age classification. And it is the state that should develop criteria for "harmful" information, determine the body that will control the content of the media in terms of information that can harm minors, with various protection technologies [3].

For example, the Federal Law “On State Protection of the Morals and Health of Citizens and on Strengthening Control over the Circulation of Sexual Products”, rejected by the President of the Russian Federation, proposes a three-level classification of products of a sexual nature.

The first level is erotic works, which the Law characterizes as a representation in artistic form in works of literature, art and other areas of cultural activity of sexual attraction and sexual actions.

Second level - products of a sexual nature, i.e. any printed and audiovisual production, the purpose of which is the depiction and (or) description of sexual activities and which serves to satisfy sexual desire. It directly relates to the works of some media.

The third level is pornographic production, which is understood by the bill as any printed and audiovisual production, the purpose of which is a naturalistic, cynical depiction and (or) description of sexual activities with minors, sexual assault, as well as sexual activities related to abuse of bodies of dead or committed against animals [5].

Thus, the public danger of pornography, in this interpretation, lies not so much in the subject of the image as in its nature and purpose.

The draft federal law "On the protection of children from information products that are harmful to their health, moral and spiritual development" states that in the Russian Federation, distribution by any means at a time accessible to children and in a form accessible to children of the following types information harmful to the health and development of children:

- showing violence or cruelty;

- discrediting family and parents;

- intimidating;

- provoking children to potentially dangerous acts;

- provoking children to consume substances, goods and services hazardous to life and health;

- provoking children to antisocial behavior;

- containing profanity;

- criminogenic character;

- of an erotic or pornographic nature;

- other information that can cause obvious harm to the health and development of children.

Thus, at present, the public is actively studying the consequences of the influence of the media, in particular on the moral, mental, physical health and education of minors [6].

Firstly, physiological consequences are considered - these are physiological changes in the body caused by exposure to the media. For example, sexual arousal under the influence of watching pornography can be assessed by measuring the heart rate, the electrochemical characteristics of the skin. Watching a horror movie or a thrilling sports match causes physical changes such as increased breathing and heart rate. Even something as mundane as TV commercials can lead to changes in heart rate and orienting reflex, skin reactions, and so on.

Cognitive consequences - cognitive effects (ie consequences that change our knowledge and thinking). The most striking example here would be the assimilation of new information from the media. There are other, more subtle, cognitive effects [7]. For example, the media "imposes an agenda" in a very simple way: by favoring certain events over others when covering the news. By giving much more attention to the presidential primaries than to complex but abstract issues like the debt of third world countries or the transition from producing domestic agricultural products to importing them, the media instills in us that the small political details of all these primaries are very important, and other issues are less significant. [eight].

Different media can facilitate different types of cognitive activities. In a remarkable series of studies comparing the cognitive effects of radio and television on storytelling, children came up with more creative endings to

unfinished stories when they heard them on the radio than when they saw and heard them. on TV. These results provide some support for the intuition that radio is more imaginative than television. Children better remembered verbal information transmitted on the radio, but they perceived visual, event and general information better when it was broadcast on television.

The attitudinal consequences of media exposure are related to people's attitudes. For example, after watching an ad, you may have a higher opinion of a certain product or political candidate; whether this setting will lead to an actual purchase or specific actions during the voting is another question.

Positive feelings about products and candidates can be instilled through the process of classical conditioning, whereby a conditioned stimulus (the product) is linked to an unconditioned stimulus that automatically elicits some positive response. For example, a beautiful fashion model advertising a product can evoke positive attitudes in a person, in which the emotional component will play the main role. The product becomes associated with the sexual model, automatically evoking a positive response.

The media can instill in us a whole range of attitudes towards some object. For example, by watching a moving feature film or TV documentary about AIDS, people can take the issue to heart and become more compassionate towards the victims of the disease. Horror films aimed at adults, in which women become sexually aroused when they are attacked or raped, may lead viewers to believe that women derive hidden pleasure from being victims of sexual violence. Attitudes are easier to evaluate than actions, and sometimes they become of great importance because they influence subsequent behavior and how we will process information in the future [9].

The impact of installations is not limited to the formation of our opinion about a particular object. Under the influence of a set of attitudes, a way of thinking can develop that will determine our entire worldview. Such attitudes leave an imprint on our perception of the world and how we interpret it [4].

Behavioral consequences, in which the person does something, such as being violent, buying a product, voting in an election, or laughing at a comedy scene after seeing someone else behaving in a similar way. These implications are emphasized by social learning theorists. Although conceptually behavior may represent the most visible type of consequences, it is often very difficult to measure; even harder from

to show with certainty that its cause is the influence of the media [10]. For example, we can know that a certain person has watched a certain commercial and check whether he bought the advertised product, but it is very difficult to demonstrate that he bought this product because he saw the advertisement, and not because of some other extraneous reasons. Or, for example, when a teenager shoots at a school, having seen a similar scene in a film shortly before, it is very difficult, both from a legal and scientific point of view, to establish a causal relationship between watching the film and the subsequent tragic events [12].

The activities of the media, especially television, continue to be destructive in Russian society. First of all, this applies to youth information programs, the selection of feature films that promote violence, pornography, drugs, the desire for profit, lack of spirituality. The moral side of the professional activity of media workers causes the greatest concern. Ultimately, this allows electronic media to actively manipulate public opinion, the behavior of young people, form a scale of false spiritual values, and impose their views on socio-political, economic, cultural processes [11].

Over the past decade and a half, a new generation of Russians has grown up with a worldview, a worldview, whose values ​​are decisively influenced by virtual computer images, symbols, and information supplied by countries that are Russia's opponents in the international arena.

Virtual reality in adolescents and young people is increasingly replacing real events, feelings, activities, communication. Computer games are replacing traditional types of active leisure. Specific computer slang of communication distorts native speech [13].

The means of psychological impact on a person include printed materials, radio and television broadcasts, films, videos, audio materials and other media of audio and video information, computer telecommunications networks, even everyday items, food and toys. With the help of these means, a person is taken to a fictional world as an active participant in the virtual events that are being played out, finding himself helpless and easily controlled in the real world. The most vulnerable, at the same time, are people who are spiritually undeveloped, children, adolescents.

Thus, having become an integral and highly significant part of our lives, the mass media harbor a powerful potential for negative impact both on society in general and on each individual in particular. Called to perform positive functions, to inform and allow each member of society to form their own attitude to what is happening around them, on the contrary, they often misinform and model behavior by manipulating the human

consciousness. This problem is especially acute when it comes to the yet unformed consciousness of the child.


1. Vinichenko M.V. Innovative development of personality in the course of training in managerial specialties. // Management of personnel and intellectual resources in Russia. - 2014. - No. 4 (13). - P.21-25.

2. Declaration of Principles / World Summit on the Information Society (Geneva 2003 - Tunisia 2005), http://wwwcontent-filtering. ru

3. Council Directive 89/52/EEC of October 3, 1989,

4. Evstratova TA Measures to improve the effectiveness of the municipal youth policy of a small town. Materials of the Ivanovo Readings. 2015. No. 5. S. 20-25.

5. Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (Rome, dated October 4, 1950), as amended and supplemented on March 25, 1992,

6. Leskova I.V. Marginal and cultural identification of youth // Social policy and sociology. 2008. No. 2. S. 252-259.

7. Mazaev Yu.N. Life Strategies of Youth - Diversity of Choice // Proceedings of the Afanasiev Readings. -2015. T. 1. No. 13. S. 290-297.

8. Fomicheva T.V. Abstract of the dissertation for the degree of candidate of sociological sciences 22.00.04. on the topic "Educational Values ​​of Youth in the Russian Transforming Society (Sociological Analysis)". M.: MGSU, 2001. 27s.

9. Fedotova L.N. Content analysis is a sociological method for studying mass media.

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