Food to fight depression and anxiety
SAMHSA’s National Helpline | SAMHSA
Your browser is not supported
Switch to Chrome, Edge, Firefox or Safari
Main page content
SAMHSA’s National Helpline is a free, confidential, 24/7, 365-day-a-year treatment referral and information service (in English and Spanish) for individuals and families facing mental and/or substance use disorders.
Also visit the online treatment locator.
SAMHSA’s National Helpline, 1-800-662-HELP (4357) (also known as the Treatment Referral Routing Service), or TTY: 1-800-487-4889 is a confidential, free, 24-hour-a-day, 365-day-a-year, information service, in English and Spanish, for individuals and family members facing mental and/or substance use disorders. This service provides referrals to local treatment facilities, support groups, and community-based organizations.
Also visit the online treatment locator, or send your zip code via text message: 435748 (HELP4U) to find help near you. Read more about the HELP4U text messaging service.
The service is open 24/7, 365 days a year.
English and Spanish are available if you select the option to speak with a national representative. Currently, the 435748 (HELP4U) text messaging service is only available in English.
In 2020, the Helpline received 833,598 calls. This is a 27 percent increase from 2019, when the Helpline received a total of 656,953 calls for the year.
The referral service is free of charge. If you have no insurance or are underinsured, we will refer you to your state office, which is responsible for state-funded treatment programs. In addition, we can often refer you to facilities that charge on a sliding fee scale or accept Medicare or Medicaid. If you have health insurance, you are encouraged to contact your insurer for a list of participating health care providers and facilities.
The service is confidential. We will not ask you for any personal information. We may ask for your zip code or other pertinent geographic information in order to track calls being routed to other offices or to accurately identify the local resources appropriate to your needs.
No, we do not provide counseling. Trained information specialists answer calls, transfer callers to state services or other appropriate intake centers in their states, and connect them with local assistance and support.
What Is Substance Abuse Treatment? A Booklet for Families
Created for family members of people with alcohol abuse or drug abuse problems. Answers questions about substance abuse, its symptoms, different types of treatment, and recovery. Addresses concerns of children of parents with substance use/abuse problems.
It's Not Your Fault (NACoA) (PDF | 12 KB)
Assures teens with parents who abuse alcohol or drugs that, "It's not your fault!" and that they are not alone. Encourages teens to seek emotional support from other adults, school counselors, and youth support groups such as Alateen, and provides a resource list.
After an Attempt: A Guide for Taking Care of Your Family Member After Treatment in the Emergency Department
Aids family members in coping with the aftermath of a relative's suicide attempt. Describes the emergency department treatment process, lists questions to ask about follow-up treatment, and describes how to reduce risk and ensure safety at home.
Family Therapy Can Help: For People in Recovery From Mental Illness or Addiction
Explores the role of family therapy in recovery from mental illness or substance abuse. Explains how family therapy sessions are run and who conducts them, describes a typical session, and provides information on its effectiveness in recovery.
For additional resources, please visit the SAMHSA Store.
Last Updated: 08/30/2022
Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs
Your browser is not supported
Switch to Chrome, Edge, Firefox or SafariMisusing alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs can have both immediate and long-term health effects.
The misuse and abuse of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and prescription medications affect the health and well-being of millions of Americans. NSDUH estimates allow researchers, clinicians, policymakers, and the general public to better understand and improve the nation’s behavioral health. These reports and detailed tables present estimates from the 2021 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH).
- Among the 133.1 million current alcohol users aged 12 or older in 2021, 60.0 million people (or 45.1%) were past month binge drinkers. The percentage of people who were past month binge drinkers was highest among young adults aged 18 to 25 (29.2% or 9.8 million people), followed by adults aged 26 or older (22.4% or 49.3 million people), then by adolescents aged 12 to 17 (3.8% or 995,000 people). (2021 NSDUH)
- Among people aged 12 to 20 in 2021, 15.1% (or 5.9 million people) were past month alcohol users. Estimates of binge alcohol use and heavy alcohol use in the past month among underage people were 8.3% (or 3.2 million people) and 1.6% (or 613,000 people), respectively. (2021 NSDUH)
- In 2020, 50.0% of people aged 12 or older (or 138.5 million people) used alcohol in the past month (i.e., current alcohol users) (2020 NSDUH)
- Among the 138.5 million people who were current alcohol users, 61.6 million people (or 44.4%) were classified as binge drinkers and 17.7 million people (28.8% of current binge drinkers and 12.8% of current alcohol users) were classified as heavy drinkers (2020 NSDUH)
- The percentage of people who were past month binge alcohol users was highest among young adults aged 18 to 25 (31. 4%) compared with 22.9% of adults aged 26 or older and 4.1% of adolescents aged 12 to 17 (2020 NSDUH)
- Excessive alcohol use can increase a person’s risk of stroke, liver cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis, cancer, and other serious health conditions
- Excessive alcohol use can also lead to risk-taking behavior, including driving while impaired. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that 29 people in the United States die in motor vehicle crashes that involve an alcohol-impaired driver daily
- STOP Underage Drinking interagency portal - Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Prevention of Underage Drinking
- Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Prevention of Underage Drinking
- Talk. They Hear You.
- Underage Drinking: Myths vs. Facts
- Talking with your College-Bound Young Adult About Alcohol
- National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors
- Department of Transportation Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance
- Alcohol Policy Information Systems Database (APIS)
- National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
- In 2020, 20. 7% of people aged 12 or older (or 57.3 million people) used nicotine products (i.e., used tobacco products or vaped nicotine) in the past month (2020 NSDUH)
- Among past month users of nicotine products, nearly two thirds of adolescents aged 12 to 17 (63.1%) vaped nicotine but did not use tobacco products. In contrast, 88.9% of past month nicotine product users aged 26 or older used only tobacco products (2020 NSDUH)
- Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death, often leading to lung cancer, respiratory disorders, heart disease, stroke, and other serious illnesses. The CDC reports that cigarette smoking causes more than 480,000 deaths each year in the United States
- The CDC’s Office on Smoking and Health reports that more than 16 million Americans are living with a disease caused by smoking cigarettes
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use data:
- In 2021, 13.2 million people aged 12 or older (or 4.7%) used an e-cigarette or other vaping device to vape nicotine in the past month. The percentage of people who vaped nicotine was highest among young adults aged 18 to 25 (14.1% or 4.7 million people), followed by adolescents aged 12 to 17 (5.2% or 1.4 million people), then by adults aged 26 or older (3.2% or 7.1 million people).
- Among people aged 12 to 20 in 2021, 11.0% (or 4.3 million people) used tobacco products or used an e-cigarette or other vaping device to vape nicotine in the past month. Among people in this age group, 8.1% (or 3.1 million people) vaped nicotine, 5.4% (or 2.1 million people) used tobacco products, and 3.4% (or 1.3 million people) smoked cigarettes in the past month. (2021 NSDUH)
- Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2020 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Among both middle and high school students, current use of e-cigarettes declined from 2019 to 2020, reversing previous trends and returning current e-cigarette use to levels similar to those observed in 2018
- E-cigarettes are not safe for youth, young adults, or pregnant women, especially because they contain nicotine and other chemicals
- Tips for Teens: Tobacco
- Tips for Teens: E-cigarettes
- Implementing Tobacco Cessation Programs in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Settings
- Synar Amendment Program
- Truth Initiative
- FDA Center for Tobacco Products
- CDC Office on Smoking and Health
- National Institute on Drug Abuse: Tobacco, Nicotine, and E-Cigarettes
- National Institute on Drug Abuse: E-Cigarettes
- Among people aged 12 or older in 2021, 3. 3% (or 9.2 million people) misused opioids (heroin or prescription pain relievers) in the past year. Among the 9.2 million people who misused opioids in the past year, 8.7 million people misused prescription pain relievers compared with 1.1 million people who used heroin. These numbers include 574,000 people who both misused prescription pain relievers and used heroin in the past year. (2021 NSDUH)
- Among people aged 12 or older in 2020, 3.4% (or 9.5 million people) misused opioids in the past year. Among the 9.5 million people who misused opioids in the past year, 9.3 million people misused prescription pain relievers and 902,000 people used heroin (2020 NSDUH)
- According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Understanding the Epidemic, an average of 128 Americans die every day from an opioid overdose
- Medication-Assisted Treatment
- Opioid Overdose Prevention Toolkit
- TIP 63: Medications for Opioid Use Disorder
- Use of Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder in Criminal Justice Settings
- Opioid Use Disorder and Pregnancy
- Clinical Guidance for Treating Pregnant and Parenting Women With Opioid Use Disorder and Their Infants
- The Facts about Buprenorphine for Treatment of Opioid Addiction
- Pregnancy Planning for Women Being Treated for Opioid Use Disorder
- Tips for Teens: Opioids
- Rural Opioid Technical Assistance Grants
- Tribal Opioid Response Grants
- Provider’s Clinical Support System - Medication Assisted Treatment Grant Program
- National Institute on Drug Abuse: Opioids
- National Institute on Drug Abuse: Heroin
- HHS Prevent Opioid Abuse
- Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America
- Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) Network
- Prevention Technology Transfer Center (PTTC) Network
- In 2021, marijuana was the most commonly used illicit drug, with 18. 7% of people aged 12 or older (or 52.5 million people) using it in the past year. The percentage was highest among young adults aged 18 to 25 (35.4% or 11.8 million people), followed by adults aged 26 or older (17.2% or 37.9 million people), then by adolescents aged 12 to 17 (10.5% or 2.7 million people).
- The percentage of people who used marijuana in the past year was highest among young adults aged 18 to 25 (34.5%) compared with 16.3% of adults aged 26 or older and 10.1% of adolescents aged 12 to 17 (2020 NSDUH)
- Marijuana can impair judgment and distort perception in the short term and can lead to memory impairment in the long term
- Marijuana can have significant health effects on youth and pregnant women.
- Know the Risks of Marijuana
- Marijuana and Pregnancy
- Tips for Teens: Marijuana
- National Institute on Drug Abuse: Marijuana
- Addiction Technology Transfer Centers on Marijuana
- CDC Marijuana and Public Health
Emerging Trends in Substance Misuse:
- Methamphetamine—In 2019, NSDUH data show that approximately 2 million people used methamphetamine in the past year. Approximately 1 million people had a methamphetamine use disorder, which was higher than the percentage in 2016, but similar to the percentages in 2015 and 2018. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Data shows that overdose death rates involving methamphetamine have quadrupled from 2011 to 2017. Frequent meth use is associated with mood disturbances, hallucinations, and paranoia.
- Cocaine—In 2019, NSDUH data show an estimated 5.5 million people aged 12 or older were past users of cocaine, including about 778,000 users of crack. The CDC reports that overdose deaths involving have increased by one-third from 2016 to 2017. In the short term, cocaine use can result in increased blood pressure, restlessness, and irritability. In the long term, severe medical complications of cocaine use include heart attacks, seizures, and abdominal pain.
- Kratom—In 2019, NSDUH data show that about 825,000 people had used Kratom in the past month. Kratom is a tropical plant that grows naturally in Southeast Asia with leaves that can have psychotropic effects by affecting opioid brain receptors. It is currently unregulated and has risk of abuse and dependence. The National Institute on Drug Abuse reports that health effects of Kratom can include nausea, itching, seizures, and hallucinations.
- Tips for Teens: Methamphetamine
- Tips for Teens: Cocaine
- National Institute on Drug Abuse
More SAMHSA publications on substance use prevention and treatment.
Last Updated: 01/05/2023
Antidepressant products. Natural antidepressants in products, products for depression and anxiety
Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, affecting more than 300 million people each year. While treatment for depression can be long and multifaceted, there are several steps you can take to improve your mood naturally, including eating antidepressant products.
Diet and nutrition play a critical role in managing well-being and increasing energy. The best foods for depression include foods that are easily available and those that you already have in your kitchen. nine0003
Spinach and depression may seem like an odd combination, but leafy greens like spinach and iceberg lettuce have numerous benefits that support both physical and mental health.
Leafy greens contain folic acid, an important nutrient for healthy digestion and cardiovascular health. Most doctors recommend that pregnant women take folic acid throughout their pregnancy to reduce the risk of birth defects. In addition, greens fight toxins, nourish the intestines and produce enzymes. nine0003
Blueberry is a natural antidepressant product that tastes amazing. It turns out that these tiny berries are full of antioxidants. Antioxidants protect the body from free radicals that damage cells. They also normalize cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, prevent heart disease, and even improve brain cognition.
Blueberries have the same effect as valproic acid, a drug that stabilizes mood and regulates emotions. nine0003
Blueberries contain an antioxidant associated with a reduced risk of depression. Finally, the berry contains vitamin C, which is useful in reducing the negative effects of stress.
Oysters contain many important substances and minerals that provide health benefits. They contain a large number of macro- and microelements: protein, a group of vitamins B12 and D, copper, manganese and selenium. They are also rich in antioxidants and omega-3s.
Another component is zinc, which makes the body stronger and can be a powerful weapon for proper development and growth. Thanks to him, oysters are a useful asset for emotional health. nine0003
Bananas are a tasty and convenient snack, as well as antidepressant fruits. This is because they contain serotonin, an important neurotransmitter that balances mood and daily activities. Most antidepressants and medications work by increasing the level of serotonin in the brain.
In addition, bananas are rich in fiber and are a source of vitamin C and potassium, which improve nerve and muscle health.
Walnuts have higher antioxidant activity and contain significantly more omega-3s than any other nut. nine0003
In addition, walnuts reduce stress and depression. It also promotes a healthy gut, which improves immune status and enhances physical energy.
This potato contains many nutrients, including high levels of vitamin A, beta-carotene and fiber. They stop the growth of food-borne bacteria that harm the body.
Sweet potatoes are rich in magnesium, which reduces stress and anxiety. Studies show that magnesium deficiency leads to more frequent symptoms of depression and is associated with insomnia. Because sleep problems and depression and anxiety can be linked, it's important to make sure you're getting enough magnesium in your daily diet. nine0003
Chicken and turkey are excellent sources of lean protein that stabilizes glycemic levels, keeping you in a good mood throughout the day. It is known that turkey and chicken breasts are not only sources of lean protein, but also contain a large amount of tryptophan. It produces serotonin, which supports healthy sleep and a balanced mood.
Brazil nuts are full of selenium, which improves mood. This mineral also maintains a healthy antioxidant balance for overall health and well-being. Eat Brazil nuts in moderation; their selenium levels are so high that consuming too much leads to an excess of the recommended daily intake. nine0003
Salmon is one of the most nutritious foods in the world. Salmon is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which are beneficial in reducing the risk of cancer and lowering blood pressure. Salmon contains an impressive amount of protein (22-25 grams per serving), making it a satisfying, low-fat meal.
This fish contains the antioxidant astaxanthin, which protects the brain and nervous system. Astaxanthin also prevents the symptom of skin damage and promotes youthfulness. nine0003
Finally, salmon fights inflammation hard. Scientific research and treatments for depression continue to show higher rates between increased inflammation and increased risk of depression. This fact is due to the fact that inflammation causes many serious diseases, such as heart disease, cancer and diabetes. Any of these increase the risk of depression.
Dark chocolate helps in the treatment of depression and improves well-being. A chocolate bar that contains 70-85% cocoa contains 11 grams of fiber, 89% RDA for copper, 98% manganese, and 67% iron.
Dark chocolate also has an exceptional level of antioxidant activity. Some studies show that the cocoa content is even higher than that of fruits. Like other healthy foods, it improves brain function, protects the skin from the harmful effects of sunlight and reduces the risk of heart disease.
Flaxseed and chia seeds are a great addition to your diet when fighting depression. As with some of the other foods mentioned, these two types of seeds are particularly good sources of omega-3 fats. Just 1 tablespoon of chia seeds provides 61% of the recommended daily allowance of omega-3s, while a tablespoon of flaxseed provides 39% Daily Value.
Pumpkin seeds are a great way to increase tryptophan levels. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that helps produce serotonin.
Beans and peas are excellent sources of many nutrients, including fiber, vitamins and protein.
People who eat legumes regularly are less likely to have strokes, heart attacks, and other cardiovascular diseases. They have lower rates of cancer, diabetes, and liver-related problems. nine0003
Beans are great for controlling appetite. This is because it is rich in fiber and healthy starches, which create a feeling of satiety and prevent food cravings.
Several studies have shown that gut micro-organisms, including probiotics, play a key role in mood regulation, producing feel-good neurotransmitters and influencing the stress response.
This may be why more people with irritable bowel syndrome develop depression and anxiety. nine0003
Products containing probiotics include:
- Kombucha (kombucha)
- Yogurt and kefir
Carrots get their orange color from beta-carotene, a powerful antioxidant. Studies have shown that people with high levels of antioxidant carotenoids are less likely to have symptoms of depression and depression. Carotenoids occur naturally as bright red, yellow, and orange pigments in fruits and vegetables. Pumpkin, melon, peaches, and sweet potatoes also contain beta-carotene. nine0003
The chemical properties of mushrooms counteract insulin, which lowers blood sugar levels and improves mood. They are also similar to probiotics in that they promote healthy gut bacteria. And since the nerve cells in the gut produce between 80 and 90 percent of serotonin—the critical neurotransmitter that keeps us sane—we can't afford to ignore gut health.
Tomato is an antidepressant anti-anxiety product. It contains a lot of folic acid and alpha lipoic acid, which are good at fighting depression and anxiety. Folic acid prevents the body from producing excess homocysteine, which limits the production of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. Alpha lipoic converts glucose into energy and stabilizes mood. nine0003
Foods that can make depression worse
Knowing what not to eat is just as important when dealing with depression. Unfortunately, many of these foods are the ones people often turn to when they're having a rough day. Of course, most things in moderation will not cause harm, but knowing the negative mental health effects of certain foods will help you make the right food choices.
Sugar affects not only the waist, but also the mood. We have a selection of sugar-filled foods all around us, such as cakes, cookies, sodas, and even condiments like barbecue sauce, salad dressings, and more. nine0003
There are many foods that are perceived as "healthy" but contain huge amounts of added sugar. Examples of complex foods like this are muesli bars, energy bars, store-bought yogurts, and packaged juices.
Maintaining an even glycemic level throughout the day will help your mood stay more balanced.
The term "refined" refers to forms of sugars and starches that do not exist in nature. Foods like bread, chips, and breaded foods are full of refined carbohydrates that have little to no nutritional value and deprive important B vitamins during digestion. nine0003
Filling the diet with these refined carbohydrate foods will cause insulin levels to rise dramatically throughout the day, leading to symptoms of low mood and fatigue.
Alcohol is a depressant and worsens reactions. Many alcoholic drinks are quite sweet, which sabotages the mood and causes sugar spikes and drops.
Yes, caffeine can help you start your day well and energized. However, it can also lead to accidents at the end of the day, and the need for more energy to recuperate. nine0003
However, moderate amounts of caffeine, two to three cups a day, are associated with a lower risk of suicide.
An alternative to coffee and energy drinks is green tea. In addition to its antioxidant properties, green tea is known to contain theanine, an amino acid with anti-stress effects that is beneficial for people suffering from depression.
Of course, there is no specific food that can prevent or cure a depression or disorder like a medicine, but a healthy diet can help improve your mood. Nutrients in foods support growth, well-being and recovery of the body. Without vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, proteins, and healthy fats, the body cannot function at its full potential. nine0003
How to choose the right honey
October 7, 2021
What is churchkhela?
27 January 2022
The healthiest cereals for the human body
26 January 2022
With a taste of sadness: what foods provoke depression | Articles
Regular consumption of foods high in easily digestible carbohydrates, such as baked goods and confectionery, may increase the risk of depression and obesity, doctors said. nine0188 However, this list includes other products, the abuse of which can cause serious harm to mental health. Details - in the material "Izvestia".
Why does bread lead to depression? According to her,food with an abundant content of easily digestible carbohydrates, which quickly saturate the blood and are also excreted from the body, can cause mood swings. In particular, such products include bakery and confectionery products. nine0188
— This leads to well-known consequences — excess weight, and depression does not go away, but worsens even more. Enrich your diet with foods containing tryptophan and get great results, the nutritionist emphasizes.
With a taste of sadness
Photo: Izvestiya/Nikolai Sidenkov
Meanwhile, other experts have repeatedly pointed out the connection between malnutrition and the development of depression. As previously reported by a dietitian and endocrinologist Viktor Zhilyaev , a number of fatty foods can lead not only to problems with the digestive system, but also to depression. These include fatty red meat (pork, lamb), fatty dairy products, as well as foods that contain hidden fats (semi-finished products, sausages). Cholesterol, which is found in foods rich in animal fats, increases the risk of depression by 40%, the doctor explained. In addition, according to Zhilyaev, red meat takes a very long time to digest: it takes a lot of energy that could be used to restore the body, including the nervous system. nine0003
How nutrition can help stabilize your mind
Meanwhile, a healthy diet can not only help you avoid mental health problems, but also contribute to its improvement, as evidenced by a number of studies. Thus, according to the representative of the International Society for Research in Nutritional Psychiatry Felice Giachi, a balanced diet can not only help fight depression, but also help reduce anxiety. In this regard, the expert strongly advises to avoid overeating and give preference to the Mediterranean diet. nine0188
British doctors came to similar conclusions this year: according to their data, the right diet helps to get rid of chronic depression. At the same time, the positive effect of a healthy diet is enhanced by sports, experts are sure. They analyzed 16 studies, the authors of which monitored changes in the diet, psychological and physiological state of volunteers - a total of about 46 thousand people participated, some of whom suffered from depression. nine0003
With a taste of sadness
And here are the conclusions of the experts: about a third of the participants in the study to get rid of depression or significantly reduce the symptoms of the disease helped the Mediterranean diet, as well as other approaches to proper nutrition. However, dietary changes had the most positive effect on women's well-being, while for many men they caused exactly the opposite effects. So, in every fifth man, the psychological state only worsened when switching to a new diet. nine0003
Foods That Can Improve Your Mood
In addition to a healthy diet, certain foods can reduce the risk of depression and generally improve your mood. So, according to Anna Belousova, nutritionist, nutritionist, member of the National Association of Dietitians, orange-colored fruits and vegetables are especially useful in this sense.
— Persimmon helps with suppressed depressive states, like other orange-colored fruits and vegetables. If yellow is considered the color of anxiety, so yellow apples are undesirable, then orange fruits, such as carrots or pumpkins, really help get rid of depression.0188, she said.
Thus, the orange color indicates a high content of beta-carotene in persimmon, that is, provitamin A, the doctor explained. In addition, it also contains magnesium. This element also has an action against depression and stress. At the same time, persimmon has no special contraindications, she concluded.
Help reduce the risk of depression and mushrooms. American scientists came to this conclusion as a result of a study in which about 24 thousand people took part. For 11 years, experts studied their eating habits and changes in mental health. It turned out that those who ate more mushrooms had a 43% lower risk of developing depression than those who did not eat mushrooms. nine0188
With a taste of sadness
Photo: Izvestiya/Zurab Javakhadze
According to Pennsylvania College of Medicine professor Djibril Ba, this is most likely due to the many bioactive compounds found in mushrooms, including vitamin B12, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory amino acids, which help reduce depression and anxiety. “High levels of these compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress and in turn reduce symptoms of depression,” said the American professor.