Faking illnesses for attention

Overview - Munchausen syndrome - NHS

Munchausen syndrome is a psychological condition where someone pretends to be ill or deliberately produces symptoms of illness in themselves.

Their main intention is to assume the "sick role" so that people care for them and they are the centre of attention.

Any practical benefit in pretending to be sick – for example, claiming incapacity benefit – is not the reason for their behaviour.

Munchausen syndrome is named after a German aristocrat, Baron Munchausen, who became famous for telling wild, unbelievable tales about his exploits.

Types of behaviour

People with Munchausen syndrome can behave in a number of different ways, including:

  • pretending to have psychological symptoms – for example, claiming to hear voices or claiming to see things that are not really there
  • pretending to have physical symptoms – for example, claiming to have chest pain or a stomach ache
  • actively trying to get ill – such as deliberately infecting a wound by rubbing dirt into it

Some people with Munchausen syndrome may spend years travelling from hospital to hospital faking a wide range of illnesses. When it's discovered they're lying, they may suddenly leave hospital and move to another area.

People with Munchausen syndrome can be very manipulative and, in the most serious cases, may undergo painful and sometimes life-threatening surgery, even though they know it's unnecessary.

Read more about the signs and symptoms of Munchausen syndrome

What causes Munchausen syndrome?

Munchausen syndrome is complex and poorly understood. Many people refuse psychiatric treatment or psychological profiling, and it's unclear why people with the syndrome behave the way they do.

Several factors have been identified as possible causes of Munchausen syndrome. These include:

  • emotional trauma or illness during childhood – this often resulted in extensive medical attention
  • a personality disorder – a mental health condition that causes patterns of abnormal thinking and behaviour
  • a grudge against authority figures or healthcare professionals

Childhood trauma

Munchausen syndrome may be caused by parental neglect and abandonment, or other childhood trauma.

As a result of this trauma, a person may have unresolved issues with their parents that cause them to fake illness. They may do this because they:

  • have a compulsion to punish themselves by making themselves ill because they feel unworthy
  • need to feel important and be the centre of attention
  • need to pass responsibility for their wellbeing and care on to other people

There's also some evidence to suggest people who have had extensive medical procedures, or received prolonged medical attention during childhood or their teenage years, are more likely to develop Munchausen syndrome when they're older.

This may be because they associate their childhood memories with a sense of being cared for. As they get older, they try to obtain the same feelings of reassurance by pretending to be ill.

Personality disorders

Different personality disorders thought to be linked with Munchausen syndrome include:

  • antisocial personality disorder – where a person may take pleasure in manipulating and deceiving doctors, giving them a sense of power and control
  • borderline personality disorder – where a person struggles to control their feelings and often swings between positive and negative views of others
  • narcissistic personality disorder – where a person often swings between seeing themselves as special and fearing they're worthless

It could be that the person has an unstable sense of their own identity and also has difficulty forming meaningful relationships with others.

Playing the "sick role" allows them to adopt an identity that brings support and acceptance from others with it. Admission to hospital also gives the person a clearly defined place in a social network.

Diagnosing Munchausen syndrome

Diagnosing Munchausen syndrome can be challenging for medical professionals.

People with the syndrome are often very convincing and skilled at manipulating and exploiting doctors.

Investigating claims

If a healthcare professional suspects a person may have Munchausen syndrome, they'll look at the person's health records to check for inconsistencies between their claimed and actual medical history.

Healthcare professionals can also run tests to check for evidence of self-inflicted illness or tampering with clinical tests. For example, the person's blood can be checked for traces of medicine they should not be taking but which could explain their symptoms.

Doctors will also want to rule out other possible motivations for their behaviour, such as faking illness for financial gain or because they want access to strong painkillers.

Munchausen syndrome can usually be diagnosed if:

  • there's clear evidence of fabricating or inducing symptoms
  • the person's prime motivation is to be seen as sick
  • there's no other likely reason or explanation for their behaviour

Treating Munchausen syndrome

Treating Munchausen syndrome can be difficult because most people with it refuse to admit they have a problem and refuse to co-operate with treatment plans.

Some experts recommend that healthcare professionals should adopt a gentle non-confrontational approach, suggesting the person may benefit from a referral to a psychiatrist.

Others argue that a person with Munchausen syndrome should be confronted directly and asked why they've lied and whether they have stress and anxiety.

People who have Munchausen syndrome have a genuine mental health condition, but will often only admit to having a physical illness.

If a person admits to their behaviour, they can be referred to a psychiatrist for further treatment. If they do not admit to lying, most experts agree the doctor in charge of their care should minimise medical contact with them.

This is because the doctor-patient relationship is based on trust and if there's evidence the patient can no longer be trusted, the doctor is unable to continue treating them.

Psychiatric treatment and CBT

It may be possible to help control the symptoms of Munchausen syndrome if the person admits they have a problem and co-operates with treatment.

There's no standard treatment for Munchausen syndrome, but a combination of psychoanalysis and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has shown some success controlling symptoms.

Psychoanalysis is a type of psychotherapy that attempts to uncover and resolve unconscious beliefs and motivations.

CBT helps a person identify unhelpful and unrealistic beliefs and behavioural patterns. A specially trained therapist teaches the person ways of replacing unrealistic beliefs with more realistic and balanced ones.

Family therapy

People with Munchausen syndrome still in close contact with their family may also benefit from having family therapy.

The person with the syndrome and their close family members discuss how it's affected the family and the positive changes that can be made.

It can also teach family members how to avoid reinforcing the person's abnormal behaviour. For example, this could involve recognising when the person is playing the "sick role" and avoiding showing them concern or offering support.

Who's affected by Munchausen syndrome?

There appear to be 2 separate groups of people affected by Munchausen syndrome. They are:

  • women who are 20 to 40 years of age, often with a background in healthcare
  • unmarried white men who are 30 to 50 years of age

It's unclear why these 2 groups tend to be affected by Munchausen syndrome.

Some experts believe Munchausen syndrome is underdiagnosed because many people succeed in deceiving medical staff. It's also possible cases may be overdiagnosed as the same person could use different identities.

Fabricated or induced illness

Fabricated or induced illness, which used to be known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy, is a related condition.

This is where a person fakes or induces illness in a person under their care, such as their child.

Video: Munchausen syndrome

In this video, an expert discusses Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen by proxy (fabricated or induced illness).

Media last reviewed: 7 December 2021
Media review due: 7 December 2024

Factitious disorder - Symptoms and causes


Factitious disorder is a serious mental disorder in which someone deceives others by appearing sick, by purposely getting sick or by self-injury. Factitious disorder also can happen when family members or caregivers falsely present others, such as children, as being ill, injured or impaired.

Factitious disorder symptoms can range from mild (slight exaggeration of symptoms) to severe (previously called Munchausen syndrome). The person may make up symptoms or even tamper with medical tests to convince others that treatment, such as high-risk surgery, is needed.

Factitious disorder is not the same as inventing medical problems for practical benefit, such as getting out of work or winning a lawsuit. Although people with factitious disorder know they are causing their symptoms or illnesses, they may not understand the reasons for their behaviors or recognize themselves as having a problem.

Factitious disorder is challenging to identify and hard to treat. However, medical and psychiatric help are critical for preventing serious injury and even death caused by the self-harm typical of this disorder.

Products & Services

  • Book: Mayo Clinic Family Health Book, 5th Edition
  • Newsletter: Mayo Clinic Health Letter — Digital Edition


Factitious disorder symptoms involve mimicking or producing illness or injury or exaggerating symptoms or impairment to deceive others. People with the disorder go to great lengths to hide their deception, so it may be difficult to realize that their symptoms are actually part of a serious mental health disorder. They continue with the deception, even without receiving any visible benefit or reward or when faced with objective evidence that doesn't support their claims.

Factitious disorder signs and symptoms may include:

Clever and convincing medical or psychological problems

  • Extensive knowledge of medical terms and diseases
  • Vague or inconsistent symptoms
  • Conditions that get worse for no apparent reason
  • Conditions that don't respond as expected to standard therapies
  • Seeking treatment from many different doctors or hospitals, which may include using a fake name
  • Reluctance to allow doctors to talk to family or friends or to other health care professionals
  • Frequent stays in the hospital
  • Eagerness to have frequent testing or risky operations
  • Many surgical scars or evidence of numerous procedures
  • Having few visitors when hospitalized
  • Arguing with doctors and staff

Factious disorder imposed on another

Factitious disorder imposed on another (previously called Munchausen syndrome by proxy) is when someone falsely claims that another person has physical or psychological signs or symptoms of illness, or causes injury or disease in another person with the intention of deceiving others.

People with this disorder present another person as sick, injured or having problems functioning, claiming that medical attention is needed. Usually this involves a parent harming a child. This form of abuse can put a child in serious danger of injury or unnecessary medical care.

How those with factitious disorder fake illness

Because people with factitious disorder become experts at faking symptoms and diseases or inflicting real injuries upon themselves, it may be hard for health care professionals and loved ones to know if illnesses are real or not.

People with factitious disorder make up symptoms or cause illnesses in several ways, such as:

  • Exaggerating existing symptoms. Even when an actual medical or psychological condition exists, they may exaggerate symptoms to appear sicker or more impaired than is true.
  • Making up histories. They may give loved ones, health care professionals or support groups a false medical history, such as claiming to have had cancer or AIDS. Or they may falsify medical records to indicate an illness.
  • Faking symptoms. They may fake symptoms, such as stomach pain, seizures or passing out.
  • Causing self-harm. They may make themselves sick, for example, by injecting themselves with bacteria, milk, gasoline or feces. They may injure, cut or burn themselves. They may take medications, such as blood thinners or drugs for diabetes, to mimic diseases. They may also interfere with wound healing, such as reopening or infecting cuts.
  • Tampering. They may manipulate medical instruments to skew results, such as heating up thermometers. Or they may tamper with lab tests, such as contaminating their urine samples with blood or other substances.

When to see a doctor

People with factitious disorder may be well aware of the risk of injury or even death as a result of self-harm or the treatment they seek, but they can't control their behaviors and they're unlikely to seek help. Even when confronted with objective proof — such as a videotape — that they're causing their illness, they often deny it and refuse psychiatric help.

If you think a loved one may be exaggerating or faking health problems, it may help to attempt a gentle conversation about your concerns. Try to avoid anger, judgment or confrontation. Also try to reinforce and encourage more healthy, productive activities rather than focusing on dysfunctional beliefs and behaviors. Offer support and caring and, if possible, help in finding treatment.

If your loved one causes self-inflicted injury or attempts suicide, call 911 or emergency medical help or, if you can safely do so, take him or her to an emergency room immediately.

Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic


The cause of factitious disorder is unknown. However, the disorder may be caused by a combination of psychological factors and stressful life experiences.

Risk factors

Several factors may increase the risk of developing factitious disorder, including:

  • Childhood trauma, such as emotional, physical or sexual abuse
  • A serious illness during childhood
  • Loss of a loved one through death, illness or abandonment
  • Past experiences during a time of sickness and the attention it brought
  • A poor sense of identity or self-esteem
  • Personality disorders
  • Depression
  • Desire to be associated with doctors or medical centers
  • Work in the health care field

Factitious disorder is considered rare, but it's not known how many people have the disorder. Some people use fake names to avoid detection, some visit many different hospitals and doctors, and some are never identified — all of which make it difficult to get a reliable estimate.


People with factitious disorder are willing to risk their lives to be seen as sick. They frequently have other mental health disorders as well. As a result, they face many possible complications, including:

  • Injury or death from self-inflicted medical conditions
  • Severe health problems from infections or unnecessary surgery or other procedures
  • Loss of organs or limbs from unnecessary surgery
  • Alcohol or other substance abuse
  • Significant problems in daily life, relationships and work
  • Abuse when the behavior is inflicted on another


Because the cause of factitious disorder is unknown, there's currently no known way to prevent it. Early recognition and treatment of factitious disorder may help avoid unnecessary and potentially dangerous tests and treatment.

By Mayo Clinic Staff


Products & Services

Munchausen Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment | doc.ua

Munchausen's syndrome is a feigned disorder during which a person exaggerates, simulates or artificially causes any symptoms of the disease in himself in order to attract attention and undergo treatment, surgery, hospitalization. People diagnosed with Munchausen's syndrome can harm themselves to simulate the disease, can fake tests, agree to very risky operations, deceive relatives and doctors in order to get attention, sympathy and compassion. nine0005


Here you can choose a doctor who treats Munchausen Syndrome If you are not sure about the diagnosis, make an appointment with a general practitioner or general practitioner to clarify the diagnosis.

Articles on the theme of Munchausen syndrome:





Which Munchausen Syndrome

home), remote (video, audio, text) - Phone, Skype, Viber, WhatsApp, Messenger, Telegram, Instagram, Facebook. Specialization: depression, anxiety, fear, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, VSD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, senile dementia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, neurosis, psychosis, alcoholism, drug addiction (see below for a complete list). Leading specialist of the Center for Psychotherapy. Work experience as the head of the department in the clinical hospital "Feofaniya". Doctor of the highest category. Psychotherapist, psychiatrist, psychologist, narcologist. Experience 29years old..

  • Appointment prepayment
  • Face-to-face, video consultations: 30 minutes. — 2750 UAH, 45 min. — 3600 UAH, 60 min. — 4450 UAH..
  • On-site consultation from - 10 000 UAH.
  • The recommended duration of the initial consultation is at least 60 minutes.
  • Please bring with you the results of psychological tests sent to you the day before by our administrator; desirable (but not required) - a description (!!!) of an electrocardiogram (ECG) and a complete blood count not older than 1 year, especially for people over 45 years old. nine0034

    Psychotherapy Center

    Online appointment only!

    st. Khmelnitskaya, 10, office B8-2 on the map

    Svyatoshinsky. Academgorodok

    4450 UAH

    Calling to the house

    Pre -entry

    Select the desired time and wait for confirmation

    W CP 11 January pc 2 January Keyboard_arrrow_ribht_Right_Right_Right_Right_Right_Right_Right_Right_Right_Right_RIGH 11:30

  • 12:00
  • 12:30
  • 13:00
  • 13:30
  • 14:00
  • 14:30
  • 15:30
  • 16:00
  • 16:30:30:00
  • 17:00
  • 17:30
  • 5

    Irina Nikolaevna a psychiatrist of the highest category with over 20 years of experience. Specializes in the treatment of mood disorders, depression, anxiety and panic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, dementia, schizophrenia, and more.

    1950 UAH

    Pre -recording

    Select the desired time and wait for confirmation

    W 10 January CP 11 January 12 January Keyboard_arrough 9003

    • 9003 9003 900EAL 9003 900 900 900 900 900 900 9ATHER 9003 900 900 900ER 900 900 900 900 9ATH : 00
    • 12:30
    • 13:00
    • 13:30
    • 14:00
    • 14:30
    • 15:00
    • 15:30
    9000 5

    is engaged in working impairment, depressed, depressive treatment. conditions, chronic fatigue syndrome, fears, anxiety, apathy and lethargy, sleep disturbance, schizophrenia, mental disorders in the elderly and senile. Therapeutic and preventive work among patients of psychiatric, narcological profiles. initial examination of the patient, the establishment of a preliminary diagnosis, the appointment of treatment, with further selection of supportive treatment. Also, conducts reception in English

    Multidisciplinary complex of psychiatry and narcology "Renaissance-Kyiv"

    Online consultation (Viber, Whatsapp, Telegram, Skype, ZOOM) Consultation 30 min. - 1100 UAH 45 min. -1400 UAH 60 min. - 1700 UAH Package "Premium" (Psychodiagnostics, Testing, Individual psychotherapy, Treatment prescription, Support during treatment) - 3400 UAH. Coding from alcoholism — 4900 UAH. Consultation in English 45 min.—3000 UAH. Field consultation - 3500 UAH.

    st. Ozernaya, 3 on the map

    Darnytskyi. Slavutich

    1400 UAH

    Calling to the house

    Pre -entry

    Select the desired time and wait for confirmation

    W CP 11 January Cho Keyboard_arrow_right_Right_Right_Right_RIGH 11:30

  • 12:00
  • 12:30
  • 13:00
  • 13:30
  • 14:00
  • 14:30
  • 15:00
  • 15:30
  • 16:00
  • 16:30
  • 17:00
  • 17:30
  • 18:00
  • 18:30
  • 19:00:00:00
  • 19:30
  • 20:00
  • 20:30
  • 21:00
  • 21:30
  • View all psychotherapists

    This syndrome is not a simulation of the disease for the sake of any practical benefit (sick leave , insurance, winning in court). This disease should also not be confused with hypochondria, in which patients believe that they are really sick. Patients with Munchausen syndrome are well aware that they are not sick, but at the same time they really want to get sick, or else make everyone around believe it. nine0005

    Munchausen's syndrome is an intractable, poorly understood and very serious disease. But, nevertheless, adequate good medical care can prevent serious harm that people inflict on themselves during the simulation.


    The psychology of Munchausen syndrome is unknown. Perhaps the reason lies in the personal experience of a person who once suffered from some serious illness in childhood, thereby attracting the attention of relatives to himself. Maybe one of the patient's relatives was seriously ill, and he got all the care and attention of others. There is an opinion that the syndrome is associated with childhood abuse or trauma. nine0005

    There are factors that can increase the risk of developing the syndrome:

    • previous mental trauma in early childhood;
    • violence;
    • a very serious illness that was suffered in childhood;
    • the presence of a loved one who suffered from a serious illness;
    • loss of a loved one by death;
    • reduced sense of self-esteem and identity;
    • unfulfilled dream of becoming a nurse or doctor; nine0034
    • personality disorders.

    Surprising is the fact that men predominate among patients. The syndrome is considered more common among middle-aged and young people. This syndrome, although it is considered a rare disease, still no one knows at what point the patient skillfully simulates the disease, while confusing the concerned doctors.

    In order to avoid ridicule and publicity in case of failure, some patients use other people's names. Some, for example, constantly visit various clinics in order to receive attention from each doctor, but do not give them time to reveal the simulation. The rest are so deep into the essence that it is impossible to figure them out - such people achieve unnecessary operations for them and, at the same time, long-term hospitalization. nine0005

    Sometimes patients constantly simulate the same disease, honing their ability to imitate symptoms over time, at the same time they read the literature on diseases.

    Delegated Munchausen's syndrome is a more terrible form of this syndrome, in which a person harms his loved ones so that they get sick, and the patient, in turn, receives compassion and sympathy for the fact that his loved one is very sick. Such patients are able to poison and catch colds of their children, just to get more attention from doctors and loved ones. nine0005


    The symptoms of Munchausen syndrome are as follows:

    • very frequent unnecessary hospitalizations;
    • a sharp deterioration in health for no apparent reason;
    • inconsistent or indeterminate symptoms;
    • fairly frequent visits to different hospitals and different doctors;
    • stories about their problems are full of drama;
    • ardent desire to undergo risky operations and tests;
    • very good knowledge of diseases and medical terminology; nine0034
    • requests for painkillers or other medicines;
    • unwillingness for professionals to talk to family and friends;
    • bickering with hospital staff.


    For a person to be diagnosed with Münghausen's syndrome, the Psychiatric Association recommends the following criteria:

  • a great desire for everyone around to see a person as very sick;
  • nine0033 complete absence of any practical interest (legal or financial).


    The treatment of Munchausen's syndrome is quite difficult, as there are no approved standards for the treatment of this disease. Patients with this syndrome enjoy being "sick" very much, which is why they usually do not want to be treated by a psychotherapist.

    But, nevertheless, with a professional gentle approach, the patient may agree to treatment by a psychiatrist. Such treatment usually includes family therapy and counseling. Medications are prescribed for concomitant psychiatric diseases. In especially severe cases, the patient needs hospitalization, as he is able to harm himself and other people. nine0005

    When looking for drugs to treat a disorder, you should consult with your doctor. You can order medicines online on our website.

    Munchausen's syndrome: treatment, causes, symptoms

    A persistent feigned mental disorder in which a person exaggerates the presence of symptoms of a disease is called Munchausen's syndrome.

    Mental disorder is considered borderline.

    Such people have only one goal - to attract the attention of others. nine0005

    The syndrome is accompanied by lies about one's true condition, which greatly complicates the diagnosis. Patients invent non-existent diseases, prescribe treatment for themselves, can cause vomiting, injure themselves - attracting the attention of others.

    The syndrome was first described by the English physician R. Asher, and got its name from the baron of the same name.

    This syndrome occurs only in an extreme form of imitation, which worsens the patient's quality of life and makes fictitious illnesses the only goal of the patient. nine0005

    Important facts about the disease

    The complexity of diagnosis is connected precisely with the problem of constant and varied complaints of the patient.

    So, complaining of exhaustion, constipation or diarrhea, violation of digestive processes, patients can secretly drink adsorbents, laxatives, large doses of drugs that have similar side effects.

    If a doctor suddenly assumes the presence of Munchausen's syndrome, then such an opinion causes aggression and rejection in the patient. And the recommendation to consult a psychiatrist is completely interpreted as a humiliation of a sick person. nine0005

    Patients categorically refuse qualified psychiatric care. In fact, the real help for such patients is the early detection of simulation, the rejection of unnecessary procedures and surgical operations.

    The disease occurs only in 0.6-5% of all cases of feigning disorder. Most often, this syndrome affects women. Clinical practice knows an example when a woman underwent more than 500 hospitalizations in different clinics of the country and the world, as well as about 35 unnecessary surgical interventions. nine0005

    Causes and mechanisms of development

    Clinicians consider the cause of the disease to be attention deficit in early childhood, adolescence and old age. Most people suffering from this syndrome grew up in incomplete or dysfunctional families, in those where the parents did not have the desire or ability to meet the needs of the child.

    Psychologists believe that the risk of developing the syndrome is higher if the child plays the role of a substitute adult in the family, for example, a divorced mother and a son who acts as a father. nine0005

    The following factors can serve as a trigger for the development of Munchausen's syndrome:

    • severe illness in early childhood;

    • a disease that affected family relationships, when all attention was concentrated on a sick person;

    • increasing self-esteem with the situational attention of qualified professionals.

    It is believed that the simulation of the disease helps people with this syndrome to get the attention and care that they lack in life. nine0005

    Such patients do not give the impression of unbalanced and mentally unhealthy people. Many of them are educated and well educated. As a rule, such patients study medical reference books, encyclopedias; aware of the symptoms of the simulated disease.

    Patients feel like unrecognized geniuses, heroes, they inspire the medical community with the uniqueness of their situation, and the impossibility of making an accurate diagnosis for them becomes the highest reason for attracting the attention of competent people. nine0005

    A characteristic feature of such patients is their psychological immaturity, being in a fantasy world. These features do not allow patients to take a decent social position. There is even a trend towards vagrancy.


    First, people with Munchausen's syndrome have a very voluminous medical book with the results of studies of simulated diseases by middle age.

    Secondly, it is impossible not to notice the appearance of an increase in the level of aggression if patients do not receive the necessary, from their point of view, the amount of medical care or a worthy, in their opinion, assessment of the severity of the pseudo-disease. The same reaction occurs when others distrust their problem. nine0005

    Patients can regularly change doctors, medical institutions, spend almost all their time on unnecessary medical manipulations and consultations. There are cases of self-harm in order to increase the effect of suffering, as well as to bring the symptoms closer to a fictional disease. In this case, patients can add extraneous impurities to the analyzes or pass them off as their own, for example, analyzes of a truly sick person.

    According to the results of clinical observations, such people experience a constant obsessive desire to be examined, to be hospitalized, to consult with various specialists. Attention for them is realized only through treatment. nine0005

    Sometimes Munchausen's syndrome is confused with the state of hypochondria, however, with hypochondria, a person sincerely worries about his own health and is afraid of various medical manipulations.

    Delegated syndrome

    There is another variety - Polle's syndrome, when a person

    invents the symptoms of the disease for others. At the same time, he chooses listeners who are obviously weaker psychologically, and inspires them with these symptoms. In the future, a sick person begins to believe in the diseases he has invented. nine0005

    Diagnosis - how to determine the pathology

    Diagnosis is difficult, and this is due to the convincing imitation of the symptoms of the disease. The diagnosis is established “on the contrary” - on the basis of examination data and additional studies, the presence of a somatic pathology is refuted, the symptoms of which are imitated by the patient.

    Doctors often have to seek advice from other specialists: psychiatrists, psychotherapists.

    Treatment – ​​what can be done

    People with Munchausen syndrome do not refuse treatment, but

    become frantic when people around them deny the presence of the disease or doubt the severity of the condition.

    A direct recommendation to see a psychiatrist offends and provokes a refusal of psychiatric help. Resentment only increases the desire to start new examinations, to convince other doctors of the reliability of the clinical picture, symptoms of the disease and demand immediate treatment.

    It is possible to help such patients by involving

    friends and relatives. But working with the patient's environment does not always bring an effect, since relatives need to be constantly present in the life of a sick person, and not every person is ready for this.

    Patients experience helplessness, crisis, and only then try to openly interact with a psychiatrist or psychotherapist.

    Learn more