Dark triad narcissism

Dark Triad | Psychology Today


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The term “Dark Triad” refers to a trio of negative personality traits—narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy—which share some common malevolent features. The construct was coined by researchers Delroy L. Paulhus and Kevin M. Williams in 2002.

  • Understanding Dark Traits
  • Recognizing Dark Behavior

Understanding Dark Traits

People with these traits tend to be callous and manipulative, willing to do or say practically anything to get their way. They have an inflated view of themselves and are often shameless about self-promotion. These individuals are likely to be impulsive and may engage in dangerous behavior—in some cases, even committing crimes—without any regard for how their actions affect others.

While many researchers consider psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism three distinct traits with overlapping characteristics, others believe the commonalities suggest an underlying personality construct that has yet to be fully understood.

How is psychopathy related to the dark triad?

Most researchers consider psychopathy—a trait characterized by a lack of empathy and remorse—to be the “darkest” of the Dark Triad, in so far as psychopaths generally cause more harm to individuals and to society than do narcissists or "High Machs." “Psychopath” is not a mental health diagnosis; the disorder that most closely represents it in the DSM is antisocial personality disorder.

What is Machiavellianism?

Machiavellianism is not a mental health diagnosis; rather, it's a personality trait describing a manipulative individual who deceives and tricks others to achieve goals. It is based on the political philosophy of the 16th-century writer Niccolò Machiavelli. Some evidence suggests that of the dark traits, Machiavellianism is most closely tied to high intelligence. If a psychologist refers to someone as "High Mach," it means they behave in a highly manipulative manner. 

How is narcissism related to the Dark Triad?

The third piece of the triad, narcissism, is characterized by excessive self-regard and heightened arrogance. While many narcissists are merely frustrating, extreme or “malignant” narcissists can become emotionally abusive or even violent when they aren’t given the special treatment they believe is deserved.

What is “D,” or the dark factor of personality?

Recently, researchers have begun to hypothesize that a single core factor—classified as “D”—may underlie many different negative traits, including those in the Dark Triad as well as sadism, entitlement, and others. “D” denotes a tendency to maximize one's own desires at the expense of other people’s. 

What is the “Light Triad”?

Researchers have recently begun to study the so-called “Light Triad” of traits: faith in humanity, humanism, and Kantianism. The theory is often framed as the opposite of the Dark Triad, and hinges on the belief that people are inherently good and should not be treated expediently.

How to Recognize the Dark Triad

The Dark Triad attempts to capture manipulative, exploitative traits that are not represented by the Big 5, a five-factor model of the core traits of an individual’s personality which is considered the most reliable and widely used model of personality to date. To identify these traits in clinical settings, clinicians and researchers typically use individual scales measuring narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism separately, or a 12-item scale known as the “Dirty Dozen” that is designed to measure all three at once.

Do dark triad individuals easily conceal their true nature?

Though there are physical and behavioral cues that have been shown to be associated with the Dark Triad in research settings, individuals with these traits may excel at hiding their true nature, especially at first. Narcissists, for instance, often appear charming and likable upon first meeting; some evidence suggests that this may be due to the perception that they have high self-esteem, a socially desirable trait.

Are there facial features associated with the Dark Triad?

Narcissism, in particular, has been found to manifest in people’s physical appearance. Narcissists are more likely to dress nicely, be physically attractive, and wear makeup or dress provocatively. One 2018 study found that grandiose narcissists also tended to have distinctive, well-groomed eyebrows.

Is there a test for the Dark Triad?

In response to rising interest in the Dark Triad, researchers Peter K. Jonason and Gregory D. Webster developed a concise, 12-item measure of these personality traits called “The Dirty Dozen.” The Dirty Dozen offers a faster, easier way to identify the Dark Triad traits than does testing for narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy individually.

How can I spot a Dark Triad individual?

It can be difficult to spot someone high in Dark Triad traits, and without a formal evaluation, you may never know for sure. But someone who repeatedly lies, demonstrates a marked lack of empathy, or bullies others to achieve their own goals may be high in one or more dark traits. 

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The Light Triad vs. Dark Triad of Personality

I still believe, in spite of everything, that people are truly good at heart.” – Anne Frank


What’s one less person on the face of the earth, anyway?” – Ted Bundy

Why are dark triad people so seductive? Why do they get all the research attention? I asked my colleague David Yaden in his office. Immediately his ears pricked up, and he asked me to send him papers on the dark triad, remarking that he hadn't heard of the dark triad but that it sounded fascinating (thus proving my point).

When I went back to my office, I emailed some papers to David and my colleague Elizabeth Hyde. In a quick email response, David simply wrote back, “light triad”? Now my ears pricked up. Was there such a thing? Had it been studied?

The dark triad has already been well-studied. First discovered by Delroy Paulhus and Kevin Williams in 2002, the dark triad of personality consists of narcissism (entitled self-importance), Machiavellianism (strategic exploitation and deceit) and psychopathy (callousness and cynicism). While these three traits had traditionally been studied mostly among clinical populations (e.g., criminals), Paulhus and Williams showed that each of these traits are clearly on a continuum—we are all at least a little bit narcissistic, Machiavellian and psychopathic.

Credit: Laura Harris Wikimedia (CC BY-SA 4.0)

Since their initial paper, research on the topic has increased quite a bit each year, with two-thirds of the publications of the dark triad appearing in 2014 and 2015 alone. While each of the members of the dark triad has unique features and correlates, there is enough overlap among these "socially aversive" traits that Paulhus has argued that they "should be studied in concert." Indeed, there does appear to be a "dark core" to personality.

While research on dark personalities has certainly contributed to our understanding of the darker side of human nature, and how each of us differs in the extent to which we consistently exhibit dark patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors in our daily lives, what about the light side of human nature?

Everyday Saints

Socially aversive people certainly exist, but what about everyday saints? I'm not talking about the person who publicly does a lot of giving, and receives many public accolades and awards for all of their giving (and who constantly gives to others in order to achieve personal success). I'm talking about the person who, just by their being, shines their light in every direction. The person who isn't constantly strategic about their giving, but who emits unconditional love naturally and spontaneously because that's just who they are.

So this is what we set out to find out. Through many email exchanges and personal meetings, David, Elizabeth and I looked at existing tests of the dark triad and brainstormed a variety of items relating to the conceptual opposite characteristics of each member of the dark triad, but we created items that weren't simply the reverse of the dark triad items. Our initial pool of items related to forgiveness, trust, honesty, caring, acceptance, seeing the best in people and getting intrinsic enjoyment from making connections with others instead of using people as a means to an end.

To our surprise (we hadn't expected there to necessarily be three factors), three distinct factors emerged from our studies, which we labeled: Kantianism (treating people as ends unto themselves, not mere means), Humanism (valuing the dignity and worth of each individual) and Faith in Humanity (believing in the fundamental goodness of humans):

Credit: Scott Barry Kaufman, David Yaden, Elizabeth Hyde and Eli Tsukayama

After a series of refinements of our initial items (and sophisticated statistical analyses conducted by Eli Tsukayama), we settled on 12 items that capture the essence of this light triad. You can take the Light Triad Scale here (and also receive information on your light vs. dark triad balance).

We have now administered the Light Triad Scale to thousands of people of different ages, genders, races and ethnicities, and the results are far-reaching. First, it is clear that the light triad is not merely the opposite of the dark triad. While the two are negatively related to each other, the relationship is only moderate in size (a correlation of about .50), supporting the idea that there is at least a little bit of light and dark in each of us. In my view, it’s best to view those who score extremely high on the dark triad not as a separate species of human (after all, to have a dark side is to be human) but as magnified and unleashed versions of potentialities that lie within all of us.

With that said, it seems like Anne Frank may have been on to something in the opening quote of this article. We calculated a light triad vs. dark triad balance score for each participant by subtracting each person's score on the dark triad from their score on the light triad. The average balance score of the entire sample was 1.3, suggesting that the average person is tipped more toward the light relative to the dark in their everyday patterns of thoughts, behaviors and emotions. As you can see in this scatterplot, extreme malevolence is extremely rare in the general population:

Credit: "The Light vs. Dark Triad of Personality: Contrasting Two Very Different Profiles of Human Nature," by Scott Barry Kaufman, David Yaden, Elizabeth Hyde and Eli Tsukayama, in Frontiers in Psychology, March 12, 2019

Portraits of the Light and Dark Triad

What about the contrasting profiles of the light and dark triad? We found that the dark triad was positively correlated with being younger, being male, being motivated by power, instrumental sex, achievement and affiliation (but not intimacy), having self-enhancement values, immature defense styles, conspicuous consumption, selfishness and viewing their creative work and religious immortality as routes to death transcendence. The dark triad was negatively correlated with life satisfaction, conscientiousness, agreeableness, self-transcendent values, compassion, empathy, a quiet ego, a belief that humans are good and a belief that one’s own self is good.

The dark triad also showed positive correlations with a variety of variables that could facilitate one’s more agentic-related goals. For instance, the dark triad was positively correlated with utilitarian moral judgment and the strengths of creativity, bravery and leadership, as well as assertiveness, in addition to motives for power, achievement and self-enhancement. Also, an unexpected correlation between the dark triad and curiosity was found, which was localized primarily to the embracing ("I like to do things that are a little frightening," "I prefer jobs that are excitingly unpredictable") and deprivation ("It disturbs me when I don't understand a solution," "It bothers me if I don't know a word") forms of curiosity.

Interestingly, after we controlled for the more antagonistic elements of the dark triad, the dark triad actually showed positive associations with a number of growth-oriented outcomes. These findings suggest that the callous and manipulative core of the dark triad does not do these individuals many favors. It’s likely that the variance that is left over once the malevolence-related variance of the dark triad is removed is associated with agentic extraversion (the particularly aspect of extraversion associated with assertiveness, which may provide a protective factor for those scoring higher on the dark triad.*

In stark contrast, the overall picture provided by the pattern of correlations with the light triad was quite different than the dark triad. The light triad was associated with being older, being female, less childhood unpredictability, as well as higher levels of religiosity, spirituality, life satisfaction, acceptance of others, belief that others are good, belief that one’s self is good, compassion, empathy, openness to experience, conscientiousness, positive enthusiasm, having a quiet ego and a belief that one can live on through nature and biosociality (having children) after one’s personal death.

Individuals scoring higher on the Light Triad Scale also reported more satisfaction with their relationships, competence and autonomy, and they also reported higher levels of secure attachment style and eros in their relationships. In general, the light triad was related to being primarily motivated by intimacy and self-transcendent values. Many character strengths correlated with the light triad, including curiosity, perspective, zest, love, kindness, teamwork, forgiveness and gratitude.

Note that the flavor of curiosity associated with light triad—stretching ("I actively seek as much information as I can in new situations," "I view challenging situations as an opportunity to grow and learn")—differed from the flavor of curiosity associated with the dark triad (primarily embracing and deprivation). Mature defense styles were also associated with the light triad (e.g., humor, sublimation, altruism, anticipation), as were optimistic beliefs about the self, the world and one’s future. Individuals scoring higher on the Light Triad Scale also reported higher self-esteem, authenticity and a stronger sense of self.

In general, the light triad does not appear to be associated with any obvious downsides, with a few possible exceptions depending on the context. The light triad was negatively correlated with the motives for achievement and self-enhancement (even though the light triad was positively related to productivity and competence). In terms of character strengths, unlike the dark triad, the light triad was uncorrelated with bravery or assertiveness. Such characteristics may be important for reaching one’s more challenging goals and fully self-actualizing.

Additionally, in line with our predictions, the light triad was related to greater interpersonal guilt—including survivor ("I sometimes feel I don't deserve the happiness I achieved"), separation ("It makes me anxious to be away from home for too long") and omnipotent responsibility ("I worry a lot about the people I love even when they seem to be fine") forms of guilt. While it may be adaptive to experience these forms of interpersonal guilt for facilitating relationships and repairing damage in a relationship, these forms of guilt may limit one’s ambitions for fear of succeeding while others remain less successful.

The light triad was also correlated with greater “reaction formation,” which is considered by some psychologists as a neurotic defense style (but which I conceptualize in my own work as an aspect of mature altruism). The reaction formation scale consisted of the following items: “If someone mugged me and stole my money, I’d rather he be helped than punished” and “I often find myself being very nice to people who by all rights I should be angry at.” While having such “loving kindness” even for one’s enemies is conducive to one’s own well-being, these attitudes, coupled with greater interpersonal guilt, could make those scoring higher on the light triad potentially more open to exploitation and emotional manipulation from those scoring higher on the dark triad. Indeed, we believe further investigation of the social interactions between extreme light vs. dark triad scorers would be an interesting future line of research.


There are definitely limitations of our studies, and lots of areas for future research extending and developing our work. The 12-item Light Triad Scale should be viewed as a first draft, and our four studies should be seen as more exploratory than definitive.

Nevertheless, we hope our research helps balance the force in personality psychology. Yes, everyday psychopaths exist. But so do everyday saints, and they are just as worthy of research attention and cultivation in a society that sometimes forgets that not only is there goodness in the world, but there is also goodness in each of us as well.

You can read our scientific paper here. Also, you can take the Light Triad Scale here, and also learn about your light vs. dark triad balance.


*This is in line with recent research on narcissism conducted by my colleagues and I that explicitly separates the antagonistic and agentic extraversion facets of narcissism in predicting well-being. We have found that the agent extraversion aspect of narcissism is particularly adaptive when antagonism is partialed out of the equation.

The views expressed are those of the author(s) and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.


    Scott Barry Kaufman, Ph.D., is a humanistic psychologist exploring the depths of human potential. He has taught courses on intelligence, creativity, and well-being at Columbia University, NYU, the University of Pennsylvania, and elsewhere. He hosts The Psychology Podcast, and is author and/or editor of 9 books, including Transcend: The New Science of Self-ActualizationWired to Create: Unravelling the Mysteries of the Creative Mind (with Carolyn Gregoire), and Ungifted: Intelligence Redefined. In 2015, he was named one of "50 Groundbreaking Scientists who are changing the way we see the world" by Business Insider. Find out more at http://ScottBarryKaufman.com. He wrote the extremely popular Beautiful Minds blog for Scientific American for close to a decade.  Follow Scott Barry Kaufman on Twitter Credit: Andrew French

    Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy in "owls" and "larks"

    Headings: Translations, Latest articles, Psychology

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    "Lark" and "owl" are two chronotypes known in psychology that determine individual differences in activity levels at different times of the day. There is a point of view that the “owl” chronotype can be associated with the so-called “dark personality triad”, which includes such traits as Machiavellianism, psychopathy and narcissism. Minna Lyons, a professor of psychology at the University of Liverpool, spoke about this on the pages of Aeon. nine0009

    Someone likes to go to bed early and get up at sunrise. Someone prefers the darkness of the night and comes to life only with the sunset. Studies of chronotypes (people's tendency to sleep at certain times of the day) show that people do have persistent individual differences in their levels of activity at different times of the day. So, researchers distinguish two, in a certain sense, opposite chronotypes: “larks” and “owls”. And although the exact reason for the differences in chronotypes is still unknown, to some extent they are most likely determined by genetics. nine0003

    There are many differences between "owls" and "larks". Thus, early risers are more punctual, perform better in school, and are more successful in business. Owls, on the other hand, tend to be extroverted, more risk-averse, more creative, more likely to smoke and consume more alcohol. In addition, they have less strict moral standards and more willingness to find a one-night stand. My colleagues and I have long suspected that the characteristics of people who prefer to hide in the shadows of the night may be related to the so-called "dark triad" of personality, which includes three traits - Machiavellianism, psychopathy and narcissism. nine0003

    Over the past 10 years, interest in understanding the darker side of human nature has increased markedly. Thousands of empirical research papers have been devoted to this topic - the causes and consequences of the traits of the "dark triad", as well as the traits associated with them. The characteristics that the "dark triad" includes may seem repulsive - they are comparable to the basic characteristics of selfishness. Narcissism implies the idea of ​​greatness, and Machiavellianism is associated with manipulation in interpersonal relationships, as well as a cynical view of human nature. nine0003

    Related The nature of trolling: sadism and Machiavellianism

    Psychopathy can be divided into two components: primary and secondary psychopathy. Primary psychopathy is also referred to as "successful psychopathy" as callousness and lack of guilt can be useful tools for gaining power. Studies of successful psychopathy have shown that this type of psychopathy tends to be seen in business people, executives, politicians, and people in other highly skilled professions. Secondary psychopathy, in turn, is associated with an inability to control impulses and a higher propensity to take risks. People with a high degree of secondary psychopathy are more likely to go to jail than to the office of a successful company. nine0003

    Instead of viewing people with "dark triad" traits as crazy, evil, and dangerous, researchers view these traits in a neutral light. Like the extraversion-introversion continuum, the dark triad can be seen as a continuous line where people differ based on how manipulative, indifferent, and narcissistic they are. From an evolutionary point of view, these traits may even be adaptive, since people who show more traits from the "dark triad" may be more successful in finding sexual partners, and, therefore, the next generation will receive their genes. After all, this is what evolution is all about: reproduction, reproduction and more reproduction. nine0003

    Indeed, the traits of the "dark triad" are associated with reproductive strategies that are characterized by a preference for more partners and short-term relationships, rather than monogamy and long-term partnerships. From this it becomes apparent that the traits of the "dark triad" are comparable to the behavior of people with the evening chronotype (that is, "owls") - namely, casual sex, weak morality and greater use of psychoactive substances. Dark triad traits have also been associated with increased risk in many aspects of life, including high stakes gambling and the risk of getting caught in petty crime or adultery. The motto "live fast and die young" perfectly illustrates the features of the "dark triad". nine0003

    Read also Predatory people: what attracts us to sociopaths and psychopaths?

    A few years ago, my colleagues and I became interested in testing the idea that "owls" have typical "dark triad" traits, since the darkness of the night provides more opportunity to find casual sexual relationships. We recruited more than 200 participants via the Internet and provided them with questionnaires to understand how they are characterized by the features of the "dark triad". We also asked them questions about their chronotype. We found that most of the triad traits (namely, Machiavellianism, secondary psychopathy, and some aspects of narcissism) were associated with a tendency to stay up late. Interestingly, primary psychopathy was associated with the morning chronotype. Thus, it can be assumed that people with a high "successful" psychopathy are more common among the "larks", which is quite natural, because in order to achieve career success and take your place among those who exploit others, you need to get up earlier and stick to a standard work schedule. time. nine0003

    On the topic Narcissism and fear of intimacy: what is emotional unavailability

    However, one should not forget that most studies of chronotypes and the personality itself are interconnected, and it is impossible to demonstrate the direction of causality here. The reverse is also possible – if people go to bed late, they will become more cunning, risky and impulsive. This needs more attention in future research.

    We found that the majority of illegal activities occur at night, which is also the peak time for sexual activity. Perhaps the nightlife associated with sex, drugs and rock and roll has something to do with the personalities of people who usually stay up late. Thus, "owls" may have darker personality characteristics, which in turn are part of an adaptive toolkit designed for reckless reproduction and efficient resource extraction. nine0003

    Article first appeared in the Aeon online publication under a Creative Commons license
    Cover: Frame from the film "Psycho" (dir. Alfred Hitchcock, 1960)

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    Can “Dark Triad” harm

    June 16, 2022 Likbez Life

    Psychologists think so.

    You can listen to the article. If it's more convenient for you, turn on the podcast.

    What is the "dark triad"

    In psychology, this term is used to describe three negative personality traits: narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy.

    Sometimes a tendency to everyday sadism is added to these qualities. This model is called the "dark tetrad". nine0003

    For a long time, scientists have studied narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy separately. But in the early 2000s, Canadian psychologists Delroy Polhus and Kevin Williams combined them, coined a term, and tried to find something that links the qualities together. True, then they did not succeed.

    Today, some psychologists believe that although narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism have individual characteristics, they all have a common core - the "D factor" at the heart of them all. So called neglect of the interests and feelings of others. nine0003

    How the “dark triad” manifests itself in people's behavior

    The “triad” reflects the individual characteristics of people who are considered to be soulless, prudent and evil. They can manipulate others and do whatever they want to get their way. They lack benevolence, responsibility and emotional stability. They also have extremely high self-esteem.

    Often they do not follow moral and ethical standards. Do not hesitate to show aggression, deceive others, cheat on spouses and poison those who cannot stand up for themselves. They even commit crimes. nine0003

    At the same time, the ratio of psychopathy, narcissism and Machiavellianism may differ. And the behavior of a person will depend on which quality prevails.


    Like the other members of the triad, this is not a medical diagnosis. And yet it is closer than the rest to mental personality disorders - antisocial and dissocial.

    Psychopathy is sometimes called the darkest of the "triad" traits: due to inability to empathize, problems with self-control and disregard for rules, a person causes a lot of harm to others. nine0003

    He perceives others as puppets. An example is Anton Chigurh from No Country for Old Men. The hero played by Javier Bardem literally plays with human lives, which mean nothing to him.

    However, psychopathy manifests itself not only in criminals, but also in those who do not commit illegal acts. The tendency to it can be congenital or formed in the course of personality development.


    This trait is primarily characterized by the desire to achieve one's goals without thinking about the consequences. It is named after Niccolo Machiavelli, an Italian thinker of the 16th century. He believed that the true ruler can only achieve what he wants with the help of deceit, cunning and manipulation. nine0003

    Machiavellianism is also associated with great ambitions. People with a predominance of this trait are able to make long-term plans and adequately assess risks.

    An example of a Machiavellian is Cruella from the recent Disney movie. She uses her friends Horace and Jasper, regardless of their opinions and the dangers that threaten them.


    This is how they call unhealthy self-love and arrogance towards others.

    Narcissistic people believe that their interests are more important than others, and needs must be satisfied first. They sincerely believe that they are head and shoulders above everyone else. nine0003

    Also, narcissists cannot calmly and adequately respond to criticism, do not compromise, do not pay attention to the wishes of others. Because of this, it is difficult for them to make acquaintances and maintain relationships. And that makes them lonely.

    At the first meeting, narcissists may seem like quite nice people. But in fact, they despise everyone but themselves, and pretty soon it comes out.

    Such individuals also love to look "at 100": they wear expensive or flashy clothes, they take care of their appearance and spend a lot of time and money on maintaining it. nine0003

    A very striking example of a narcissistic personality is Christian Bale's character in the film American Psycho. He is so narcissistic that even during sex he does not take his eyes off his body in the mirror.

    How to recognize the "dark triad"

    The easiest way is to analyze behavior. If there are constant deceptions, a clear lack of sympathy, manipulation of others, you should be wary.

    If you want to test yourself, you can use a special test. One of the simplest and most popular - Dirty dozen (“dirty”, or “dark dozen”) - consists of 12 statements:

    1. I tend to manipulate others to achieve my goals.
    2. I used deceit and lies to achieve my goals.
    3. I flattered to get what I wanted.
    4. I tend to use other people for my own purposes.
    5. I have no remorse.
    6. I am not worried about the moral side of my actions.
    7. I am heartless or insensitive.
    8. I am prone to cynicism.
    9. I would like to be admired by other people. nine0137
    10. I would like other people to pay attention to me.
    11. I strive for status and prestige.
    12. I usually expect special treatment.

    Each proposal should be scored on a scale from one (strongly disagree) to seven (strongly agree).

    The first four measures measure Machiavellianism, the next measures psychopathy, and the last four measures narcissism. The higher the scores in each category, the stronger the corresponding qualities of the "dark triad" are developed. Those who do not want to count can take the test online. nine0003

    There are also advanced tests that allow you to identify the "dark triad" and "tetrad".

    Even more accurate data will help to obtain questionnaires on individual features of the "triad". For example, you can use these three:

    • Narcissistic Personality Inventory, NPI-40.
    • Machiavellian Personality Scale, Mach-IV.
    • Psychopathy Identification Questionnaire, SRP-III.

    Is it worth doing something if there are signs of the "dark triad"

    There is an opinion that the qualities of the "dark triad" can be useful for those who possess them. For example, some research shows that narcissists earn higher salaries, Machiavellians get promoted more easily, and people with psychopathy are more likely to take on a leadership position. nine0003

    However, not everything is so simple. Many psychologists are against this view. Critics point out that this approach whitewashes the negative qualities of a person. But there are other claims as well.

    Thus, American researchers in a 2019 article claim that those studying the benefits of the “triad” analyze the nature of the experimental subjects too clumsily and manipulate statistics. For example, a short Dirty Dozen questionnaire is used to identify dark personality traits, rather than detailed tests. And the experiments themselves, according to critics, are carried out in incorrect conditions: among students, and not in the workplace. nine0003

    At the same time, psychologists have no doubts that the qualities of the "triad" can ruin a person's reputation and destroy his social ties. "Toxic leadership" is not to everyone's liking, and even if someone manages to achieve high positions due to the dark side of their personality, success can not always be maintained.

    An analysis of studies on this topic shows that bosses with traits of the "dark triad" negatively affect the performance of subordinates. And if it turns out to be too low, the head may lose his position. nine0003

    So it's better not to hope that negative personality traits will be useful to you or your loved ones. It would be best to contact a psychologist or psychotherapist. First, it will help determine whether you or someone you care about really has a “dark triad”. Secondly, he will select therapy or tell you what to do so that negative traits do not interfere with life.

    If you suspect a "dark triad" in a colleague or acquaintance, try to communicate with him as little as possible. If this is not possible, try to protect yourself in other ways. Lifehacker's tips will help you with this.

    Learn more