Ways to help adhd

ADHD: Tips to Try (for Teens)

Reviewed by: Shirin Hasan, MD

Psychology (Behavioral Health) at Nemours Children's Health

en español TDAH: Consejos que puedes probar

People with ADHD have brain differences that affect their attention. They are distracted more easily than people who don’t have it. They often have trouble staying organized, staying focused on a task, and finishing what they start.

ADHD affects behavior, too. Some people may have trouble sitting still, waiting, or listening. Some interrupt too often, or are quick to get upset. Some do things in a rush instead of taking their time. ADHD affects different people in different ways.

If you have ADHD, you know it can make you feel misunderstood and frustrated at times. ADHD makes it harder to do your best at school, at home, and with friends. But it doesn't have to hold you back. Instead, learn as much as you can about it.

It takes time to learn to manage ADHD — there's no quick fix. Managing ADHD might mean taking medicine or working with a therapist. Most people with ADHD do both.

You can also try these tips to help with school:

  • Sit in the front of class to limit distractions.
  • Turn off your phone when doing homework. This limits distractions too.
  • Talk with your teacher about your ADHD. Some students with ADHD need extra time to take tests. Some need smaller class sizes or a quiet place to complete work. Others need a tutor. Ask your teacher to help you plan and do what's right for you.
  • Use tools that help you stay organized. Keep track of assignments in a planner or on a phone app. List things you need to bring home. Set phone reminders for classes and activities, or write them in a planner.
  • Get plenty of exercise. Daily exercise can improve attention and school performance for people with ADHD. It also keeps your positive emotions flowing.
  • Take activity breaks. If you feel restless during school, ask teachers to let you take quick breaks to get up and move. This can help you get focused again when you return to your seat. When you study or do homework, take activity breaks often.
  • Learn to meditate. Mindfulness meditation can improve attention, memory, and focus. It can reduce stress too. It’s easy to learn. Take a few minutes to practice it every day.
  • Pay attention to all the good things about you. Having ADHD is one part of you. And there’s so much more. Think of things others like about you. Maybe you’re creative, kind, or funny. Maybe you have a talent for sports, music, dance, or art. Maybe you’re good with tech, building things, or cooking. Make time for the things you enjoy. Grow your strengths by using them every day. Spend time with the people who see you for who you are. See yourself that way, too.

Reviewed by: Shirin Hasan, MD

Date reviewed: May 2022

Tips for Managing Adult ADHD


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can create problems in all areas of your life.

But these tips can help you cope with symptoms, get focused, and turn chaos into calm.

How to deal with Adult ADHD (or ADD)

If you have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), previously known as ADD, everything from paying the bills on time to keeping up with work, family, and social demands can seem overwhelming. ADHD can present challenges for adults across all areas of life and can be tough on your health and both your personal and on-the-job relationships. Your symptoms may lead to extreme procrastination, trouble meeting deadlines, and impulsive behavior. In addition, you may feel that friends and family don’t understand what you’re up against.

Fortunately, there are skills you can learn to help control your symptoms of ADHD. You can improve your daily habits, learn to recognize and use your strengths, and develop techniques that help you work more efficiently, maintain organization, and interact better with others. Part of helping yourself may also include educating others to help them understand what you’re going through.

Change won’t happen overnight, though. These ADHD self-help strategies require practice, patience, and, perhaps most importantly, a positive attitude. But by taking advantage of these techniques, you can become more productive, organized, and in control of your life—and improve your sense of self-worth.

Adult ADHD self-help myths
Myth: Medication is the only way to solve my ADHD.

Fact: While medication can help some people manage the symptoms of ADHD, it is not a cure, nor is it the only solution. If taken at all, it should be used in conjunction with other treatments or self-help strategies.

Myth: Having ADHD means I'm lazy or unintelligent, so I won't be able to help myself.

Fact: The effects of ADHD may have caused you and others to label you this way, but the truth is that you are not unmotivated or unintelligent—you have a disorder that gets in the way of certain normal functions. In fact, adults with ADHD often have to find very smart ways to compensate for their disorder.

Myth: A health professional can solve all my ADHD problems.

Fact: Health professionals can help you manage symptoms of ADHD, but they can only do so much. You're the one living with the problems, so you're the one who can make the most difference in overcoming them.

Myth: ADHD is a life sentence—I'll always suffer from its symptoms.

Fact: While it's true that there is no cure for ADHD, there is a lot you can do to reduce the problems it can cause. Once you become accustomed to using strategies to help yourself, you may find that managing your symptoms becomes second nature.

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Tips for getting organized and controlling clutter

The hallmark traits of ADHD are inattention and distractibility—making organization perhaps the biggest challenge adults with the disorder face. If you have ADHD, the prospect of getting organized, whether it be at work or home, may leave you feeling overwhelmed.

However, you can learn to break tasks down into smaller steps and follow a systematic approach to organization. By implementing various structures and routines, and taking advantage of tools such as daily planners and reminders, you can set yourself up to maintain organization and control clutter.

Develop structure and neat habits—and keep them up

To organize a room, home, or office, start by categorizing your objects, deciding which are necessary and which can be stored or discarded. To organize yourself, get in the habit of taking notes and writing lists. Maintain your newly organized structure with regular, daily routines.

Create space. Ask yourself what you need on a daily basis, and find storage bins or closets for things you don't. Designate specific areas for things like keys, bills, and other items that can be easily misplaced. Throw away things you don't need.

Use a calendar app or day planner. Effective use of a day planner or a calendar on your smartphone or computer can help you remember appointments and deadlines. With electronic calendars, you can also set up automatic reminders so scheduled events don't slip your mind.

Use lists. Make use of lists and notes to keep track of regularly scheduled tasks, projects, deadlines, and appointments. If you decide to use a daily planner, keep all lists and notes inside it. You also have many options for use on your smartphone or computer. Search for “to do” apps or task managers.

Deal with it now. You can avoid forgetfulness, clutter, and procrastination by filing papers, cleaning up messes, or returning phone calls immediately, not sometime in the future. If a task can be done in two minutes or less, do it on the spot, rather than putting it off for later.

Tame your paper trail

If you have ADHD, paperwork might make up a major part of your disorganization. But you can put a stop to the endless piles of mail and papers strewn across your kitchen, desk, or office. All it takes is some time to set up a paperwork system that works for you.

Deal with mail on a daily basis. Set aside a few minutes each day to deal with the mail, preferably as soon as you bring it inside. It helps to have a designated spot where you can sort the mail and either trash it, file it, or act on it.

Go paperless. Minimize the amount of paper you have to deal with. Request electronic statements and bills instead of paper copies. In the U.S., you can reduce junk mail by opting out of the Direct Marketing Association's (DMA) Mail Preference Service.

Set up a filing system. Use dividers or separate file folders for different types of documents (such as medical records, receipts, and income statements). Label and color-code your files so that you can find what you need quickly.

Tips for managing your time and staying on schedule

Trouble with time management is a common effect of ADHD. You may frequently lose track of time, miss deadlines, procrastinate, underestimate how much time you need for tasks, or find yourself doing things in the wrong order. Many adults with ADHD spend so much time on one task—known as “hyperfocusing”—that nothing else gets done. These difficulties can leave you feeling frustrated and inept, and make others impatient. But, there are solutions to help you better manage your time.

Time management tips

Adults with attention deficit disorder often have a different perception of how time passes. To align your sense of time with everyone else, use the oldest trick in the book: a clock.

Become a clock-watcher. Use a wristwatch or highly visible wall or desk clock to help you keep track of time. When you start a task, make a note of the time by saying it out loud or writing it down.

Use timers. Allot yourself limited amounts of time for each task and use a timer or alarm to alert you when your time is up. For longer tasks, consider setting an alarm to go off at regular intervals to keep you productive and aware of how much time is going by.

Give yourself more time than you think you need. Adults with ADHD are notoriously bad at estimating how long it will take to do something. For every thirty minutes of time you think it will take you to get someplace or complete a task, give yourself a cushion by adding ten minutes.

Plan to be early and set up reminders. Write down appointments for fifteen minutes earlier than they really are. Set up reminders to ensure you leave on time and make sure you have everything you need ahead of time so you're not frantically looking for your keys or phone when it's time to go.

Prioritization tips

Because adults with ADHD often struggle with impulse control and jump from one subject to another, completing tasks can be difficult and large projects can seem overwhelming. To overcome this:

Decide what to tackle first. Ask yourself what the most important task is that you need to accomplish, and then order your other priorities after that one.

Take things one at a time. Break down large projects or jobs into smaller, manageable steps.

Stay on task. Avoid getting sidetracked by sticking to your schedule, using a timer to enforce it if necessary.

Learn to say no

Impulsiveness can lead adults with ADHD to agree to too many projects at work or make too many social engagements. But a jam-packed schedule can leave you feeling overwhelmed, overtired, and affect the quality of your work. Saying no to certain commitments may improve your ability to accomplish tasks, keep social dates, and live a healthier lifestyle. Check your schedule first before agreeing to something new.

Tips for managing money and bills

Money management requires budgeting, planning, and organization, so for many adults with ADHD, it can pose a true challenge. Many common systems of money management don't tend to work for adults with ADHD because they require too much time, paper, and attention to detail. But if you create your own system that is both simple and consistent, you can get on top of your finances and put a stop to overspending, overdue bills, and penalties for missed deadlines.

Control your budget

An honest assessment of your financial situation is the first step to getting budgeting under control. Start by keeping track of every expense, no matter how small, for a month. This will allow you to effectively analyze where your money is going. You may be surprised at how much you're spending on unnecessary items and impulse purchases. You can then use this snapshot of your spending habits to create a monthly budget based on your income and needs.

Figure out how you can avoid straying from your budget. For example, if you're spending too much at restaurants, you can make an eating-in plan and factor in time for grocery shopping and meal preparation.

Set up a simple money management and bill paying system

Establish an easy, organized system that helps you save documents, receipts, and stay on top of bills. For an adult with ADHD, the opportunity to manage banking on the computer can be the gift that keeps on giving. Organizing money online means less paperwork, no messy handwriting, and no misplaced slips.

Switch to online banking. Signing up for online banking can turn the hit-or-miss process of balancing your budget into a thing of the past. Your online account will list all deposits and payments, tracking your balance automatically, to the penny, every day. You can also set up automatic payments for your regular monthly bills and log on as needed to pay irregular and occasional ones. The best part: no misplaced envelopes or late fees.

Set up bill pay reminders. If you prefer not to set up automatic payments, you can still make the process of bill paying easier with electronic reminders. You may be able to set up text or email reminders through online banking or you can schedule them in your calendar app.

Take advantage of technology. Free services can help you keep track of your finances and accounts. They typically take some time to set up, but once you've linked your accounts they automatically update. Such tools can make your financial life easier.

Put a stop to impulse shopping

Impulsivity from ADHD and shopping can be a very dangerous combination. It can put you in debt and make you feel guilty and ashamed. You can prevent impulsive buys with a few strategic tactics.

  • Shop with cash only—leave your checkbook and credit cards at home.
  • Cut up all but one credit card. When you shop, make a list of what you need and stick to it.
  • Use a calculator to keep a running total when shopping (hint: there's one on your mobile phone).
  • Stay away from places where you're likely to spend too much money, throw away catalogs as they arrive, and block emails from retailers.

Tips for staying focused and productive at work

ADHD can create special challenges at work. The things you may find toughest—organization, completion of tasks, sitting still, listening quietly—are the very things you're often asked to do all day long.

Juggling ADHD and a challenging job is no easy task, but by tailoring your workplace environment you can take advantage of your strong points while minimizing the negative impact of your ADHD symptoms.

Get organized at work

Organize your office, cubicle, or desk, one manageable step at a time. Then use the following strategies to stay tidy and organized:

Set aside daily time for organization. Mess is always distracting so set aside 5 to 10 minutes a day to clear your desk and organize your paperwork. Experiment with storing things inside your desk or in bins so that they don't clutter your workspace as unnecessary distractions.

Use colors and lists. Color-coding can be very useful to people with ADHD. Manage forgetfulness by writing everything down.

Prioritize. More important tasks should be placed first on your to-do list so you remember to do them before lower priority tasks. Set deadlines for everything, even if they are self-imposed.

End distractions

When you have attention issues, where you work and what is around you can significantly affect how much you are able to get done. Let your workmates know you need to concentrate, and try the following techniques to minimize distractions:

Where you work matters. If you don't have your own office, you may be able to take your work to an empty office or conference room. If you are in a lecture hall or conference, try sitting close to the speaker and away from people who chat during the meeting.

Minimize external commotion. Face your desk towards a wall and keep your workplace free of clutter. To discourage interruptions, you could even hang a “Do Not Disturb” sign. If possible, let voicemail pick up your phone calls and return them later, turn off email and social media during certain times of the day, or even log off the Internet completely. If noise distracts you, consider noise-canceling headphones or a sound machine

Save big ideas for later. All those great concepts or random thoughts that keep popping into your head and distracting you? Jot them down on paper or on your smartphone for later consideration. Some people with ADHD like to schedule time at the end of the day to go through all the notes they've made.

Stretch your attention span

As an adult with ADHD, you are capable of focusing—it's just that you may have a hard time keeping that focus, especially when the activity isn't one that you find particularly engaging. Boring meetings or lectures are hard on anyone, but for adults with ADHD, they may pose a special challenge. Similarly, following multiple directions can also be difficult for those with ADHD. Use these tips to improve your focus and ability to follow instructions:

Get it in writing. If you're attending a meeting, lecture, workshop, or another gathering that requires close attention, ask for an advance copy of the relevant materials—such as a meeting agenda or lecture outline. At the meeting, use the written notes to guide your active listening and note taking. Writing as you listen will help you stay focused on the speaker's words.

Echo directions. After someone gives verbal instructions, say them aloud to make sure you got it right.

Move around. To prevent restlessness and fidgeting, go ahead and move around—at the appropriate times in the right places. As long as you are not disturbing others, try squeezing a stress ball during a meeting, for example. Or taking a walk or even jumping up and down during a meeting break can help you pay attention later on.

Tips for managing stress and boosting mood

Due to the impulsivity and disorganization that often accompany ADHD, you may struggle with erratic sleep, an unhealthy diet, or the effects of too little exercise—all issues that can lead to extra stress, bad moods, and feeling out of control. The best way to stop this cycle is to take charge of your lifestyle habits and create healthy new routines.

Eating well, getting plenty of sleep, and exercising regularly can help you stay calm, minimize mood swings, and fight any symptoms of anxiety and depression. Healthier habits can also reduce ADHD symptoms like inattention, hyperactivity, and distractibility, while regular routines can help your life feel more manageable.

Exercise and spend time outdoors

Working out is perhaps the most positive and efficient way to reduce hyperactivity and inattention from ADHD. Exercise can relieve stress, boost your mood, and calm your mind, helping work off the excess energy and aggression that can get in the way of relationships and feeling stable.

Exercise on a daily basis. Choose something vigorous and fun that you can stick with, like a team sport or working out with a friend.

Increase stress relief by exercising outdoors—people with ADHD often benefit from sunshine and green surroundings.

Try relaxing forms of exercise, such as mindful walking, yoga, or tai chi. In addition to relieving stress, they can teach you to better control your attention and impulses.

Get plenty of sleep

Sleep deprivation can increase symptoms of adult ADHD, reducing your ability to cope with stress and maintain focus during the day. Simple changes to daytime habits go a long way toward ensuring solid nightly sleep.

  • Avoid caffeine late in the day.
  • Exercise vigorously and regularly, but not within an hour of bedtime.
  • Create a predictable and quiet “bedtime” routine, including taking a hot shower or bath just before bed.
  • Stick to a regular sleep-wake schedule, even on weekends.

Eat healthfully

While unhealthy eating habits don't cause ADHD, a poor diet can exacerbate symptoms. By making simple changes in what and how you eat, you may experience big reductions in distractibility, hyperactivity, and stress levels.

  • Eat small meals throughout day.
  • Avoid sugar and junk food as much as possible.
  • Make sure you include healthy protein at every meal.
  • Aim for several servings of fiber-rich whole grains each day.

Practice mindfulness

As well as reducing stress, regular mindfulness meditation can help you to better resist distractions, lower impulsivity, improve your focus, and provide more control over your emotions. Since hyperactivity symptoms can make meditation a challenge for some adults with ADHD, starting slowly can help. Meditate for short periods and gradually increase your meditation time as you become more comfortable with the process—and are better able to maintain focus. The key is to then draw on these mindfulness techniques during your daily life to keep you on track. Experiment with free or inexpensive smartphone apps or online guided meditations. 

Authors: Robert Segal, M.A. and Melinda Smith, M.A.

      • References

        Neurodevelopmental Disorders. (2013). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Association. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425787.x01_Neurodevelopmental_Disorders

        Canela, C., Buadze, A., Dube, A., Eich, D., & Liebrenz, M. (2017). Skills and compensation strategies in adult ADHD – A qualitative study. PLoS ONE, 12(9), e0184964. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184964

        Mitchell, J. T., McIntyre, E. M., English, J. S., Dennis, M. F., Beckham, J. C., & Kollins, S. H. (2017). A Pilot Trial of Mindfulness Meditation Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adulthood: Impact on Core Symptoms, Executive Functioning, and Emotion Dysregulation. Journal of Attention Disorders, 21(13), 1105–1120. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054713513328

      Seven Daily Habits to Close the “Success Gap” – How to uncover your special talents and use them to achieve important goals. (ADDitude)

      Adult ADHD: Free Downloads – Download free tip-filled handouts about managing adult ADHD. Includes information on getting organized, bringing bills under control, and staying focused. (ADDitude)

      Relationships & Social Skills – Challenges associated with ADHD and concrete tips on implementing change (CHADD)

      Managing Money and ADHD – Improve your money management skills, follow a budget, and stay on top of bills. (CHADD)

      Top Ten ADHD Traps in the Workplace – Covers the top workplace stumbling blocks for people with ADHD, and strategies for avoiding them. (Healthy Place)

      Workplace Accommodations Can Make You and Your Employer Successful – How to adapt your work environment to the challenges of ADHD. (CHADD)

      Hotlines and support

      In the U.S.: Talk with an ADHD Information Specialist at 1-866-200-8098, Monday-Friday, 1-5 pm ET, or search the Professional Directory for ADHD clinics and other resources. (CHADD)

      UK: Call ADDISS at 020 8952 2800 or consult a list of support groups from AADD-UK.

      Australia: Call the Health Direct 24-hour advice line at 1800 022 222 or find a list of ADHD Australia support groups.

      Canada:  Find a support group in your area. (CADDAC)

      India: Call the Vandrevala Foundation Helpline  at 1860 2662 345 or 1800 2333 330

      Last updated: December 30, 2022

      13 tips for parents and teachers on how to properly teach hyperactive children

      The child cannot do the same thing for a long time and is often distracted. Abruptly takes off and starts running around the room or school. These can all be signs of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Panic early! Such children can also be successfully taught if you know how to work with them. Psychologist, psychotherapist GMS Clinic Inna Pasechnik compiled a memo on working with hyperactive children. nine0003

      The physiological characteristics of children with ADHD are the following manifestations:

      1. The child needs to constantly move, it is difficult for him to sit straight during the lessons: such children are distracted, talk in the lessons, "spin", sway, sit with their legs under the buttocks, when tired, their motor activity increases.

      This is due to the peculiarities of the brain in children with ADHD, they need a constant supply of nutrients to the brain, which is possible only when moving. If a child with ADHD is persuaded to sit quietly, it will be more difficult for him to think. nine0003

      In this regard, it is recommended to allow a certain level of motor activity to the child during the lesson. If the child gets tired, then allow him (find a legitimate reason) to walk around the class or do some active exercises (wipe off the board, distribute notebooks, go for water).

      2. The child is very tired of the routine, it becomes unbearably boring for him to do the same type of tasks if he has already figured it out.

      In this regard, in the world pedagogical practice, it is customary to reduce the number of tasks of the same type (including homework) for children with ADHD by 30%, not to require them to complete all the examples, if the child has already mastered the topic. The number of repetitions in children with ADHD does not affect the quality of information assimilation. nine0003

      In addition, it is acceptable for a child with ADHD to be able to draw in a draft or twist something in his hands during the lesson. They tend to do several things at the same time, which does not affect the quality of perception of information in the lesson. Otherwise, the child begins to distract his neighbors by actively moving and talking to them.

      3. A child with ADHD is most often not able to beautifully and neatly arrange his work, he allows corrections, blots, inaccurate design of assignments. nine0003

      It is recommended to pay attention to the content of the work, and not to the quality of its design, since a regular decrease in the score for an incorrectly designed work will significantly reduce the motivation to study.

      4. Children with ADHD are afraid of large volumes.

      If a child with ADHD is immediately asked to complete 20 examples, he will be frightened and fall into a stupor or despair, as large amounts of work scare them. However, if a child is given the same 20 examples on separate cards 5 times 4 examples each, it will noticeably improve his performance. The child will be happy to complete all 20 examples, in addition, this will be a good opportunity to move between receiving the next card. Thus, children with ADHD need to divide large amounts of tasks into several small parts. nine0003

      5. A child with ADHD may forget everyday things and some items when completing a task according to a plan, they may even forget the ultimate goal of the activity (poor working memory).

      Often, children with ADHD get their grades lowered because they forget to do part of the tasks in the exercises. It is recommended to separately concentrate their attention on all the items of the task in the exercise. For example, asking this particular child what you need to remember to complete in the task. nine0003

      In addition, these children tend to forget their things. Therefore, they can be reminded of them more often or separately encouraged for not forgetting to take everything with them. It is effective to use "reminders" - small notes, stickers in a pencil case or announcements on the wall, thanks to which the child can remember to take a thing with him, go somewhere or do something.

      6. A child with ADHD is often distracted.

      It is advisable to seat children with ADHD closer to the teacher so that it is easier for them to concentrate, and in case the child is distracted, lightly touch his hand so that he can concentrate again. It is possible to specifically discuss with the child the ways by which he can not be distracted in the lesson. nine0003

      7. Children with ADHD have poor time orientation.

      It has nothing to do with the intellectual development of the child. However, a child with ADHD often does not notice that more time has passed than he intended. As a result, the children are late, I don’t have time to finish something. In such cases, it is recommended to either remind the time yourself, or teach the child to set a timer, or set a timer or an hourglass so that children can see them and be able to navigate on their own. nine0003

      8. A child with ADHD can be very interested in something, this is his strength, so if the child is unsuccessful in something, then you can restore his authority in the eyes of classmates by involving him in activities in which he showed interest and showed your awareness.

      9. Children with ADHD are impulsive.

      It is difficult for a child with ADHD to restrain himself from shouting out in class if he knows the answer, it is difficult for him not to interfere in the activity if something interesting happens to him. nine0003

      In the lessons, it is possible to introduce special tablets on which children can fix the answer to the teacher's question so that they do not have to endure if another student answers. It is also possible to introduce a special encouragement for the child, if he did not cry out, showed patience. For example, if the child refrained from impulsive action, allow him to distribute notebooks.

      10. Children with ADHD are emotional.

      In this regard, they can be very offended if something does not work out for them or classmates do not communicate with them (children with ADHD are very sociable: they like to talk, chat with everyone). In this case, the child needs support or help in building relationships with classmates, you can intervene in the children's play and assign roles, showing the child how he can participate in the game. Otherwise, conflicts may arise between a child with ADHD and other children. nine0003

      11. A child with ADHD can be taught to do those things that are difficult for him for physiological reasons, but for this he needs to create external motivation.

      For this, an incentive system (bonus system) is used. It can be used in conjunction with parents. For example, several rules (3 rules) are introduced that the child must follow at school, for the fulfillment of which the child receives “pluses” from the teacher in a special diary (the child prepares such a diary himself at home, beautifully arranging it). Rules should be short and specific. For example, “wait for the teacher to ask you, do not shout out”, “do all the tasks in the class”, “write all the examples in a notebook”, etc. At the same time, for the implementation of the rules at each lesson, the child receives plus signs, a plus sign is put every time when the child follows the rule. Next, parents reward the child for a certain number of “pluses”. For this house, a list of rewards is compiled: each "bonus" is worth a certain number of "pluses". nine0003

      This system is exclusively a system of rewards, that is, “minuses” are not set and “pluses” do not burn out. This is due to the fact that the behavior of a child with ADHD is so restless that he will lose “pluses” faster than he accumulates them, and thus the system will stop working, the child will lose interest in it and, as a result, it will be impossible to motivate the child with something .

      Children with ADHD need to be led only on a reward system, the punishment system either does not work or quickly leads children with ADHD to depression, which also worsens their behavior. nine0003

      12. The system for developing the skill of desirable behavior can also be used for the entire class as a whole (B. Furman's system "Kid's skills" - there is such a book).

      In this case, one skill is selected, which the whole class learns. For example, be ready for the lesson on time. This means that as soon as the bell rings, the children should stand exactly near their desks, the things needed for the lesson should be on the table. If all the children were able to do this, then the teacher praises them and puts the ball in a special jar. When the jar is full, it means the class has mastered the skill. For this, children are rewarded with what they love: tea drinking, a diploma from the director, going to the zoo. nine0003

      The experience of using such a program has shown that when developing one skill, children become generally more successful in all areas and their behavior becomes better in general.

      13. In general, the child can be involved in helping the teacher, this will greatly inspire him, cheer him up and motivate him to cooperate.

      How to help a child with ADHD?

      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral developmental disorder. As as a rule, it is diagnosed in children. Child with ADHD has difficulty concentrating, he becomes hyperactive, poorly controlled and impulsive. Unfortunately, many parents and educators in schools do not take this disorder seriously and associate child's behavior with pampering and bad manners. Children with ADHD are often subjected to pressure from both parents and from other children. All this is fertile ground for further mental illness and the formation of criminogenic behavior in adulthood. How to determine in time Does your child need professional help? What are the reasons for the appearance syndrome? And what if your child is diagnosed with ADHD? Says the leading researcher of the Ural Federal University Sergey Kiselev. nine0077

      Sergey Yurievich Kiselev – Candidate in Psychology, Leading Researcher at the Ural Federal University, Head of the Laboratory of the Brain and neurocognitive development.

      — I remember how 13 years ago my cousin brother was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder and hyperactivity. Then in Russia, almost no one knew about it. diagnosis. Tell us what is known today? nine0077

      In fact, we still don't fully know what it is. disorder. There is a definition in the International classification of diseases, where deficiency syndrome is separately distinguished attention and separately - hyperactivity syndrome. However, often we We are faced with two sets of symptoms. Such a manifestation commonly referred to as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD.

      However, there is still no generally accepted concept of causes of ADHD, about the mechanisms that cause syndrome symptoms. We have at our disposal only a number of different models that attempt to explain externally observed symptoms. I view this disorder from a neuropsychological point of view in within the framework of the Lurie approach. Russian psychologist and neuropathologist Alexander Romanovich Luria created a national neuropsychology, which is known throughout the world precisely as Luriev neuropsychology. His followers and students developed their own concept of the nature of behavioral disorders and mental health in children with ADHD. nine0003

      It's not just about attention problems or hyperactivity. These children have a range of symptoms associated with a disorder. different mental functions, for example, they often have specific memory impairment, increased exhaustion, difficulties of inclusion in tasks, activity fluctuation, etc. Before modern specialists are faced with the task of explaining the causes and mechanisms of this set of symptoms.

      Why is it important? If we know the mechanism of disorder, then we can more effectively help children deal with them. it will allow us to correctly build a correction for the development of children with ADHD diagnosis, which will work with the mechanism of the disorder, not outward symptoms. Suppression or withdrawal of symptoms often does not mean that we act on the mechanism of disorder, Therefore, such a correction has a short-term effect. For example, if a person has a cough that is associated with tuberculosis, then cough pills, of course, will not cure this disease. AT In this case, it is necessary to treat tuberculosis, then cough, as one of the symptoms of this disease will disappear. Also with behavioral disorders. It is necessary to influence the mechanism of the disorder, and not "remove symptoms". nine0003

      Unfortunately, there is still no generally accepted understanding what the variants of ADHD might be. Probably, There are different kinds and types of this syndrome. For example, modern research shows that under such a disorder How does ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) fall under the plethora of different variants of this disorder, including Asperger's syndrome, Kanner syndrome, RDA (early childhood autism), etc. It is obvious that ADHD also includes different varieties. nine0003

      It is also important to understand that there are individual differences course of this disease.

      Professionals should not just diagnose ADHD, thereby putting a label on the child. They must clearly understand which variant of ADHD you need to work with in a particular situation. It is necessary to understand the individual characteristics of the course of ADHD every child.

      One of the serious tasks of modern child neuropsychology and neurology — development of an algorithm for helping children with ADHD, taking into account type of disorder, age, sex, individual and typological features of the child. nine0003

      - Describe key symptoms that may indicate ADHD in its early stages?

      - If we talk about the most rude version of ADHD, then there is a number of basic sets of symptoms.

      The first set of symptoms is associated with behavioral characteristics. One of the key symptoms is increased exhaustion. Such children as a rule, they cannot engage in any one activity long time. At school, for example, children with ADHD cannot sit still 40 minutes of the lesson, listen to the teacher, complete assignments. They are fast exhausted and switched to other activities. Exhaustibility this kind of thing greatly interferes with successful learning, and in a broader sense, effectively adapt to the world. nine0003

      The second key symptom is related to the inability to turn on quickly. into a certain activity. A simple example: the beginning of the lesson after change. The typical child quickly enters the appropriate learning activity pace of activity, begins to listen to the teacher, complete study assignments. A child with ADHD cannot change quickly level of brain activity. At recess, when he ran, jumped, played with other children, he had increased activity, but for it is not suitable for learning activities. Enhanced Level brain activity can not decrease to a suitable level for educational activity. Hence the serious problems with success learning, frequent comments from the teacher, etc. nine0003

      The third symptom manifests itself in the form of peculiar waves of activity. At in such children, there is an effect of either increased activity, or its sharp decline. Similar undulating activity also manifests itself in school during the lesson. Against the backdrop of these fluctuations in activity, a specific effect occurs - at the peaks hyper- and hypoactivity children with ADHD are not successful in performing educational tasks. At such moments, their brain activity is not corresponds to learning activities. But when for a short period of time, their brain activity stabilizes and enters agreement with learning activities, they easily respond to teacher's questions, can solve a difficult problem, etc. nine0003

      That is why many teachers notice that children with ADHD often disobedient, chaotic, but at the same time they have a normal intelligence. Indeed, the cognitive resources of such children are often good enough. And against the background of an optimal level of activity brain they realize them to the maximum. When the activity level does not correspond to educational activities, they, of course, show poor results.

      In fact, each of us has waves of activity. During We go through periods of growth and decline every day. This characterizes normal feature of our nervous system. She demands period of rest, rest and activity. But in children with ADHD, this feature manifests itself in a hypertrophied form. Waves activities change more often and more noticeably. nine0003

      The fourth symptom is hyperactivity, which manifests itself in the form increased motor activity, restlessness, the number of unnecessary movements, speech incontinence, etc. There is such a thing as synkinesis - involuntary extra movements during the performance of some activity or motor activity. For example, a child writes something in notebooks, and at this time his tongue moves, his shoulders move or legs move.

      According to such key symptoms in the behavior of the child, specialists identify the presence of attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity. nine0003

      Although there are situations when the diagnosis is made when the presence of only one of these symptoms. And this is wrong. For example, increased exhaustion may not be in the context of ADHD, and manifest as a result of dystonia or another disease. Therefore, it must be clearly understood that ADHD is always set of symptoms.

      In addition to the group of behavioral symptoms, there are a number of secondary manifestations. Children with ADHD often have cognitive Problems. For example, they do not solve problems well against the background of fluctuations. activity. An experienced diagnostician will immediately understand that the reason lies not in the cognitive abilities of the child, and in the presence of increased exhaustion during the task. Therefore, often such children, to Unfortunately, many unnecessary symptoms are attributed. In this case, you need clearly distinguish between primary and secondary symptoms. nine0003

      Another interesting phenomenon has to do with memory. Often in children with ADHD there is an increased erasure of traces of memory in conditions interference, that is, interfering activity. Like this shows up? Imagine that you have to remember two text. First you read and, as you think, remember the first text. Then you are given a second text. Memorizing the second material, you forget the first one. This is a natural feature of our memory. But children with ADHD this manifests itself in an abnormal form. For example, we ask the child to remember first the first 3 words, and then the second 3 words. He repeats the second group of words clearly, but the first 3 do not can remember. Similar memory problems also interfere with children's educational activity. nine0003

      In addition, these children have problems with voluntary control. Within the framework of the Luriev model for arbitrary control answers the so-called "third functional block in operation brain."

      Tell us more about this model.

      — According to Luriev's model, there are three blocks of the brain. The first functional block is responsible for the level of brain activity. Second the block is cognitive. It is associated with processing, perception and remembering information coming from the outside world. The third the block is called the “programming, regulation and control block for the course of mental activity. nine0003

      Children with ADHD often have secondary developmental delays. frontal cortex. This leads to derivative control problems and derived attention. For example, these children cannot focus on the task, can't control their behavior. This symptomatology of ADHD is especially pronounced in preschool children. It is clear that due to age the level of derivative control in these children is very immature. AT older age, closer to 9 years, in children with ADHD due to improvement of voluntary control over one's behavior occurs a decrease in the symptoms of this disorder, that is, it begins have a compensatory effect. However, ADHD does not go away, but only goes into a latent (hidden) form. nine0003

      And, finally, another secondary symptom is connected precisely with involuntary attention disorder. It's a symptom for the most part. refers to biology and the so-called orienting reflex for new incentives. When we hear an unexpected loud sound, we involuntarily pay attention to the source of the sound. This one is pure biological response allows us to respond effectively to potentially dangerous external influences.

      Children with ADHD have a peculiar heightened sensitivity to all external influences, for example, to various soft sounds. A child with ADHD has an effect orienting reflex to both strong stimuli and weak. Outwardly, this manifests itself as increased distractibility. child. It is important to note that the child is not in the least is to blame - it is the indicative reflexes. nine0003

      Imagine that you are walking through a forest at night. Your nervous system is this situation will become very sensitive. You will pay attention to any rustles and sounds. However, under normal conditions, when there is no danger, we react only to strong incentives. A child with ADHD constantly feels like he or she is is, figuratively speaking, in such a "dark and terrible forest." it leads to big problems at school, in communication with teachers and classmates.

      So the symptoms of ADHD are quite complex and complex. To understand how a child with ADHD feels, imagine this situation. You are at the railway station, around various events are unfolding, many sounds, people flash before you, you are pushed, etc. And in these conditions you are offered to solve some problem. It is clear that you everything will be distracting and you will not be able to quickly and efficiently to solve a problem. Of course, if you were asked to solve the same task at home in a calm environment, then you would have coped with it much faster. So, a child with ADHD seems to be all the time is in the situation of a railway station where its all distracts. nine0003

      In addition, orienting reflexes are accompanied by an increase child's anxiety.

      The situation is aggravated by the fact that others react to the behavior of these children is inappropriate. Teachers shout at them parents, peers. Children with ADHD are under severe pressure from the outside world. And that just makes them bigger. anxiety.

      These kids are really hard. In life they are constantly face adaptation problems, even when they become adults. With age, the syndrome does not disappear anywhere. He only passes into a latent form, in which external symptoms do not appear clearly, but at the same time it is difficult for such a person concentrate on some work, he is overcome by a swarm of thoughts, he constantly distracted by various external and internal events. nine0003

      — Are the causes of the syndrome known in children?

      Almost all behavioral disorders in children are related to genetics. However, we cannot say for sure whether a child with genetic predisposition will form ADHD. The fact, that any phenotypic trait, including behavior, develops under the influence of two factors - genotype and environment. AT certain environmental conditions, a genetic predisposition to ADHD can lead to the development of this disorder, and in others conditions are not. nine0003

      As risk factors that may lead to the development Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is traditionally referred to as birth trauma, hypoxia during childbirth, prematurity. However not always these factors lead to the development of ADHD. Especially if you have the child is not genetically predisposed to it disorder.

      ADHD is always associated with a combination of genetic factors. predisposition and external adverse influences, especially in the first year of life. At this time, actively formed mechanism of neurodynamics in the brain, and external risk factors may lead to the development of this disorder. For example, emotional negative experiences of the child associated with the absence of the mother, may be such a risk factor. nine0003

      In addition, children in the first year of life should develop in conditions of adequate sensory load. Level violation sensory information leads to adverse effects on reticular formation of the brain, which can lead to impaired neurodynamics and formation of ADHD.

      - If you do not pay due attention to the disorder, to what could this lead to in the future?

      - Imagine the world in which a child with deficiency syndrome lives attention and hyperactivity. At school, he most often does not succeed, on he is pressured by teachers, parents. This kid is trying to defend himself. often due to aggressive reactions. This, after all, may escalate into criminal behavior. And increased anxiety further may provoke the development of serious mental diseases, such as pathological depression. That is, at such children are at risk of developing adverse scenarios in life. nine0003

      Therefore, it is necessary to treat them correctly already in the early childhood, to build the right atmosphere around such children, adequately respond to the manifestation of certain features, be more tolerant of them. This will reduce the risk development of deviant behavior.

      — What practices are used to help such children? Are there any medications?

      - If we talk about attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity in its gross form, it is necessary here comprehensive support. It includes three elements intervention. nine0003

      First, medical support is needed, especially when severe form of ADHD.

      The second element is behavioral modification. There are many different techniques. But one of the most effective has to do with learning the so-called deep diaphragmatic breathing. Case is that the reticular formation, which is responsible for the general the level of activity of our brain, is sensitive to the lack of oxygen. Each of us has experienced severe exhaustion and inefficient work when in a stuffy room. If we improve the supply of oxygen to the reticular formation, the brain will work better. In a child with ADHD, breathing is often irregular and shallow. This impairs the supply of oxygen to the brain. situation can be improved if the child is taught the technique of correct diaphragmatic breathing. nine0003

      By the way, children with ADHD are well helped by sports where deep breathing is practiced, for example, swimming. Michael Phelps, a 23-time Olympic swimming champion, is also in actually suffered from ADHD. Phelps dealt with this disorder thanks in large part to swimming.

      Stories like these inspire parents who reach out to me. for advice on ADHD. Such children are helped not only swimming, and any other sport where breathing plays an important role - kayaking, canoeing, skiing, running and other rhythmic and aerobic sports. Proper breathing brought to automatism is one of the most important helpers for children with ADHD. nine0003

      The third direction is aimed at working with the family. This is about family therapy and creating the right atmosphere in which he lives child. As a rule, children with ADHD show inadequate forms of behavior from the point of view of the parents themselves. Moms, dads, grandmothers, brothers and sisters can be aggressive, punish child for inappropriate behavior. And this, as I said above, only exacerbates the already problematic anxiety in these children. Therefore, it is important that within the family, a child with ADHD develops harmonious and tolerant relationships. Under these conditions, above the probability that he will form a mechanism of arbitrary regulation and control, and he will gradually get rid of bright manifestations of ADHD symptoms. nine0003

      The most unfavorable parenting strategy that leads to aggravation of ADHD symptoms - this is an authoritarian upbringing. At preschool age, it gives rise to a child increased infantilism, shifting responsibility to adult. A mature parenting strategy is to mother gradually transferred responsibility to the child in conditions joint activities.

      - Tell us what you're working on today? nine0077

      — Our laboratory of brain and neurocognitive development operates in several directions. One of the important areas of research employees of our laboratory is associated with the influence parent-child interaction on the development of young children and preschool age. We're trying to figure out what strategies and styles upbringing has the most beneficial effect on the development of the child, and which ones can increase the risk of developing various disorders, for example, ADHD.

      Another important area is devoted to the study of digitalization, influence of virtual space and computer addiction on children development. In the international classification of diseases has already been introduced diagnosis called digital addiction or digital addiction. Unfortunately, this is how the modern environment works - it provokes a situation in which the child is immersed early in the virtual space and becomes dependent on it. Some studies show that the child's early interaction with digital environment negatively affects the development of many basic brain mechanisms. It is clear that digitalization is a reality, from which is now nowhere to go. However, it is very important to correctly to introduce the child to the digital environment in a timely manner, to adapt him to this new reality. nine0003

      The third aspect of research is devoted to the formation of a unified system diagnosis of preschool children, which in Russia so far no. Unfortunately, we do not have a generally accepted standard for which we can assess the development of children at preschool age, in order to timely detect atypical manifestations and the risk of deviant behavior. The fact is that preschool age is a period in which during which most of the basic brain cells are formed mechanisms. Therefore, any mistakes are fraught with serious consequences. in future. We must learn to quickly identify the causes deviant behavior and deviant development of children, which will basis for the development of effective methods of correction. Necessary time to change the environment of a child with the risk of developing deviant behavior, adjust the parameters of its development in order to mitigate the risks of various disorders. therefore we need a unified system of sensitive diagnostics that will allow to identify not only gross violations in development, but also minimal deviations in order to help the child in time. nine0003

      Preschool age is a very important period in development, because the child's brain is sensitive both to adverse external influences as well as favorable ones. Quickly noticing the deviation the specialist can change the child's environment, which will lead to to the rapid restoration of development mechanisms.

      Therefore, at this age it is so important to create for the child the most favorable environment for the development of basic brain mechanisms.

      Today, unfortunately, many parents focus on the formation of school skills in preschool age - reading, letters, bills. It is not right. So the parents ahead of events. Figuratively speaking, they build the roof of the house, not completing the foundation and walls. We must strictly follow a certain sequence of brain development, take into account individual characteristics of the child, including psychological. nine0003

      The basic mechanisms of the brain must be formed in preschool age with the help of a variety of motor activities: gymnastics, dancing, sports, drawing, classes music and so on. And only then, when the foundation has been created, can it is easy to switch to the formation of a variety of school skills - letters, readings, bills, etc.

      Today, together with Tomsk State University, we we are working on creating a unified diagnostic system that is easy to fit into the system of preschool education. It is necessary that she allowed to effectively identify risks at an early stage and gave the ability to quickly correct the development of the child. nine0003

      — What advice would you give to parents whose children Have you been diagnosed with ADHD?

      - Unfortunately, sometimes it happens that a child is diagnosed ADHD, but he doesn't really have that syndrome. I often I am facing this kind of overdiagnosis.

      Therefore, it is important not to rely on the opinion of only one specialist. It is necessary to re-diagnose with another doctor, to make sure if the child really has a syndrome attention deficit and hyperactivity. nine0003

      If the syndrome is confirmed by at least two specialists, then the child comprehensive support is required. Unfortunately, parents often rely on drugs. Of course, the effect of drugs is, but it short-term. If the child stops using them, then symptoms will return, and in some cases even worsen.

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