Criminal minds personality types

MBTI® Of Criminal Minds Characters

Criminal Minds first aired in 2005 on CBS and it didn't take long for the show to gain a cult following. One of the main reasons viewers found themselves fascinated with Criminal Minds had a lot to do with the unique characters rather than their unique investigations.

With characters like the lovable Penelope Garcia and all her bejeweled, fuzzy-pen glory, the intellectual who brings humanity to the criminals, and Derek Morgan, who has charm for days, the cast is full of very different personalities. With the help of the Myers-Briggs® personality type categorizations (extraverted vs. introverted, feeling vs. thinking, etc.), the audience can even better understand these characters.

Updated on May 26th, 2022 by Amanda Bruce: Though the original Criminal Minds series is over, fans never seem to tire of the cases from the show or the distinct characters offered up by it. With the show available on streaming sites, and talk of a revival persisting, fans will likely remain invested in the series for a long time as new audience members discover the series and old audience members rewatch their favorite storylines. Rewatching the show allows the audience to pick up on things they might have missed about their favorite characters and discover new aspects of their personalities.

Kate Callahan - ENFP

Kate Callahan joins the team late in the series, and she doesn't stick around for long. Kate, however, is a great addition during her time. She's a maternal figure, not unlike JJ, but she's also got the creativity and imagination of someone like Garcia.

RELATED: Which Criminal Minds Character Are You Based On Your Zodiac Sign?

Kate is very much like an ENFP, or "the campaigner." This particular personality type is a social butterfly, someone who easily makes friends and someone who looks for connection in everything around them. Kate sees her job as an FBI agent not just as a responsibility, but also as a way to connect with people, and as a way to keep her family safe.

Erin Strauss - ESTJ

Erin Strauss becomes the person in charge of the Behavioral Analysis Unit, and at times, the team resents her interfering in their investigations. Her interference, however, is because Strauss wants things done by the book to make sure that the team's work is beyond questioning and that her job is safe.

Strauss is an ESTJ, "the executive." This personality type is a natural leader, so it's no wonder she's in charge for multiple seasons in Criminal Minds. They value honesty and order, and they take charge to make sure those values are upheld.

Elle Greenaway - ESFP

One of the agents at the start of the show, Elle Greenaway leaves the team when her own actions on a case step over the line. She's someone who is all about action. She wants to do something, not waste time talking about doing those things, and she wants to make sure she has the attention of those she cares about when she does.

As an ESFP, Elle is an "entertainer," a great commander of attention. She has a zest for life that manifests in her ability to gain a suspect's ire or plan a great vacation.

Tara Lewis - ISFP

While Tara Lewis and Elle Greenaway have a lot of similar aspects to their personalities, which is why they only truly differ in the extroverted and introverted aspect. Tara is the "adventurer" to Elle's "entertainer." They share passionate natures and creative minds but differ in how they approach problems.

Tara is more likely to form a plan than jump right in, for starters. She also is less likely to create a spectacle to get the job done, like her ability to linguistically mimic the unsubs she interviews to make them more comfortable in interrogation, one of the earliest skills presented in the show. It tends to be more effective than Elle, who would often resort to being the "bad cop" to another teammate's "good cop."

Derek Morgan - ESTP

Derek Morgan is known for being the doorbuster of the group, always being the first one to take physical action in order to catch an unsub. He's playful, suave, and extremely charming. These qualities make him the perfect ESTP.

ESTPs are known as "entrepreneurs" and are often doers rather than thinkers. They're always up for what's next. Though Morgan is perfectly capable of going through the evidence and building theories for cases, or bantering with Garcia while doing it, he prefers to be taking action instead, a sure sign of an ESTP.

Jason Gideon - INFJ

Jason Gideon is played by well-known actor Mandy Patinkin. Although Patinkin's character wasn't on for as long as fans would have liked, he still was able to leave a big impression.

RELATED: MBTI® Of Mean Girls Characters

Gideon is a gentle soul with great care for the world around him. He gives the impression of being a counselor to the rest of the group, a person that the other team members feel as though they can confide in. He is introspective, empathetic, sensitive, and selfless.  All of these traits point to Gideon being an INFJ, or, "the advocate."

Penelope Garcia - ENFP

Penelope Garcia is played brilliantly by actress Kirsten Vangsness. Penelope Garcia brings color, animation, and humor to Criminal Minds. Adding a sense of light-heartedness and whimsy is extremely necessary on a show that centers around very dark criminal cases. Because of Garcia's colorful nature, she is one of the most beloved characters on the show.

Garcia is creative, warm, energetic, and friendly. There is a certain quirky pep to her that reads like a classic ENFP.  This particular personality type is a free spirit and someone with a truly open heart. Fans agree that her energy and artistic flair make Criminal Minds unforgettable.

Spencer Reid - INFP

Some fans might interpret Spencer Reid as an INTP because of his academic leanings. Yes, Spencer Reid is one of the most intelligent characters in television history, but just because he is a brilliant thinker doesn't automatically make him a "T". Reid, out of all characters, is the most emotionally invested in the cases.

Rather than seeing all of the unsubs as monsters, Reid digs deeper in an attempt to understand them as human beings. He is open-minded and wants so badly to believe in the good of all people - even the criminals. His values come before everything, including his career. This has been shown many times when he somehow is able to empathize with the criminals and cannot complete certain violent tasks that he is required to do for the sake of his career.  His compassion for all those around him and his emotional intelligence makes him an INFP, "the mediator."

Jennifer "JJ" Jareau - ISFJ

JJ begins her time on the series as more of a public relations officer than an active agent. She grows to become a field agent early in the series. JJ is observant, logical, and supportive. She isn't the most energetic of the bunch, but she is very friendly and reliable. She seems to have all the traits of an ISFJ, "the defender."

"Defenders" are incredibly hard-working and dedicated to the people around them. They might keep their feelings under wraps, but they show how they feel in what they do for those they care about.

Emily Prentiss - ENFJ

Paget Brewster's Emily Prentiss joins the series after Elle Greenaway leaves the team. Her experience as the daughter of a diplomat gives her a very different background compared to the rest of the team. Well-traveled and inquisitive, she very quickly earns their respect as she jumps right into investigations.

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Prentiss is a passionate team member with excellent communication skills. Her ability to bring out the best in others and take the lead when necessary makes her a likely ENFJ, or "the protagonist."

David Rossi -ENTJ

Rossi is constantly on his feet and always ready to play by the book. He is drawn to all the challenges the team faces and is able to work without the risk of putting too much emotion into each case. Rossi can't stand the idea of not having work to do which is apparent when he is given vacation days and he is uncomfortable with the downtime or when his time off is used to write books about his experiences.

He is stubborn while at the same time charismatic. He is a clear ENTJ, "the commander," someone who sets goals for himself and inspires the group to help follow through on them.

Aaron "Hotch" Hotchner - ISTJ

Original team leader Aaron Hotchner is one of the easiest Criminal Minds personality types to determine. Hotch is a nearly textbook ISTJ, or "logistician."

He is the most focused of the group, constantly playing by the rules. Reid even claims that he has never seen Hotch blink once because he is so serious. Yet despite his strict nature, Hotch is loyal, protective, and will always work for the greater good.

NEXT: MBTI® Of Legion Characters

The MBTI Types Of The BAU

Criminal Minds is a hugely popular police procedural drama that aired on CBS from 2005 to 2020. The show followed the Behaviour Analysis Unit of the FBI as they profiled and tracked down some of the most violent serial killers in America. The BAU team consisted of many vibrant, diverse characters who audiences came to love.

RELATED: 6 Most Captivating Cases In Criminal Minds

The many personalities and character types within the BAU helped them perform well as a team, as they each came with their areas of expertise. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI type) is a way of categorizing people and characters into one of 16 different personality types. Over the 15 years that Criminal Minds aired, the BAU saw agents with many different personality types come and go. Apart from their profiling skills, fans can categorize the BAU through their MBTI type.

10 The Grounded Aaron Hotchner Is An ISTJ

Aaron 'Hotch' Hotchner is the Unit Chief of the BAU until he departs from the team in the thirteenth season. Hotch is reserved and stoic but is a stable leader at the head of the team. Hotch is an ISTJ, known as a Logistician, and perfectly embodies that personality type.

Logisticians are careful and methodical, planning out all their courses of action before going ahead with them. ISTJs are well respected because they care for their society and are level-headed in times of crisis, just like Aaron Hotchner is. No matter the case or what's going on in his personal life, Hotch remains level-headed and calm.

9 Derek Morgan Is The Definition Of An ESTP

SSA Derek Morgan was a beloved agent, both within the team and with fans, from the first to the twelfth season of Criminal Minds. Derek was excitable and energetic and, while he was a great profiler, he performed best in the field when he could tackle the problems straight in from of him. This makes him an obvious ESTP.

RELATED: Criminal Minds: 5 Episodes You Didn't Know Were Based On Real Cases

ESTPs are often the center of attention and are always seeking out spontaneous adventures. The lack of planning which is typical of an ESTP can be seen in Derek's approach to his job, as he sometimes acts before thinking.

8 Emily Prentiss Is A Compassionate ESFJ

Emily Prentiss joins the BAU in season two after replacing Agent Greenaway and quickly became a fan-favorite character due to her quick wit, caring nature, and competency as an agent. Prentiss is an ESFJ, known as a Consul. Consuls are reliable, social people who form many bonds and friendships.

Prentiss was quick to become part of the team when she joined the BAU, forming friendships straight away. Throughout her time on Criminal Minds, Prentiss shows her devotion to the team, being both a shoulder to cry on and a committed protector in the field.

7 Dr. Reid Is A Genius With An INTP Personality

One of the most interesting characters in Criminal Minds is Dr. Spencer Reid, the youngest and most intelligent member of the BAU. At just 23 years old in season 1, Reid had already achieved a B.A. in Philosophy, Sociology, and Psychology, and a Ph.D in Engineering, Chemistry, and Mathematics. He also has an eidetic memory and an IQ of 187. Reid is an INTP, known as the Logicians.

Logicians are brilliant thinkers who pride themselves on their academic intelligence but are also able to think outside the box. INTPs are also very introverted, being able to rely on themselves and their own abilities. Reid demonstrates these personality traits many times in Criminal Minds.

6 The Maternal JJ Is An ISFJ

Jennifer Jareau, known to her friends in the team as JJ, begins Criminal Minds as the team's media liaison. Eventually, she trains to become a profiler, a role that she excels at. JJ is an ISFJ, the personality type known as the Defenders. Defenders are sensitive, caring, and warm, and often found looking out for those around them.

RELATED: Criminal Minds: 10 Best Friendships In The BAU

JJ is a mother and as such, caring for victims during cases, especially children, comes naturally to her. JJ is close with every member of the BAU, being someone who the team knows they can go to for support.

5 Rossi's Accomplishments Make Him An ENTJ

SSA David Rossi is possibly the most driven agent at the BAU. Rossi was one of the founding members of the BAU and rejoins the team in season three, despite having a successful career as an author. Rossi's personality type is ENTJ or the Commander.

ENTJs thrive on their accomplishments and are quick to put their professional and creative visions into action. Rossi strives to succeed in everything he put his mind to, something that shows in his many accomplishments. He even shows his ENTJ personality in his parenting, tempering his strong-willed nature to meet the needs of Joy Struthers, his estranged daughter.

4 Penelope Garcia Is A Beloved ENFP

The personality type ENFP, or The Campaigner, is a vibrant and colorful type. ENFPs are extroverted, imaginative, and have great energy, all of which are qualities seen in the BAU's beloved technical analyst Penelope Garcia. Despite the horrors of her job, Garcia tries her best to remain positive and see the best in the world. She usually maintains her positive mindset by keeping fun, colorful figurines and toys on her desk.

Her vibrant and optimistic nature is seen through her bright and wacky clothing, and she often serves as a light-hearted character in an otherwise dark show. She forms strong relationships with everyone at the BAU and many fans see her as the heart of the team. She is a free spirit who wants to enjoy her life and make the lives of those close to her just a little more positive.

3 Jason Gideon Was A Moral INFJ

Jason Gideon was a founding member of the BAU and a senior agent of the team for the first two seasons of Criminal Minds. Gideon's thoughtful and imaginative approach to life and the cases his team solved make him an INFJ, or an Advocate.

RELATED: 10 Best Criminal Minds Episodes Directed By The Actors

INFJs want to make a difference in the world and find themselves successful in helping others. Gideon was ambitious, morally strong, and had a clear sense of his purpose in life. This made him a brilliant agent and a major asset to the BAU. His lessons and experiences were carried forward with the team even after his tragic death in season ten's Nelson's Sparrow.

2 Dr. Tara Lewis Is An ENFJ

Dr. Tara Lewis is an experienced FBI forensic psychologist who joins the BAU in the twelfth season and remains with the team until the end of Criminal Minds. Lewis's personality type is ENFJ or The Protagonist. ENFJ's are warm, loving, and extroverted, and make it their mission to have a positive impact on those around them.

ENFJs pride themselves on their creativity and optimism, thinking outside the box to solve their problems and assist with the problems of others. Dr. Lewis is passionate about doing the right thing and helping better the lives of the victims in BAU cases.

1 Fellow ESTP Alvez Followed In Morgan's Footsteps

SSA Luke Alvez joins the BAU in the twelfth season when he transfers from a Fugitive Task Force after Derek Morgan resigns from the team. Alvez is a brilliant replacement for Morgan, as they share the personality type of ESTP (The Entrepreneur). Alvez also brings strengths and charisma to the group similar to Derek Morgan, even developing a similar friendship with Penelope Garcia.

Alvez is strong and protective of his team, excelling as a field agent. He is daring and brave, often taking risks that help his team get out of sticky situations. Alvez carves out his path as his own character, rather than just being Morgan's replacement.

Existing personality types of criminals

Typological variants of the personality of criminals are created to help law enforcement agencies in studying this category of people, clarifying the motives of committed crimes, and developing psychological techniques that can be used to expose a criminal.

Developing a typology of persons capable of committing a crime, various approaches are used: legal, social, psychological. Type-forming features can also be different. For example, socio-demographic characteristics are: gender, age, education. nine0003

Typology of the personality of the offender SV Poznyshev

Differentiation of persons who committed crimes was proposed by the outstanding scientist SV Poznyshev. He singled out two types of criminal: endogenous and exogenous. This classification is based on the teachings of A.F. Lazursky, the founder of Russian individual psychology. So, Poznyshev argues that endogenous criminals have special properties that predispose to committing a crime. This includes the qualities of the physical and mental plane, physical, mental abilities, attitudes and beliefs, character traits. External circumstances only give impetus to the manifestation of the psychological constitution of this group of people. Endogenous criminals, in turn, are divided into ideological criminals, reasoners, prudent-rational, emotional, impulsive, moral psychasthenics, etc.

Exogenous criminals commit actions related to the violation of the law, under the influence of external factors that pose a threat. But in most cases, according to Poznyshev, factors of both order are involved in the formation of typological variants of the personality of criminals. Only in one type the leading role belongs to endogenous factors, in the other - to exogenous ones. The professor wrote that not a single crime can be explained only by external causes, the characteristics of the criminal's personality are necessarily manifested. nine0003

Criminal personality types in criminology and criminal psychology

In criminal psychology, criminology, other types of criminal personality were also developed.

There are three large groups of criminals according to the object of encroachment and the nature of criminal acts:

  • mercenary;
  • violent;
  • mercenary-violent.

According to the degree of public danger, types are distinguished:

  • random, which includes individuals who have committed a crime for the first time, as a result of circumstances that turned out to be random. At the same time, the orientation of the personality is socially positive; nine0020
  • situational, which includes persons who committed a crime under the influence of external conditions of personality formation, which were unfavorable. In general, such people are characterized positively;
  • unstable, which includes persons who have committed a crime for the first time, but have previously committed offenses and misdemeanors;
  • malicious, which includes persons who have committed crimes several times;
  • especially dangerous, which includes criminals recognized as especially dangerous for serious crimes committed. nine0020

Another typology was developed by psychologist A.G. Kovalev, which is based on the criterion of the degree of criminal infection of a person. There are three groups: global, partial, pre-criminal types.

Note 1

There are other options for classifying the personality of offenders. For example, on the subjective side, depending on the form of guilt (intentionally, through negligence), according to the results of applying psychological test methods that reveal certain properties of a person’s personality. nine0003

Unlike criminology, criminal law, legal psychology is concerned with the psychological characteristics of antisocial behavior. From this side, social adaptability, adaptability, the level of human social functioning are important.

These factors influence the behavioral aspect of a person in a variety of situations, including criminogenic ones. The main components of a comprehensive personal education determine the subject's relationship with the social environment, his life strategy, behavioral tactics, interpersonal relationships, and ways to resolve conflict situations. There is an assessment of a person's ability to comply with social norms. If the social adaptation of the individual does not occur, human relationships are violated, a conflict arises. nine0003 Note 2

It is especially difficult for people with mental disorders, serious deviations from the average mental norm, and a low level of frustration tolerance to cope with a conflict situation.

Aggressive forms of behavior of people with mental anomalies who resort to violence, acts of vandalism, are explained by the fact that being in a rigid dependence on circumstances, a person is not able to find the best way out of them. This dependence is removed by committing violent acts. Such actions in the subconscious play the role of psychological protection. Studies confirm a high percentage of people with mental anomalies among those convicted of serious crimes: murder, causing grievous bodily harm. nine0003

Depending on the level of social adaptation, two groups are distinguished: socially maladaptive and socially adaptive types of personality with the allocation of intermediate options. The level of social adaptation is determined by the following psychological factors:

  • neuropsychic, emotional and volitional stability of the subject in stressful situations, the level of his tolerance to the impact of frustrating factors;
  • intellectual level of development;
  • sphere of personality motivations: value orientations, the basis of the worldview. nine0020

Psychodiagnostics of a person reveals a combination of these qualitative characteristics. There is an assessment of how the person is socially adapted. The behavior of the subject, his ways of resolving conflict situations are predicted. All this makes it possible to judge how a person can manage the circumstances in which he finds himself.

Socially maladaptive personality type of criminals

This type includes people with low emotional and volitional stability, frustration tolerance, inability to resist stress, with vivid manifestations of accentuated character traits of hyperthymic-unstable, excitable, hysterical and other types, mental anomalies , psychopathic disorders of personality and behavior. nine0003

Undeveloped adaptive social qualities, personal disintegration, low level of empathic understanding of others, immaturity, inadequate perception of the situation, a tendency to externally accusing forms of response can be aggravated by a low level of intellectual development, undeveloped predictive abilities, lack of reflective thinking, significant gaps in education.

Such behavior is also conditioned by primitive needs. The interests, values, worldview of such people are limited, unspiritual. Therefore, it is difficult for them to predict actions, to strive for something more significant, except for the urgent satisfaction of their desires (alcohol, drugs). But these desires cannot always be satisfied; a state of frustration and increased aggressiveness appears out of control. A violent crime is being committed. nine0003 Note 3

Criminologists classify such individuals as the unstable or situational type of offender. Such people often find themselves at the mercy of circumstances that are difficult to manage and are not able to control themselves. They are under the influence of affectively colored states, out of control emotions, anger.

Socially-adaptive personality type of criminals

These people have high stability on the nervous, mental, emotional, volitional level, resist stress, psychophysical overload. They have an asthenic type of response in difficult situations, with characteristic excitability and irritability, developed adaptive properties of the nervous system. They, as a rule, have a well-developed intellect, which allows them to successfully master different ways of committing crimes. People of this type have flexible thinking, ingenuity, pragmatism. They are able to predict future events. To the characteristics of this type, you can add a variety of interests, excellent memory, a high level of attention and imagination. nine0003

This criminal type is distinguished by the presence of motives and values. Such people deliberately ignore the norms of social behavior. Their actions do not follow the rules. They skillfully master criminal experience, apply it in criminal activity. These are professional types of criminals, they become leaders of criminal communities, active participants in group crime.

So, social adaptability, which has a high bar, characterizes persons of a particularly dangerous criminal type. This type of people quickly adapts to the changes taking place in society, and for selfish purposes is able to appropriate material values, derive benefits, and achieve their goals by criminal means. nine0003

The typological properties of criminals are manifested in different ways. Therefore, we can talk about a mixed type. Criminals have different levels of compensatory properties of the psyche, they are at different levels of social adaptation. For example, with weak emotional stability, some individuals, having outstanding mental abilities, are engaged in criminal activities for a long time.

Psychology of a criminal and investigation of crimes.


Educational literature on legal psychology

Antonyan Yu.M., Enikeev M.I., Eminov V.E.

M., 1996.

characteristics of criminal behavior It must be borne in mind that it, like any other behavior is inconsistent. This behavior includes species that, in addition to being common to all negative criminal-legal assessment is not enough are similar to each other. For example, murder significantly different from theft, rape - from the disclosure of military secrets, robbery - from violations of mining safety rules, etc. e. Specificity exists not only in the content the criminal acts themselves, but also in their subjective reasons, which should be noted in first turn. Therefore, it appears that along with the general explanatory scheme of the criminal behavior (which, in our opinion, can be alienation of the individual) is needed in more depth analyze the causes of certain types of such behavior. nine0003

Among certain types of criminal behaviors are most common self-serving and violent. Usually considered to be mercenary crimes are generated by self-interest, and violent - aggressiveness, hooligan motives, revenge and other similar subjective reasons. We have similar explanations appear to be inadequate because they do not an answer to the question why, for example, mercenary incentives appear and are implemented in one person, but the other does not, and why this other resolves life's difficulties in other ways. In addition, selfish motives by themselves cannot be illegal. These can only be ways to achieve goals. nine0003

Explanations given, based on elementary life observations, do not take into account the most complex deep and conflicting, often unconscious, stimuli behavior, do not open "deaf and dark nooks and crannies of the soul. We believe that it should explain criminal behavior in terms of typology of the offender's personality, link types criminal behavior with types of criminals, which can be distinguished according to various signs. General personality of the perpetrator is a social and psychological a type that is different from other personalities. nine0003

Socially typical traits Personalities show up in certain ways. human life. criminal like social personality type is different from representatives of other social types in that he is a public danger. The danger lies in the possibility of harming those public relations protected by the state.

But not only this feature distinguishes criminals from others. Psychological empirical study of a significant group of people, guilty of murder, robbery, theft and other ordinary crimes, showed that they much more than law-abiding Citizens have characteristics such as poor adaptability, alienation, impulsiveness, aggressiveness. They are generally worse. take into account past experience, are poorly able or at all unable to predict the future. nine0003

Thus, in a personal the structure of the criminal as a personality type, there are elements that are psychological prerequisites for criminal behavior. In the spiritual criminal world on the conscious and unconscious levels are found such features that form motives crimes and lead to their implementation. After all no crime is random relation to the personality of the perpetrator: in its it is prepared on the basis of the whole development of its social and psychological properties. Therefore, about personality of the offender as a social type can be speak only in connection with criminal behavior. nine0003

This does not mean that all committed crimes and convicted for it in fully possess the features listed above personality. These traits are typical of the vast majority most criminals, but not necessarily each of them should have.

Specified personality traits unequally expressed in different categories criminals. Conducted by us together with V.P. Golubev and Yu.N. Kudryakov research showed that impulsivity, a tendency act on the first impulse emotions, stuck affect (rigidity), suspiciousness, vindictiveness, hypersensitivity, and aloofness, withdrawing into oneself, striving for maintaining distance between yourself and others world are most characteristic of those responsible for committing robbery and robbery. Rarely these traits found in murderers, rapists, thieves and very rarely - in robbers. nine0003

Since psychological features are actively involved in the formation of the moral character of the individual and motivation for her behavior, it can be argued that criminals are different from non-criminals moral and psychological specificity. Can assume that criminals are not always understand what society expects of them and how they must act in certain situations. They have there are no incentives to comply with social norms. nine0003

Criminological typology identity of the perpetrator helps to identify the causes criminal behavior, and therefore with greater effectively prevent crime. Therefore, ultimately it must to comply with the general tasks of combating crime.

From the analysis of the offender's personality to as a whole as a type, as a carrier of the most general, sustainable social, socio-psychological and individual psychological traits and qualities you can go to the analysis of its varieties. It is through typology that a peculiar model of personality, which is serious will facilitate the solution of a number of practical problems. Correspondence of a specific person to an already created models, i.e. a certain type of personality, will make it possible to make a very reasonable assumption of subjective causes criminal behavior because they are already known as characteristic of this type of personality. For typological reasons, rules can be developed in advance (algorithms) for preventive work with representative of this particular type, to determine tactics of the investigation or individual investigative action in the event of a criminal case. nine0003

We can say that the practical the meaning of typology of the offender's personality is the ability to differentiate preventive and punitive-educational impact, solve some investigative tasks. Knowledge of the typology of the offender gives ability to identify and analyze individual types of criminal behavior, allows you to explain this behavior is the features of this type personality.

There are several typological schemes of the offender's personality. Let's take a look at some of them. nine0129 By signs antisocial orientation behavior in the basis of personality typology is its relationship to different social values.

1. Negative derogatory attitude to the individual and his most important benefits: life, health, bodily integrity, honor, dignity, tranquility, etc. attitude lies at the heart of intentional aggressive and violent crimes - murder, bodily injury, rape, insults, etc., as well as most cases hooliganism. nine0003

2. Selfish-private property tendencies , associated with disregard for the principle distribution of wealth according to work, rights state property and private property of citizens. This is typical for theft, theft, fraud, bribery, speculation and other mercenary crimes.

3. Individualistic attitude to various social regulations and regulations, to general civil, work, family and other responsibilities. These antisocial traits committing a number of economic crimes, crimes against the order of government, justice, military crimes, etc.

4. Frivolous and irresponsible attitude to established social values ​​and duties towards them, manifested in various reckless crimes.

Based on this classification relations, the following types of criminals are identified:

  • "Random" - first offender, contrary to the general socially positive direction, characterized by all prior moral behavior. nine0020
  • "Situational" - committed a crime under the influence unfavorable for the criminal external situation with a general socially positive orientation.
  • Unsteady - committed a crime for the first time, but which previously allowed various offenses and immorality.
  • "Malignant" - repeatedly committed dangerous crimes, including previous convictions.
  • "Hazardous" - repeatedly committed dangerous crimes, including those specifically recognized dangerous recidivist.

Types shown in diagrams the identity of the offender is associated with crimes and with his attitude to various social values. These schemes can also have practical value, e.g. for classification crimes and convicts. However, they, on In our opinion, some clarifications are needed. nine0003

First of all doubtful the existence of a "random" criminal, about which will be discussed in detail below. Besides, negative attitude towards certain values does not mean that a person will the crime. About the negative attitude as a rule, they are judged when some actions, revealing this relationship have already been completed. Can reasonable to assume that the same subjective reason (in this case attitude) capable of generating various actions, as well as and different causes can cause very similar behavior. In general, attention focuses on internal causes crimes. nine0003

According to the degree of public dangers of personality and its criminogenic activity We propose to distinguish the following types of criminals:

1. "Especially dangerous" ("active antisocial") - repeatedly convicted recidivists, stable whose criminal behavior is active opposition to society and its values. AT first of all, these are criminals, constantly committing theft, robbery, robbery, hooligan acts and serious crimes against the person. Among them, noteworthy professional criminals for whom crimes are the only or main source of livelihood (for example, apartment and pickpocket thieves). They are sometimes merged with large robbers, helping them with transportation and marketing kidnapped, guarding them personally, etc., which creates organized crime. Favorable for committing crimes they actively create situations themselves. nine0003

This should also include large embezzlers of property, large bribe-takers, committing such crimes for a long time.

2. "Desocialized dangerous" ("passive asocial") - declassed individuals dropped out of the system normal communication, long time leading parasitic, often homeless, existence. Basically, these are people who vagrancy, begging, parasites, many of them have been repeatedly convicted and are alcoholics. They commit and self-serving crimes, but, as a rule, petty, for ensuring its antisocial existence and especially the acquisition of liquor drinks. Unlike "especially dangerous" criminals these individuals are mostly passive: situations for committing offenses themselves usually they do not create, but use folding ones. But, like "especially dangerous" criminals, representatives of this type are stable in their illegal behaviour. nine0003

3. "Unstable " - persons with a partial criminogenic charged and committing crimes (sometimes more than once) not due to persistent antisocial installations, but due to inclusion in such groups, whose lifestyle is on the verge of social acceptable and antisocial. Most common representatives of this type are offenders who commit while intoxicated petty theft and theft, hooliganism, less often - robberies, robberies, some violent crimes. With a significant change life circumstances for the better side and effective educational impact they are able to refrain from illegal actions. nine0003

4. "Situational" - persons whose public danger is expressed in behavior is insignificant. crimes committed by them not because situations have crucial. The point is that because of their psychological features they fall into rigid dependence on the situation, not finding socially acceptable way to resolve it. To the number of "situational" includes many violent criminals, as well as those committed acquisitive crimes subjectively difficult life circumstances, such as material difficulties. nine0003

Of course, this typology, like others, is conditional, and, apparently, not every criminal can be without hesitation assigned to one type or another. Can be found representatives of mixed, intermediate groups.

Other available typologies criminals are more descriptive than explanatory character. As an example Here is a typology of robbers developed by V. G. Tanasevich. nine0003

He assigned to the first group criminals with pronounced antisocial orientation , with extremely developed egoistic inclinations, indifference to public interests. In this group stand out: robber-dealer with active antisocial attitude; recidivist plunderer who turned theft into main source of income; robber - "rogue" considering property as a source of personal well-being. nine0003

The second group consists of persons committing theft in the absence of express antisocial tendencies as a result unfavorable situations, life difficulties .

Typological schemes such as especially in relation to mercenary criminals, many can be cited, but they are still in insufficient degree of explanatory functions.

How to achieve an explanatory level, what to put in the basis of the typology in order to uncovering the causes of criminal behavior in relation to certain types of criminals and criminal behavior? In light of this, the answer there can only be one: that which is subjective, internal reason for committing crimes. This does not mean ignoring other, external factors contributing to criminal behavior, whose role in the mechanism such behavior can be great. But if soon we are talking about the identity of the criminal, we need typology of personality. nine0003

Main stimulus, cause human behavior is a motive. It is in it reflected what the action is for, than their personal meaning for the subject. In motive needs and interests are identified formed under the influence of drives and emotions, attitudes and ideals. In the course of their satisfaction motives can change and enrich. Behavior a person is usually polymotivated, i.e. determined by a number of motives, but they are not are equivalent. Some are leading, basic, others act as complementary. Personality is most reflected in the motive, and therefore the assertion is true that it is motive for her behaviour. nine0003

Motive is a subjective phenomenon, associated with individual characteristics and personal attitudes, but at the same time including its socio-psychological traits. The results of modern criminological studies do not suggest that there is specific motives for criminal behavior In any case, the vast majority of motives crimes are not and can trigger other actions. It all depends on moral personality traits that predetermine choice of goal and means to achieve it. Main the mass of motives is, as it were, neutral; exception are those that are aimed at the implementation physiological need for alcohol or drugs. Therefore, the assessment of motives by moral criteria is not always acceptable. nine0003

We believe that the basis typologies of criminals should be put motives for their criminal actions. Separate attempts (only separate!) creations such a typology has already been undertaken. Yes, among violent criminals (committing violent actions) on motivational features are proposed to highlight, for example, people of older age groups (over 40 years old), which are characterized by motives of jealousy, as well as young people (from 18 to 29years old), whose crimes are based on motives revenge, coupled with needs self-affirmation in the family, in the absence of long-term hostile relationship between them and victims.

Now let's give a typology personalities of mercenary criminals (committing mercenary, property crimes), created according to motivational criteria, and then Let's try to answer the question whether it is possible to the same criteria to create a single typology for all criminals. Comparison of completely different the nature of the crimes, as it were, suggests the answer to the question posed. nine0003

So, mercenary criminals . Among them, we have identified the following types:

1. "Approved" ("self-asserting") type, to it refer persons, the meaning of criminal behavior which is the assertion of oneself, one's own personality on social, socio-psychological or individual levels. Of course, there is also selfish motive, which acts as parallel, concomitant, mostly cases are equivalent. Thus, there is polymotivation, while the selfish motive is not intertwined with self-affirmation, prestigious considerations, the assertion of its authority. Self-affirming, a person seeks to feel himself source of change in the environment. it aspiration is a guiding principle permeating various motives. nine0003

It is very important to note that possession, disposal of the abducted act in as a means of asserting one's identity, one's "I". This is especially clear in criminal actions of young people if they take possession of prestigious things or means to purchase them.

Approval motive for socio-psychological level, for example, may occur when a teenager commits stealing or participating in group hooligan actions in order to be accepted into a certain informal group. nine0003

2. "maladaptive" (or "asocial") type includes persons who have impaired social adaptation, i.e. adaptability to the conditions of the social environment. These criminals are anti-social, often homeless lifestyle, turned off from normal connections and relationships, many of them are vagabonds and alcoholics. They do like usually insignificant in value of the stolen theft and embezzlement. Obtained by criminal means property and money are used to maintain their way of life, usually associated with the use of alcoholic beverages. Many of them previously had a criminal record, do not have a permanent place residence, residence permit, passport or other documents. Naturally, they are usually nowhere work, do not have a family; connections with loved ones relatives are absent, friends, as a rule, They dont have. They seem to go with the flow, usually indifferent to their fate, do not think about the future. nine0003

This maladaptive behavior lies a complete personal uncertainty. They don't have a stable self-image, and they do not strive for it acquisition. All their behavior is due unconscious desire to avoid identification (similarity) with another person; group, the social environment as a whole, entry into her. Thus, the meaning of their maladaptive behavior is the fear of social identification and acquisition of personal certainty. This certainty is formed only in the process of active social communication, taking on roles, playing them and meeting the requirements of the environment in which it is included human. Through the evaluations of other people in the process of communicating with them, participating in joint activities through identification is formed self-esteem, self-image and thus personal certainty. The person who has such a quality is formed, he knows that he can and should do. nine0003

Maladaptive selfish criminals avoid being included in social interactions due to their unconscious tendencies to deny one's own social identity, any socio-psychological stability. Them social contacts are superficial, if they get a job, then for a long time at it delay, avoid any commitment, etc. e. In other words, they strive to live as if outside of society, outside of social activity, fencing off any penetration into them inner world. nine0003

Usually maladaptive individuals do not have legitimate sources of funds for existence; theft and other property crimes give them these means. Based Therefore, we believe that if the current tendencies of alienation in the family and its disorganization, the number of maladaptive criminals will increase. This will also be facilitated by the fact that during the transition to market relations and privatization of enterprises skilled workers will be out of work. Therefore, unless special measures are taken, some of the workers will be thrown out from normal life. nine0003

3. "Alcohol" type very close to "maladaptive", but does not merge with him. The criterion for selecting this type is the commission of acquisitive crimes for the sake of obtaining funds for the purchase of alcohol drinks. Among its representatives are mainly those who constantly abuse such drink or are alcoholic. For the selfish criminals of the "alcoholic" type are characteristic significant personality changes, especially her motivational-required sphere, alcohol becomes the meaning-forming motive of their behavior, the measure of all values ​​and relationships. As addiction to alcohol grows, this motive acquires in the structure of personality more and more dominant place, subjugating all others motives. As a result, motivational completely rebuilt. Family, work, friends - all this takes on a different meaning, related with them, motives lose their former motivation strength. nine0003

The social circle is also changing, which mainly begins to be implemented in groups antisocial behavior, which reinforces and exacerbates maladaptation, isolation of a person from normal connections and relationships.

Acquisition crimes, committed by thieves and thieves of alcohol type, usually do not differ in increased public danger. Most often these are small theft or petty theft at work satisfaction of the need for alcoholic beverages. Crimes are committed by them primitive ways, usually not prepared in advance, not measures are being taken to eliminate traces, and stolen most often immediately come true. nine0003

4. Play type personality of mercenary criminals is very complicated with psychological point of view. Meanwhile, he quite common among criminals, and especially among thieves: remember Shura Balaganov from "The Golden Calf" by I. Ilf and E. Petrov, many heroes of picaresque novels.

Representatives of the "playing" type characterized by a constant need for risk, the search for thrills associated with danger, inclusion in emotionally exciting situations, willingness to participate in various transactions, unexpected contacts, etc. Selfish motives usually work along with "gaming", since for them it is the same significant as material benefits as a result of committing crimes, and those emotional experiences associated with the process itself criminal behaviour. The last circumstance distinguishes them significantly from representatives of other types, i.e. for them psychologically very important is the emotional the process of such actions. Moreover, we met cases when this process even played the lead, motivating role, and the rest of the incentives, as it were, relegated to the background, which is especially typical for teenagers. Many of they seek thereby to attract Attention. nine0003

Of course, the propensity to play and "game" motivation is inherent not only criminals. There are many types risky activities, emotional exciting situations, etc., for example, climbers, race car drivers, stuntmen, representatives of other professions whose work poses a certain risk. Necessary to believe that those who individually predisposed to it and has relevant abilities. Choice same illegal or law-abiding form implementation of the "gaming" trend depends on personality formation, its upbringing. nine0003

5. "Family" type mercenary criminals; it stands out due to that huge, including stimulating, role, played by the family. This type is usually found among robbers and bribe-takers and extremely rare among the perpetrators of theft. His representatives are characterized by the fact that theft done not so much for oneself as to achieve the necessary, in their opinion and opinion of people close and significant to them, the level provision of material and spiritual wealth family and its individual members. In some cases the interests of the criminal himself are not at all are taken into account and it even leads ascetic lifestyle. Many are so selfish criminals at work are characterized by a very positively and, of course, very attached to family, especially children. nine0003

"Family" motivation is very typical, for example, for those women who steal the property entrusted to them for the sake of children, husband, and often acquaintances of men, in particular in to purchase alcoholic beverages for them. Frequent combinations in one person of representatives "family" and "asserting" types, i.e. the same person steals from selfish motives, self-affirmation motives (approvals) and to provide for the family. nine0003

Among other categories criminals can be found some of listed types. So, among the killers there are (and often) persons who have committed such dangerous crimes based on self-assertion (remember Raskolnikov from the novel by F.M. Dostoevsky "Crime and Punishment"). it gives reason to single them out as independent type. Based on the assertion self in the eyes of others and self-affirmation often rape is committed, for example, in order to to establish their authority among teenage peers who organized for gang rape, or assert yourself, confirm your biological status as a man in own eyes. nine0003

Representatives of the "playing" type criminals and the corresponding type of behavior relatively rare among murderers, more often - among robbers, robbers, hooligans and guilty of rape. Among the latter is faces of the so-called passive-gaming type, passive because (often unconsciously) the game is started by women, by their behavior creating the appearance of the possibility of entry with them into sexual intercourse. nine0003

They do not understand the essence situations that have arisen and the actual attitude towards them future victims, enter into such relationships that we call a game. Eventually, to break their resistance, criminals use violence. The experience of studying similar criminals shows that significant most of them sincerely believe that women agreed to everything, and therefore they did not than not guilty. nine0003

Personality and behavior research perpetrators of rape convinces also that that among them quite often there are persons, which, due to debility, dementia (less often - physical deformities or other physical shortcomings) unable to install normal sexual relations with women. They essentially reject them, sometimes subjected to contempt and ridicule. Besides debility prevents the assimilation of moral norms governing communication between the sexes. Therefore, deprived of the opportunity to socially acceptable way to satisfy their sexual needs, such criminals resort to violence. All this gives reason to distinguish among rapists "rejected" type, not encountered among other offenders. Of course moronic personalities can be found among most categories of general criminal criminals, but these are only isolated cases, not giving grounds to form from them independent type. Among those responsible for rapes are much more common. nine0003

What has been said leads to the conclusion that it is impossible to create a typology personality and behavior of all criminals in depending on the motives of their criminal actions. As for typologies according to other criteria, then construct them completely possible, although, as we noted above, they have much less explanatory opportunities. Of course, certain types, and first of all "asserting" ("self-affirming"), there are practically among any groups of criminals identified by the nature of the crimes committed. However, criminal behavior in general is, in our opinion opinion, the single and main source is alienation personality, the foundations of which are laid through its psychological, emotional rejection in childhood, deprivation of care and care. nine0003

Typology of criminals can developed not only to explain the reasons criminal behavior, although it appears the most important. Typological groupings criminals and crimes can be created and for other practical needs of combating crime, for example, to organize work for their correction and re-education, development issues of differentiation of criminal responsibility, etc. But we do not accidentally noted the paramount importance of explanations of the reasons for the commission of crimes. Even in the process of corrective labor activity convicted cannot be ignored the reasons their crimes in each particular case.

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