Book about 4 personality types
10 Enlightening Books On Personality Types
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Everyone and their cousin is talking about personality theory on Tumblr and Pinterest, which is why it’s easy to write it off as just another pop psychology fad. While learning personality theory certainly isn’t for everyone, many individuals, businesses, and communities have benefited greatly from exploring this approach to understanding themselves and the people around them. If you think you’re one of those people, here are ten excellent books on personality types that give a broad overview of some of the most popular personality theories.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator or MBTI is personality test that sorts people into one of sixteen types. Each type is a combination of four letters: E for extrovert or I for introvert, S for sensor or N for intuitive, F for feeler or T for thinker, and P for perceiver or J for judger. This theory, created by Katherine Cook Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers, is based on Jung’s cognitive functions theory. There are a few different interpretations of the theory out there, each coming from a different angle.
You can take the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator here. The test or a variation of it is included in all of the books below as well. You can also find more Myers-Briggs books here.What Type Am I? Discover Who You Really Are by Renee Baron
At 171 pages long, this is an excellent introduction the basics of Myers-Briggs theory. It’s simple and easy to understand, and might give you a better idea of whether or not you want to delve deeper into Myers-Briggs study.
Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type by Isabel Briggs Myers and Peter B. Myers
The original Myers-Briggs manual, this book gives a detailed outline of the theory (both the four letters and the cognitive functions behind them) and explains how a person’s type impacts them and others around them at home, work, and in romance.
Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, Intelligence by David Keirsey
Keirsey took the Myers-Briggs theory and categorized the personality types into four groups of four–the Guardians (ISTJ, ESTJ, ESFJ, and ISFJ), the Artisans (ISFP, ESFP, ESTP, and ISTP), the Idealists (INFP, ENFP, ENFJ, and INFJ), and the Rationals (INTJ, ENTJ, ENTP, and INTP). Keirsey’s theory focuses heavily on type behavior, whereas Myers-Briggs delves a little bit deeper into why people of a certain personality type behave a certain way.Personality Type by Lenore Thomson
If Keirsey examines behavior and Myers-Briggs reveals some of the mindset behind the behavior, this lengthy exploration of the cognitive functions delves even deeper into the core ways that each type absorbs information, forms patterns, and communicates with the outside world. To explain the cognitive function theory, there are eight functions and each personality type consists of four functions in a specific order, known as a stack. A stack will contain Extroverted Intuition (Ne) or Introverted Intuition (Ni), Extroverted Sensing (Se) or Introverted Sensing (Si), Extroverted Feeling (Fe) or Introverted Feeling (Fi), and Extroverted Thinking (Te) or Introverted Thinking (Ti). For example, the ENFP’s function stack is Ne, Fi, Te, Si. Remember when scientists discovered a second layer of information embedded in DNA? Discovering the cognitive functions is a lot like that. The four letters give you a ton of information, but the cognitive functions bring everything to a whole new level.
The Enneagram is an ancient personality typing system that originated with the Desert Fathers or the Sufis, depending on who you ask. Needless to say, it’s really, really old and based on some pretty esoteric mysticism. Because of this, and the fact that there has only been one psychological study on it to date, it’s a lot less accepted than Myers-Briggs. It took me (rational 5w4 that I am) a long time to come around to the idea that there might actually be something there, but once I did, like many, it opened up a whole new world of understanding to me.
If Myers-Briggs gives insight into your greatest strengths, the Enneagram exposes your greatest weaknesses, which is one of the reasons why this personality typing system is a) not as fun and b) has a tendency to turn people off. This is probably the most complicated personality theory out there, so I will stick a very basic explanation: there are nine types. Each type has a core fear and core desire that drives them. For example, type eight, The Challenger, has a basic fear of being harmed or controlled by others and a basic desire to protect themselves and to be in control of their own life and destiny.
You can take the Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator here. You can also purchase the indicator in book format here.The Enneagram Made Easy: Discover the 9 Types of People by Elizabeth Wagele and Renee Baron
This is an easily digestible, very basic introduction to the Enneagram and a good place for most people to start. I will add a caveat: for some a simple introduction to such a complex typing system is not enough and can seem reductionist, so use discretion. Also, identifying your Enneagram type is often much more difficult than identifying your Myers-Briggs type, so I recommend taking the official Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator instead of the one in this book.Personality Types: Using the Enneagram for Self-Discovery by Don Richard Riso and Russ Hudson
At over five hundred pages, this is one of the most in-depth books on the Enneagram. It explains what each type looks like at various levels of emotional health and explores all the nuances of the Enneagram, including wings (secondary personality types).
The Wisdom of the Enneagram: The Complete Guide to Psychological and Spiritual Growth for the Nine Personality Types by Don Richard Riso and Russ Hudson
While Personality Types provides an in-depth exploration of the nine types, this book explains how that information can be used to further psychological and spiritual growth in the individual. This book also includes an accurate version of the type indicator.
Big Five Books
The Big Five theory posits that there are five personality traits–Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism–and the degree to which you embody these traits determines your personality.
There are various versions of the Big Five questionnaire online. You can take one here.Personality: What Makes You the Way You Are by Daniel Nettle
This book provides a solid overview of the Big Five theory and contains the Newcastle Personality Assessor to help you determine where you fall on the scale of each of the five traits.
Biological Personality Theories
Myers-Briggs, the Enneagram, and The Big Five are all theories that explore personality type as a combination of nature and nurture. In recent years some scientists have been busy exploring the biology behind personality development. Below are books on two of the most compelling theories to result from this study.Why Him? Why Her?: How to Find and Keep Lasting Love by Helen Fisher, Ph.D.
Helen Fisher, a biological anthropologist, developed the theory that there are four core personality types determined by the brain’s exposure to certain hormones and neurotransmitters in utero. Explorers are driven by dopamine, Negotiators by estrogen, Directors by testosterone, and Builders by serotonin. This book focuses on how understanding this typology system can impact love and romance, but it extends beyond that as well. Chapters four through seven contain descriptions of each type. You can take the assessment in the book or online here.Top Brain, Bottom Brain: Harnessing the Power of the Four Cognitive Modes by Stephen M. Kosslyn, Ph.D. and G. Wayne Miller
Stephen Kosslyn, a former psychology professor at both Harvard and Stanford, dismantles the outmoded left brain/right brain theory and posits that a more accurate way of dividing the brain is top and bottom. Similarly to Helen Fisher, he then used that understanding to come up with four cognitive modes–Mover Mode, Perceiver Mode, Stimulator Mode, and Adaptor Mode–and posits that your dominant cognitive mode is a result of how the top and bottom parts of your brain interact. You can take the test here.
Surrounded by Idiots: The 4 Colors and Their Traits
What are the traits of Thomas Erikson’s four personality colors? What are the negative perceptions of each color?
In the book Surrounded by Idiots, colors are used to break down the most common personalities into four categories: Red, Yellow, Green, and Blue. Red and Yellow personalities are considered to be extroverted, while the Green and Blue personalities are introverted.
Here’s a breakdown of the four colors and the negative perceptions of each.
In Surrounded by Idiots, colors are used to describe the four personality types: Red, Yellow, Green, and Blue. Throughout the text, he refers to people by personality type as Red people, Yellow people, and so on. Erikson’s color model is based on the DISC personality-type model, which categorizes people as Dominant, Inspiring, Stable, or Compliant. He explains that he chose to use colors instead of the DISC terms because they are easier to understand, connect to, and remember. Here’s how the two models compare:
|The Psychology of Color|
Erikson explains that he chose to use colors instead of the DISC terms for ease of understanding, but he doesn’t explain why he chose the colors that he did, or how he assigned them. One field of psychology specifically studies the effect of color on our bodies and minds. The research is highly anecdotal, but enough patterns have emerged that psychologists believe there are some universal truths when it comes to color psychology.
Red: One study found a link between the perception of dominance, the color red, and testosterone. The participants (all men) who chose to wear red during a competitive event were determined to have higher levels of testosterone than the participants who chose to wear blue. In a questionnaire, the participants who chose red wrote that they associated the color with dominance and aggression, which they believed would help them in the competition.
Yellow: Color psychology says that people associate yellow with optimism, energy, and warmth—very likely due to our relationship with the sun. It has also been shown to cause feelings of frustration and overwhelm when overdone.
Green: Green often brings to mind images of nature, which tend to have a calming effect. Green has long been a symbol of fertility and new life because of its connection to spring. Green environments have both water and sunshine, so it is perceived as a safe and nurturing color, where living things will thrive.
Blue: Most people associate blue with water, which explains why it brings feelings of serenity and reliability. Unlike plant life, water doesn’t change colors through the seasons; it is always the color you expect it to be. Blue is perceived as conservative and safe, but cold.
Negative Perceptions of Each Color
This section discusses what others perceive to be weaknesses of each color, or personality type.
Negative Perceptions of Red Personality Types
Overbearing: Red personality types like to be in charge, so if there is a decision to be made, it will be their way or the highway. As a result, Erikson says those working with Red personalities often feel controlled and resent the lack of autonomy.
(Shortform note: There is a theory that the desire to control others begins with “conditioned helplessness” in childhood. A child who isn’t taught to solve problems herself and is instead catered to by her caregivers is likely to grow into an adult who demands more of the same. In these cases, bossing other people around keeps anxiety and low self-efficacy at bay.)
Insensitive: Erikson asserts that this personality type avoids long conversations unless they’re truly interested in the topic, and they’re not subtle when expressing boredom. Most people perceive this behavior as cold-hearted and rude.
(Shortform note: In The Fine Art of Small Talk, Debra Fine gives advice for how to gracefully end a conversation. Rather than ending it abruptly, as the Red personality is inclined to do, Fine recommends you thank or compliment the person, give a reason for your departure, and then follow through with the excuse.)
Negative Perceptions of Yellow Personality Types
Overly talkative: Erikson says Yellow personality types tend to dominate every conversation, and other personality types struggle to get a word in edgewise. Erikson says the other colors (especially the introverted Blue personalities) quickly grow tired of listening to the nonstop talking.
(Shortform note: If you worry that you dominate conversations, try using the traffic light rule: In the first 30 seconds of speaking, you have a green light (your listener’s attention). In the following 30 seconds, you have a yellow light (you may or may not have your listener’s attention). After one minute of speaking, imagine you have hit a red light—stop and give your listener a chance to speak.)
Scatterbrained: Erikson says that this personality type starts a lot of projects that they don’t finish and they tend to have their own organizational systems that others can’t understand. Yellow personalities are often late and they frequently forget deadlines and appointments. For all of these reasons, others perceive them to be scatterbrained.
(Shortform note: Although a Yellow personality type’s chaos may be off-putting, recent studies connect clutter with creativity. In one experiment, participants were divided into two groups and asked to come up with new uses for a ping pong ball. The group that worked in a messy room came up with more innovative ideas for the ping pong ball than did the group that worked in a clean room, leading researchers to believe that disorganized environments benefit the creative process.)
Negative Perceptions of Greens
Lazy: Erikson says that Green personality types take their time mulling over decisions, they prefer to stay home over going out, and they aren’t particularly ambitious. This personality is the least motivated to move, literally and figuratively. This leads the other personality types to characterize them as lazy.
(Shortform note: The correlation between stillness and laziness is an American sentiment not shared by all cultures. Americans are often characterized by other nations as ambitious workaholics who don’t know how to relax. Other countries encourage and celebrate leisure. Italy, for example, has a well-known phrase: bel far niente—“the beauty of doing nothing.”)
Two-Faced: Erikson emphasizes that this personality type avoids conflict like the plague. They care deeply about how others perceive them, so they’re careful not to rock the boat. Erikson notes that this doesn’t mean that Green personalities don’t have opinions of their own. Rather, instead of communicating their grievances directly, they often complain behind the other person’s back.
(Shortform note: If you discover that a coworker has been complaining about you behind your back, start by asking yourself if you contributed to this behavior. Was there something you did or said that made you unapproachable? Confront the person in a straightforward manner but with empathy, ask why he felt he couldn’t come to you directly, and then listen without judgment.)
Negative Perceptions of Blues
Cold-Hearted: Blue personality types like to have space—physically and emotionally. They tend to keep their social circles small, and they prefer to spend time alone or with their families. Their body language is closed off and they don’t do small talk. For these reasons, others often perceive people with this personality to be cold and emotionless.
(Shortform note: “Avoidant attachment” is a term psychologists use to describe people who either avoid relationships or keep their partners at arm’s length. There is an important distinction, however, between avoidant attachment and the personality trait Erikson describes here. One is closed off until she forms a deeper relationship, and the other is closed off within her deepest relationships—often as the result of unresolved childhood trauma. )
Negative: Blue personalities are quick to identify problems but rarely offer solutions (that’s Red and Yellow personalities’ territory). This behavior can drag down morale, but Erikson says people with Blue personality types believe they’re being helpful.
(Shortform note: There’s an adage in business: “Don’t bring me problems, bring me solutions.” Intended to avoid toxic complaining, “solution-only thinking” actually stifles cooperative problem-solving and intimidates employees into not bringing up an issue until it’s a crisis.)
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This section presents the top best books and audiobooks on the topic "Personality Types". A complete list of 75 popular books and audiobooks on the topic, ratings and reader reviews. Read books or listen online on the site, download the application for iOS or Android, so as not to part with your favorite books even without the Internet. nine0003
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Your personality type. 5 books that will help you understand who you are and who surrounds you
Classification by personality type is one of the main techniques used by psychologists to describe the differences between people. Psychological typology (from the Greek topos - imprint, form, pattern) is a system of personal attitudes and stereotypes of behavior created to describe and explain such differences.
Are you surprised by someone's habits? Someone is unpleasant with an explosive character, or, on the contrary, seems to be mumbling? If so, do not rush to pass judgment, because there is a key to understanding such different, and similar, and completely different people from you. This key is already in the lock, just waiting for you to turn it, rediscovering those around you. nine0003
How to better understand who is next to you, with whom you have to work together, neighbor, live? How to find the right approach, choose the most effective behavior in this or that critical situation? It turns out that for half a century there has been a science that has developed principles for classifying people into personality types, based on an analysis of their preferences in life. With proper use, it helps to correct relationships both at work and at home. Thanks to the scientific approach, it became possible, for example, to competently staff groups of people, thus increasing labor productivity, that is, to form a normal, healthy, productively working team, which is very important for any production process. nine0003
Everyone can use the materials provided by the typology, you just need to arm yourself with patience and attention.
In this article we would like to present you with books that will help you to determine both your own personality type and the personality types of those around you. With this information, you will be able to build a model of the most effective behavior in society, which unambiguously contributes to productive work and to success .
Use the experience of well-known experts to achieve maximum results from yourself and others.
5 books that will help you understand who you are and who surrounds you:
1. Janet Tewson, Otto Kroeger. Types of people and business. How 16 Personality Types Determine Your Success at Work
This book introduces you to the basics of Type Science. It helps to understand your own characteristics and preferences and navigate how to apply them correctly in different areas of business. The authors reveal the secrets of the sixteen main personality types, describing in detail their strengths and weaknesses when performing certain jobs. For a wide range of readers. nine0003
2. Janet Tewson, Otto Kroeger. Types of people: 16 personality types that determine how we live, work and love
The book, intended for a wide range of readers, will help you understand yourself, better understand the motives of your own actions, and learn how to manage yourself. In addition, it will help you understand and accept other people as they are, taking into account their characteristics, learn to see the advantages of their qualities, and understand, accept and respect what is necessary for success in any business. nine0003
3. Ilya Shchegolev. 16 Personality Types – 16 Handwriting Types
The book by Ilya Shchegolev introduces the basics of typology, reveals the main characteristic features inherent in representatives of different personality types, as well as their influence on handwriting. The author makes it possible to use the knowledge of the secrets of graphology in practice and create a more accurate picture of the perception and understanding of both oneself and the people around.
4. Paul Tiger. Do what you were born to do
The book is intended to help in determining the ways of self-realization. Filled with real-life examples, it's written in an accessible and easy-to-understand manner. The book helps to determine your own personality type and determine the most suitable activities in which it is possible to open up as successfully and with pleasure as possible. For a wide range of readers. nine0003
5. Daryl Sharp. Personality types. Jungian Typological Model
In his book, Daryl Sharp attempts to explain the model of psychological personality types developed and described by Carl Gustav Jung. The author considers it as a method that allows you to understand yourself and other people and helps to avoid difficulties in relationships. The publication reveals the complexity and diversity of practical application of the model under study. For a wide range of readers.
The ability to understand people is an important skill, but it is not enough to achieve success in life.