5 stages of change theory

The 5 Stages of Change and the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) — Do You Know the Basics? — R1 Learning

Teaching others to learn and apply the fundamentals of behavioral health evidence-based theories and best practices is why R1 Learning exists. Our mission is to curate the most impactful work from experts in the field and put them into the hands of practitioners (clinicians, counselors, coaches, and educators) at all levels of knowledge, skills, and experience, and increase their effectiveness. Our goal is also to put these same theories and tools into the hands of individuals in treatment and recovery so that they can understand them more quickly and concretely, and empower them to change toward healthier behavior. Stages of Change was the first topic we identified for the R1 Learning System. It was our first Discovery Cards Deck and Group Kit thanks to the gracious support and review by Drs. Prochaska (James and Janice) and DiClemente (Carlo). It is a fundamental body of knowledge and one that we think will stand the test of time for decades to come. Our goal for today’s post is that you will walk away with the fundamentals of the Stages of Change and be able to apply it in your next one-on-one or group session. Let’s start with the basics… what is change?

Change — the act or process of transforming, shifting, or becoming different in nature

Change is one of the most difficult behavioral processes. Why and how do people change? What is the role of motivation in the change process? Extensive research has been conducted to answer such questions.

The Change Process. Research has noted that change is a process. Change is rarely a single moment in time. It occurs
over time. It has stages and processes. To better understand and illustrate how change occurs, researchers often develop
models and theories. A pair of researchers — Drs. James Prochaska and Carlo DiClemente — closely examined theories about how people change. They also developed a model based on the body of work they studied. Because their model emerged from reviewing multiple psychological and behavioral theories about how change occurs, they described their biopsychosocial framework for understanding addiction as “transtheoretical.” Their Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of Change explains that the change process is a sequence of stages through which people progress as they consider, start, and maintain new behaviors. Drs. Prochaska and DiClemente refer to the Stages of Change Model as a way of illustrating the change process, understanding what stage individuals are progressing through, and identifying strategies that enhance individuals’ motivation to progress to the next stage.

The TTM, and particularly the Stages of Change Model, is one of the leading models in behavioral health and has been applied to many different behavioral health issues beyond its original focus in smoking cessation. Because of the TTM’s focus on the behavioral change processes, it is well suited to the treatment of habitual and addictive behaviors. It has been successfully applied to addiction and substance use disorders. There have been countless books, articles, and evidence-based research studies on the Stages of Change. Its research base and application are so extensive that it has been a challenge to distill it to its simplest form for this post and for application with the Discovery Cards. Our objective is to give you the basics of the TTM and encourage you to seek out more information from the reference list included at the end of this post as well as other sources. We hope you will leverage what we provide below, explore the referenced resources, and add it as a model and tool for your work with individuals.

The Transtheoretical Model — Drs. Prochaska & DiClemente

Copyright 2020 R1 LLC

The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) is an integrative, biopsychosocial model used to conceptualize the process of intentional behavior change — that is, an individual’s readiness to act on new, healthier behavior. Whereas other models of behavior change focus on just one dimension of change (for example, they focus mainly on social factors, or psychological issues, or physical aspects), the TTM combines the most effective components from other theories into a comprehensive model of change. Its name spells out what it is: the prefix trans means across, and theoretical means concerned with the theory of a subject or area of study — hence, the term transtheoretical. The TTM has been applied successfully in a variety of behaviors, populations, and settings. The following four constructs of the TTM are required for progress toward recovery:

  1. Stages of Change — the progression of stages through which individuals pass as they modify their behavior

  2. Processes of Change — strategies to help individuals make and maintain change — the “how” of change

  3. Decisional Balance — a growing awareness that the advantages (the “pros”) of changing outweigh the disadvantages (the “cons”)

  4. Self-efficacy — confidence that one can make and maintain changes in situations that could trigger a return to previous unhealthy behaviors

We will briefly describe each of these four constructs of the TTM in more detail below:

1. Stages of Change Defined

The TTM recognizes change as a process that unfolds over time, involving progress through a series of stages. According to the TTM, individuals move through a series of five stages — precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance — in the adoption of healthy behaviors or the cessation of unhealthy ones. These stages are defined below. While progression through the stages of change can occur in a linear fashion, a nonlinear progression is common. Often, individuals recycle through the stages or regress to earlier stages from later ones. Although the time a person stays in each stage is variable, the tasks required to move to the next stage are not. Certain principles and processes of change come into play at each stage to reduce resistance, facilitate progress, and prevent relapse. Those principles include processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy (more on these below). Only a minority (usually less than 20%) of at-risk individuals are prepared to take action toward change at any given time. As a result, action-oriented guidance can miss serve individuals in the early stages, as they may not be ready to take action. At each Stage of Change, there are specific intervention strategies that are most effective at helping the individual move to the next stage of change and subsequently through the model to the Maintenance Stage, which is the goal.

Individuals in the Precontemplation Stage do not intend to quit and start more healthy behavior in the near future (within 6 months) and may be unaware of the need to change. They typically underestimate the pros of changing, overestimate the cons, and are often not aware of this mindset. Individuals in this stage need to be more mindful of their decision-making and more conscious of the multiple benefits of changing their unhealthy behavior. Discovery Cards examples include:

  • I don’t think I could quit even if I wanted to

  • I don’t want to be told what to do regarding my drinking or using

  • I haven’t experienced any serious consequences as a result of my drinking or using

  • I really don’t see many benefits to quitting

Individuals in the Contemplation Stage intend to quit and start more healthy behavior within the next 6 months. While they are usually now more aware of the pros of changing, their cons are about equal to their pros. This ambivalence about changing can cause them to keep putting off taking action. Individuals in this stage learn about the benefits of change and the kind of person they could be if they quit and changed their behavior to more healthy ways. Discovery Cards examples include:

  • I see how my drinking or using can hurt others

  • I am noticing people who have quit and they seem healthier and happier

  • I think I may experience more serious consequences if I don’t quit soon

  • I think I might be healthier and happier if I quit

Individuals in the Preparation Stage are ready to start taking action within the next 30 days. They take small steps that they believe can help them quit and make the healthy behavior a part of their lives. It is helpful for individuals in this stage to seek support from friends they trust, tell people about their plan to change, and think about how they would feel if they behaved in a healthier way. Their number one concern is: When they act, will they fail? They learn that the better prepared they are, the more likely they are to keep progressing. Discovery Cards examples include:

  • I am planning ways to cut down or quit

  • I am seeking resources that will help me quit

  • I am ready to set a quit date

  • I believe that others will help me quit if I ask them to

Individuals in the Action Stage have changed their behavior within the last 6 months and need to work hard to keep progressing in recovery. Individuals in this stage need to learn how to strengthen their commitments to change and to fight urges to slip back that may cause them to relapse. They progress by learning to substitute activities related to the unhealthy behavior with positive ones, rewarding themselves for taking steps toward changing, and avoiding people, places, things, and situations that tempt them to behave in unhealthy ways. Discovery Cards examples include:

  • I am asking others for help

  • I am avoiding people, places, things, and situations that trigger me to drink or use

  • I am connecting with others and building a new network of sober friends

  • I am rewarding myself for quitting

Individuals in the Maintenance Stage have changed their behavior for more than 6 months. It is important for people in this stage to be aware of situations that may tempt them to slip back into doing the unhealthy behavior — particularly stressful situations. Individuals in this stage are best served when they seek support from and talk with people whom they trust, spend time with people who behave in healthy ways, and remember to engage in healthy activities to cope with stress instead of relying on unhealthy behavior. Discovery Cards examples include:

  • I am going to continue to not drink or use — I enjoy sobriety

  • I am grateful for quitting and living a sober life

  • I am serving and supporting others in recovery

  • I have accepted that I am in recovery

2. The Processes of Change Defined

While the Stages of Change are useful in explaining when changes in cognition, emotion, and behavior take place, the Processes of Change help to explain how those changes occur. These ten processes, which are defined below the table, can enable individuals to successfully progress through the Stages of Change when they attempt to modify problem behaviors and
attain desired behavior change. The Processes of Change can be divided into two groups: 1) cognitive and affective processes
and 2) behavioral processes. According to research on the TTM conducted by Drs. Prochaska and DiClemente and their
colleagues, interventions to change behavior are more effective if they are “stage-matched” — that is, interventional
techniques related to the specific processes are matched to the Stage of Change that individual is in. The table below
shows the Processes of Change matched to the Stages of Change, with color bars indicating the processes employed as
individuals move through stages.

Processes Matched to Stages - The Processes of Change employed by individuals to move through the Stages of Change

  1. Consciousness-Raisingbuild awareness: Individuals increase awareness through information, education, and feedback about their current pattern and behavior, and/or their potential new behavior

  2. Emotional Arousal / Dramatic Reliefpay attention to emotions and feelings: Individuals feel fear or anxiety because of their unhealthy behavior, or feel inspiration and hope when they hear about how people are able to change to new healthy patterns and behavior

  3. Self-Reevaluationcreate a new positive self-image: Individuals clarify values and realize that the new healthy pattern and behavior are an important part of who they are and aspire to be

  4. Environmental Reevaluationnotice impact on others: Individuals realize how their unhealthy pattern and behavior negatively affect others and how they could have more positive effects by changing their behavior

  5. Social Liberationnotice public support and gain alternatives: Individuals realize that society is more supportive of their new healthier behavior

  6. Self-Liberationmake choices and commitments: Individuals believe in their ability to change and make choices, commitments, and re-commitments to act on their belief and stay the course in their recovery

  7. Counterconditioninguse substitutes: Individuals substitute new healthy ways of thinking and acting for unhealthy patterns and behavior

  8. Stimulus Controlobserve and manage environment: Individuals use reminders and cues that encourage healthy behavior as substitutes for those that encourage unhealthy patterns and behavior

  9. Helping Relationshipsget help and support: Individuals find people who support their new healthy behavior

  10. Reinforcement Managementuse rewards: Individuals increase the rewards that come from positive healthy behavior and decrease those that come from negative unhealthy behavior

3. Decisional Balance Defined

Tipping the Balance Toward Change. When people make decisions, they weigh the costs and benefits of their different choices. Decision-making was conceptualized by Janis and Mann (1977) as a decisional “balance sheet” of potential gains and losses. Two components of decisional balance, the pros and the cons, have become core parts of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM). As individuals progress through the Stages of Change, decisional balance shifts in critical ways. When an individual is in the Precontemplation Stage, the pros for behavior change are outweighed by the cons, and the balance is in favor of maintaining the existing unhealthy behavior. In the Contemplation Stage, the pros and cons tend to carry equal weight, leaving the individual ambivalent about change. As the decisional balance is tipped such that the pros for changing outweigh the cons for maintaining the unhealthy behavior, many individuals move to the Preparation or even the Action Stage. As individuals enter the Maintenance Stage, the pros for maintaining the healthy behavior change should outweigh the cons of maintaining that change and thus decrease the risk of relapse.

4. Self-Efficacy Defined

Building Confidence Toward Change. Self-efficacy is a belief in our own competence to successfully accomplish a task and produce a favorable outcome. Self-efficacy plays a major role in determining one’s success — individuals with high self-efficacy are more likely to put forth sufficient effort that leads to successful outcomes; those with low self-efficacy are more likely to stop efforts early and fail. The TTM integrates elements of Bandura’s self-efficacy theory (Bandura 1977, 1982). This construct reflects the degree of confidence individuals have in maintaining their desired behavior change in situations that often trigger relapse. It is also measured by the degree to which individuals feel tempted to return to their problem behavior in high-risk situations. In the Precontemplation and Contemplation Stages, temptation to engage in the problem behavior is far greater than self-efficacy to abstain from that problem behavior. As individuals move from Preparation to Action, the disparity between feelings of self-efficacy and temptation closes, and behavior change is attained. Relapse often occurs in situations where feelings of temptation trump individuals’ sense of self-efficacy to maintain the desired behavior change.

Critical Assumptions of the TTM

The TTM is based on critical assumptions about the nature of behavior change and interventions that can best facilitate
such change:

  • Behavior change is a process that unfolds over time through a sequence of stages.

  • Stages are both stable and open to change, just as chronic behavior risk factors are both stable and open to change.

  • Interventions can motivate change by enhancing the understanding of the pros and diminishing the value of the cons.

  • Most at-risk individuals are not prepared for action and will not be served by traditional action-oriented prevention programs. Helping individuals set realistic goals, like progressing to the next stage, will facilitate the change process.

  • Specific principles and processes of change need to be matched with specific stages of change for progress through the stages to occur.

Copyright 2020 Tom Karl / All Rights Reserved. Use of this article for any purpose is prohibited without permission.

Questions to Explore

Answer these questions for yourself or someone you are working with.

  1. Do you find this model helpful in thinking about your experience counseling / coaching clients with substance use?

  2. Do the stages make sense to you? Are the categories helpful and easy to understand?

  3. Which Discovery Cards behaviors resonate mostly with you as you read the examples?

  4. As you look back over relevant counseling / coaching experiences, do you see how individuals move through the stages?

  5. Do you see how individuals get stuck in certain stages? What keeps them stuck? How can you help them keep progressing through the stages?

  6. How can you incorporate Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques with the Stages of Change model and behaviors? What questions can you ask for each of the Discovery Card examples above when these behaviors show up?

  7. How can you incorporate these ideas into your next one-on-one or group session?

The R1 Challenge: Thank you for reading this post and participating in this activity. How did you do? On a scale of 1 to 10, how would you rate your level of knowledge about this topic prior to reading our post? What is your level now? We hope you were able to walk away with at least one new learning or insight. Please share this post with your team and so they can test their knowledge too. Contact us if you would like to learn more about the Stages of Change Group Kits or the R1 Learning System. We look forward to hearing from you.

Facilitate Engaging Group Activities

Stages of Change Discovery Cards and Group Kits – Engagement Tools
Integrating these tools into your groups will allow individuals to build their own vocabulary, think about these concepts concretely, and put their choices into action. Visit the R1 Store to learn more about these evidence-based behavioral topics and models. The cards are an amazing tool for exploring these topics with individuals or groups.

Bandura A. “Self-Efficacy Mechanism in Human Agency.” American Psychologist 37:122–147, 1982.

Bandura A. “Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change.” Psychological Review 84:191–215, 1977.

DiClemente CC. Addiction and Change. New York, Guilford Press, 2018.

Janis IL, Mann L. Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict, Choice, and Commitment. New York, Free Press, 1977.

Prochaska JO, Prochaska JM. Changing to Thrive. Center City, MN, Hazelden Publishing, 2016.

Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC, Norcross JC. “In Search of How People Change: Applications to the Addictive Behaviors.” American Psychologist 47:1102–1114, 1992.

Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC. “Stages and Processes of Self Change of Smoking: Toward an Integrative Model of Change.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 51:390–395, 1983.

Velasquez MM, Maurer G, Crouch C, DiClemente CC. Group Treatment for Substance Abuse: A Stages-of-Change Therapy Manual. New York, Guilford Press, 2001.

Here are a few ideas to help you learn more about R1 and engage others on this topic:

  1. Share this blog post with others. (Thank you!)   

  2. Start a conversation with your team. Bring this information to your next team meeting or share it with your supervisor. Change starts in conversations. Good luck! Let us know how it goes.   

  3. Visit www.R1LEARNING.com to learn more about R1, the Discovery Cards, and how we’re creating engaging learning experiences through self-discovery.  

Tom Karl


The Five Stages to Successful Behavior Change

OK, so we are a few weeks into 2016, and many of us may already be wavering from our New Year’s resolutions, if not completely forgotten them. Why is it so hard to make changes? James Prochaska, from the University of Rhode Island, has studied this question for more than thirty years, and has applied his theory to many health behaviors, including behaviors important in diabetes management.

Prochaska has found that people who have successfully made positive change in their lives go through five specific stages: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance.

  1. Precontemplation is the stage at which there is no intention to change behavior in the foreseeable future. Many individuals in this stage are unaware or under-aware of their problems.” Some people call this phase “denial.”
  2. “Contemplation is the stage in which people are aware that a problem exists and are seriously thinking about overcoming it but have not yet made a commitment to take action.” Many people in this stage can be described as ambivalent. They want to improve their blood sugar, but are not yet ready to cut back on eating sweets.
  3. The Preparation stage can be considered the information gathering and planning stage. The preparation stage is the most important. Fifty percent of the people who attempt behavior change and skip this stage will relapse within 21 days, according to Prochaska in his book, Changing for Good.
  4. Action is the stage in which individuals modify their behavior, experiences, or environment in order to overcome their problems. Action involves the most overt behavioral changes and requires considerable commitment of time and energy.” During the action stage, one implements the plans developed and information gathered in the preparation stage.
  5. Maintenance is the stage in which people work to prevent relapse and consolidate the gains attained during action. For addictive behaviors this stage extends from six months to an indeterminate period past the initial action.”

Most people I work with, who have diabetes, could be categorized in the contemplation stage. They are seriously thinking about life changes, but have not yet made a commitment to take action. Therefore, I think it valuable to further explore this stage.

Within each stage, specific actions called, “processes of change,” help someone mentally move through each stage successfully. In the contemplation stage, the processes of change are “consciousness raising” and “self-reevaluation.”

Consciousness raising is the process of actively becoming more aware, mindful or conscious of the current situation. Some activities include, keeping a food diary to learn more about how much I am eating, monitoring blood sugar to learn how well or if my treatment plan is working, or reading food labels to learn about how much carbohydrate is in different foods.

Self-reevaluation flows naturally from consciousness raising. Self-reevaluation means taking stock or appraisal of the behavior that needs to be changed, and reveals how your values conflict with the problem behaviors.

An activity which will help clarify your values, or “why” you want to change is called “decisional balance”. The decisional balance takes into consideration the pros and cons of behavior change. Understanding pros and cons helps one acknowledge that behavior change has good consequences, but requires sacrifice.

Take a piece of paper. Divide the paper into two columns. Label one “pros” and the other column “cons”. Under each column answer each question: What will be the consequences of my behavior change be for me?

  • What will the consequences of my behavior change be for others (family, friends, coworkers)?
  • What will my reactions be to my new self?
  • What will the reactions of others (family, friends, coworkers) be to my new self?
  • If the pros of change outweigh the cons, then one is ready to move into the preparations stage! This sets the foundation for the preparation, action and maintenance stages.

I once heard a radio interview with James Prochaska. He said that making a behavior change should be approached as if you were getting ready for a major surgery. How much pre-planning would you do? How much support would you solicit from friends and family? How much mental attention would you put towards it? It would be your number one priority, and you would choose a time when there would be nothing else within your control that would take precedence. You would not choose a time when you are making a marital change, job change, major vacation, getting ready to move to a new house, etc. Healthy behavior change is that difficult, and it is that important.

By: Donna Webb, RD, LD, CDE

Cecelia Health Diabetes Health Coach

Cancer Prevention Research Center. University of Rhode Island, 2016. Web. 10 Jan. 2016. <http://web.uri.edu/cprc/about-ttm/>

Prochaska, J. O. and W. F. Velicer (in press). “The transtheoretical model of health behavior change.” American Journal of Health Promotion.

Prochaska, PH.D., James O., John C. Norcross, PH.D., and Carlo C. Diclemente, PH.D. Changing For Good. New York, NY: Harperollins Publishers, 1994. Print.

Theory of Intentional Change - Training Technology

The Theory of Intentional Change (ITC) is a simple, powerful model to help a person implement and maintain desired change. The model has five steps and is useful for more than just individuals. The method can also help teams and organizations achieve their goals.

An overview of the theory of intentional change

Designing, implementing and sustaining useful change is a challenging task, whether it be for an individual or an entire organization. Difficulties have to be faced in achieving any goals - whether it is a change in behavior, the acquisition of skills, a change in the way of thinking, aspirations, methods of work, or even the formation of new beliefs.

Making the right changes requires planning, and TPI offers a unique approach in which each of the five stages is a kind of "discovery". In essence, these stages are a series of questions: “What is your goal?”, “What is your current position?”, “The gap between your desired and current state and how to overcome it?”, “What can be done to get closer to your goal? » and “Who can help you with this?”.

By answering these questions, acting consistently, and repeating the process as needed, the desired changes can be achieved and sustained. All five stages are described in more detail below:

Stage 1. Vision of the future

The first step towards change is to determine what exactly needs to be achieved.

Intentional change requires an understanding of the future one would like to create. For an individual, this may be an ideal future that corresponds to the values ​​​​of a person. For the organization, this could be an inspirational blueprint for future activities.

Stage 2. Current reality

The second step to change is understanding the situation in which the individual or the team is at the moment.

In order to understand what specifically needs to be changed, one must have a clear understanding of the starting position. Self-assessment is rarely correct, so to form an honest opinion about the current state, you need an outsider's perspective that can assess the existing advantages and disadvantages.

Stage 3. Gap and planning

The third step of change is the recognition of the gap between the current situation and the desired state, and planning to overcome it.

If you have an accurate vision of the situation that has developed at the moment, and a clear idea of ​​\u200b\u200bwhere you would like to go, it remains to create a plan to achieve what you want. As with all such plans, you will need to take into account items such as SMART goals and maintaining motivation.

Step 4 Experiment

The fourth step is to make changes, but do it through experimentation.

Implementing change will require a plan. You need to improvise, creating something unusual, using non-standard forms of thinking, behavior or new approaches to work. By providing a safe psychological environment for yourself, you can learn from your own failures. You need to reflect, learn from others, learn from mistakes and continue to experiment.

Stage 5: Support

The fifth stage of change is to make sure there is help on the way.

The changes you want to achieve and sustain will be much easier with the right support. It is very important to find and attract people who will contribute to the achievement of the goals. Need advice, help and feedback to help you get better.


This basic model is a useful starting point for individuals and entire teams or organizations seeking change. However, to successfully implement change, it may be necessary to diversify this model with additional tools.

In particular, specific guidance may be needed on the formation of a "image of the future" and the choice of the correct approach to conducting experiments. In a broader context, this model should be complemented by guidance on motivation and a description of the tools to sustain effective change.

Teams and organizations will need to further consider collaboration, communication and ongoing interaction. Such a model clearly shares similarities with simple coaching models such as GROW.

Sources and Further Reading

We encourage you to read original sources for information and ideas. This mini-lecture is based on interpretations of works created by Richard Boyatzis. For more information, see his 2006 article "Deliberate Change" in the Journal of Organizational Excellence.

Theory of Intentional Change - PowerPoint presentation

If you are a business coach and plan to use this mini-lecture in your training, then:

  1. We recommend reading the article on how to make your mini-lecture lively and interesting.
  2. Download a PowerPoint presentation to visually support your mini-lecture. (Slides per presentation: 6)

Grainer's Organization Life Cycle Theory — PowerBranding.ru

Fundamentals → Best Strategic Analysis Tools → Modern Models of Company Life Cycle Management → Larry Grainer Stages of Company Development

Larry Grainer's model is one of most cited papers on the life cycle of an organization. Greiner's model was first published in the Harvard Business Review at 1972 year. Greiner believed that a company, during its existence in the industry, consistently goes through 5 stages of growth: growth through creativity, through management, through delegation, through coordination, and through cooperation.

Each stage of the company's growth has 2 distinct phases: evolutionary development and revolutionary development. During the period of evolutionary development, sales and profits of the company grow gradually, without strong jumps. During the period of revolutionary development, internal conflicts occur in the company, which cause a mismatch between the tasks and the style of company management, sales and profits may temporarily decrease, but then return to the growth curve. The task of management at the stage of revolutionary business development is to quickly select and implement new management tools.

The length of a company's evolutionary period varies depending on the industry and ranges from 4 to 8 years on average. In young and dynamic industries, companies grow rapidly and evolutionary stages change quickly. In mature industries, the evolutionary stage of a company's development is very slow.

Let's consider each of the 5 stages of the life cycle of an organization according to Grainer in more detail.

Stage one: growth through creativity

At the first, initial stage of its growth, the company only creates its product and defines the boundaries of its market. The rapid growth of the business at this stage leads to a crisis of leadership. The larger the company becomes, the higher the competence of the management staff should be. the manager must monitor and improve the performance of a growing number of employees.

Informal management becomes impossible as the number of employees increases. Therefore, the founder must introduce a more formalized form of management into the company, establish rules, priorities and principles of work. The founder of the business can do this on his own or hire a professional manager to solve the tasks.

Stage two: growth through management

After the establishment of clear rules for work in the company, another stable growth in sales begins. The company is growing, there are new departments and new management staff. The increase in the size of business is the cause of a new crisis - the crisis of autonomy. Middle managers lose their productivity due to a rigid system of centralized control. The need to coordinate decisions with higher management, the inability to make decisions on their own slow down important processes in the company.

The company can overcome the crisis of autonomy if it gives more power to the lower levels in the company. The business leader must learn and properly set up delegation processes in the company.

Stage Three: Growth Through Delegation

Once all delegation processes are in place, the company continues its evolution. The growth of the company is ensured primarily by the motivation of the staff. Employees who are not constrained by excessive reporting and control begin to make decisions quickly, which helps to strengthen the business, capture new markets and expand the range. As a result of this growth, another crisis arises in the company - a crisis of control. The autonomy and independence of employees lead to decisions that are not agreed with the head office. Top management is beginning to re-introduce more stringent forms of control and accountability.

Fourth stage: growth through coordination

Through the adoption of coordinated decisions, the company again enters the line of sales growth. Now all decisions are aligned with the overall mission of the company and with the overall goals of top management, the risk of errors becomes minimal. But the emergence of new points of control in a large company leads to the development of red tape. Procedures take precedence over the decisions and tasks of the company. There is a border crisis. The overall innovativeness in the company decreases, the flexibility and speed of decision-making are significantly reduced.

Fifth Stage: Growth Through Collaboration

In the final stage of its growth, the company is rethinking how relationships are built within the company.

Learn more