Uses of haldol
Haldol Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing
There may be a slightly increased risk of serious, possibly fatal side effects (such as heart failure, fast/irregular heartbeat, pneumonia) when this medication is used by older adults with dementia. This medication is not approved for the treatment of dementia-related behavior problems. Discuss the risks and benefits of this medication, as well as other effective and possibly safer treatments for dementia-related behavior problems, with the doctor.
There may be a slightly increased risk of serious, possibly fatal side effects (such as heart failure, fast/irregular heartbeat, pneumonia) when this medication is used by older adults with dementia. This medication is not approved for the treatment of dementia-related behavior problems. Discuss the risks and benefits of this medication, as well as other effective and possibly safer treatments for dementia-related behavior problems, with the doctor.
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Haloperidol is used to treat certain mental/mood disorders (such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders). This medicine helps you to think more clearly, feel less nervous, and take part in everyday life. It can also help prevent suicide in people who are likely to harm themselves. It also reduces aggression and the desire to hurt others. It can decrease negative thoughts and hallucinations.Haloperidol can also be used to treat uncontrolled movements and outbursts of words/sounds related to Tourette's syndrome. Haloperidol is also used for severe behavior problems in hyperactive children when other treatments or medications have not worked.Haloperidol is a psychiatric medication (antipsychotic-type) that works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain (neurotransmitters).
How to use Haldol Tablet
Take this medication by mouth with or without food, or as directed by your doctor. If you are using the liquid form of the medication, use the measuring dropper provided in the package to measure your dose. If you do not have the dropper, ask your pharmacist for a measured oral syringe so that your dose will be correct.
Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to therapy. Use this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, use it at the same time(s) each day.
Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor. Some conditions may become worse when the drug is suddenly stopped. Your dose may need to be gradually reduced.
Inform your doctor if your symptoms do not improve or if they worsen.
Dizziness, lightheadedness, drowsiness, difficulty urinating, sleep disturbances, headache, and anxiety may occur. If these effects last or get worse, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.
Dizziness and lightheadedness can increase the risk of falling. Get up slowly when rising from a sitting or lying position.
Tell your doctor promptly if any of these side effects occur: muscle spasm/stiffness, shaking (tremor), restlessness, mask-like facial expression, drooling. Your doctor may prescribe another medication for you to take with haloperidol to decrease these side effects.
Remember that this medication has been prescribed because your doctor has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.
In rare cases, haloperidol may increase your level of a certain chemical made by the body (prolactin). For females, this increase in prolactin may result in unwanted breast milk, missed/stopped periods, or difficulty becoming pregnant. For males, it may result in decreased sexual ability, inability to produce sperm, or enlarged breasts. If you develop any of these symptoms, tell your doctor right away.
For males, in the unlikely event you have a painful or prolonged erection (lasting more than 4 hours), stop using this drug and get medical help right away, or permanent problems may occur.
This medication may rarely cause a condition known as tardive dyskinesia. In some cases, this condition may be permanent. Tell your doctor right away if you develop any facial/muscle twitching such as tongue thrusting, chewing movements, puffing or puckering of your mouth, or uncontrollable shaking.
This medication may rarely cause a very serious condition called neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). Get medical help right away if you have any of the following symptoms: fever, muscle stiffness/pain/tenderness/weakness, severe tiredness, severe confusion, sweating, fast/irregular heartbeat, dark urine, signs of kidney problems (such as change in the amount of urine).
Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including: nausea/vomiting that doesn't stop, stomach/abdominal pain, yellowing of eyes/skin, seizures, signs of infection (such as sore throat that doesn't go away, fever).
Get medical help right away if you have any very serious side effects, including: slow heartbeat, severe dizziness, chest pain, fainting.
A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.
This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.
In the US - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.
In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.
Before taking haloperidol, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: a certain severe nervous system problem (severe CNS depression), Parkinson's disease, bipolar disorder, difficulty urinating (for example, due to prostate problems), glaucoma, heart problems (such as angina), overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism), seizures, low white blood cell count.
Haloperidol may cause a condition that affects the heart rhythm (QT prolongation). QT prolongation can rarely cause serious (rarely fatal) fast/irregular heartbeat and other symptoms (such as severe dizziness, fainting) that need medical attention right away.
The risk of QT prolongation may be increased if you have certain medical conditions or are taking other drugs that may cause QT prolongation. Before using haloperidol, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the drugs you take and if you have any of the following conditions: certain heart problems (heart failure, slow heartbeat, QT prolongation in the EKG), family history of certain heart problems (QT prolongation in the EKG, sudden cardiac death).
Low levels of potassium or magnesium in the blood may also increase your risk of QT prolongation. This risk may increase if you use certain drugs (such as diuretics/"water pills") or if you have conditions such as severe sweating, diarrhea, or vomiting. Talk to your doctor about using haloperidol safely.
This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy. Alcohol or marijuana (cannabis) can make you more dizzy or drowsy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do anything that needs alertness until you can do it safely. Limit alcoholic beverages. Talk to your doctor if you are using marijuana (cannabis).
Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).
This medication can reduce sweating, making you more likely to get heatstroke. Avoid hard work and exercise in hot weather.
Children may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially uncontrolled movements.
Older adults may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially drowsiness, dizziness, lightheadedness, difficulty urinating, and heart effects such as QT prolongation (see above). Drowsiness, dizziness, and lightheadedness can increase the risk of falling.
During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Babies born to mothers who have used this drug during the last 3 months of pregnancy may rarely develop symptoms including muscle stiffness or shakiness, drowsiness, feeding/breathing difficulties, or constant crying. If you notice any of these symptoms in your newborn especially during their first month, tell the doctor right away.
Since untreated mental/mood problems (such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders) can be a serious condition, do not stop taking this medication unless directed by your doctor. If you are planning pregnancy, become pregnant, or think you may be pregnant, immediately discuss with your doctor the benefits and risks of using this medication during pregnancy.
This drug passes into breast milk and could have undesirable effects on a nursing infant. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.
Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.
Some products that may interact with this drug include: anticholinergic medications (for example, antispasmodics such as belladonna alkaloids, scopolamine), cabergoline, ketoconazole, lithium, methyldopa, drugs for Parkinson's disease (such as levodopa and carbidopa, selegiline), paroxetine, pergolide, quinupristin/dalfopristin, rifampin, saquinavir.
Many drugs besides haloperidol may affect the heart rhythm (QT prolongation), including amiodarone, dofetilide, pimozide, quinidine, sotalol, procainamide, macrolide antibiotics (such as erythromycin), among others. Before using haloperidol, report all medications you are currently using to your doctor or pharmacist.
Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking other products that cause drowsiness such as opioid pain or cough relievers (such as codeine, hydrocodone), alcohol, marijuana (cannabis), drugs for sleep or anxiety (such as alprazolam, lorazepam, zolpidem), muscle relaxants (such as carisoprodol, cyclobenzaprine), or antihistamines (such as cetirizine, diphenhydramine).
Check the labels on all your medicines (such as allergy or cough-and-cold products) because they may contain ingredients that cause drowsiness. Ask your pharmacist about using those products safely.
Does Haldol Tablet interact with other drugs you are taking?
Enter your medication into the WebMD interaction checker
If someone has overdosed and has serious symptoms such as passing out or trouble breathing, call 911. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.
Do not share this medication with others.
If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose. Take your next dose at the regular time. Do not double the dose to catch up.
Store at room temperature between 59-86 degrees F (15-30 degrees C) away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medicines away from children and pets.
Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.
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CONDITIONS OF USE: The information in this database is intended to supplement, not substitute for, the expertise and judgment of healthcare professionals. The information is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, drug interactions or adverse effects, nor should it be construed to indicate that use of a particular drug is safe, appropriate or effective for you or anyone else. A healthcare professional should be consulted before taking any drug, changing any diet or commencing or discontinuing any course of treatment.
Haloperidol (Haldol) | NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness
Brand name: Haldol®
Generic name: haloperidol (HAL oh PER i dol)
- Oral tablet: 0. 5 mg, 1 mg, 2 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg
- Oral solution: 2 mg/mL
- Intramuscular injection (short-acting): 5 mg/mL
- Haloperidol decanoate
- Intramuscular injection oil (long-acting): 50 mg/mL, 100 mg/mL
- Haldol® decanoate
- Intramuscular injection oil (long-acting): 50 mg/L, 100 mg/mL
All FDA black box warnings are at the end of this fact sheet. Please review before taking this medication.
What is Haloperidol and What Does It Treat?
Haloperidol is a medication that works in the brain to treat schizophrenia. It is also known as a first generation antipsychotic (FGA) or typical antipsychotic. Haloperidol rebalances dopamine to improve thinking, mood, and behavior.
Symptoms of schizophrenia include:
- Hallucinations – imagined voices or images that seem real
- Delusions - beliefs that are not true (e.g., other people are reading your thoughts)
- Disorganized thinking or trouble organizing your thoughts and making sense
- Little desire to be around other people
- Trouble speaking clearly
- Lack of motivation
Haloperidol may help some or all of these symptoms.
Haloperidol is also FDA approved for Tourette’s syndrome as well as hyperactive behavior or severe behavioral problems in children that do not respond to therapy or other medications.
Haloperidol may also be helpful when prescribed “off-label” for other mental health conditions. “Off-label” means that it has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for this condition. Your mental health provider should justify his or her thinking in recommending an “off-label” treatment. They should be clear about the limits of the research around that medication and if there are any other options.
What Is The Most Important Information I Should Know About Haloperidol?
Schizophrenia requires long-term treatment. Do not stop taking haloperidol, even when you feel better.
With input from you, your health care provider will assess how long you will need to take the medication.
Missing doses of haloperidol may increase your risk for a relapse in your symptoms.
Do not stop taking haloperidol or change your dose without talking with your health care provider first.
For haloperidol to work properly, it should be taken every day as ordered by your health care provider.
Are There Specific Concerns About Haloperidol and Pregnancy?
If you are planning on becoming pregnant, notify your health care provider to best manage your medications. People living with schizophrenia who wish to become pregnant face important decisions. This is a complex decision since untreated schizophrenia has risks to the fetus, as well as the mother. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of treatment with your doctor and caregivers.
Antipsychotic use during the third trimester of pregnancy has a risk for abnormal muscle movements (extrapyramidal symptoms [EPS]) and/or withdrawal symptoms in newborns following delivery. Symptoms in the newborn may include agitation, feeding disorder, hypertonia, hypotonia, respiratory distress, somnolence, and tremor; these effects may be self-limiting or require hospitalization.
Caution is advised with breastfeeding since haloperidol does pass into breast milk.
What Should I Discuss With My Healthcare Provider Before Taking Haloperidol?
- Symptoms of your condition that bother you the most
- If you have thoughts of suicide or harming yourself
- Medications you have taken in the past for your condition, whether they were effective or caused any adverse effects
- If you ever had muscle stiffness, shaking, tardive dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, or weight gain caused by a medication
- If you experience side effects from your medications, discuss them with your provider. Some side effects may pass with time, but others may require changes in the medication.
- Any psychiatric or medical problems you have, such as heart rhythm problems, long QT syndrome, heart attacks, diabetes, high cholesterol, or seizures
- If you have a family history of diabetes or heart disease
- All other medications you are currently taking (including over the counter products, herbal and nutritional supplements) and any medication allergies you have
- Other non-medication treatment you are receiving, such as talk therapy or substance abuse treatment. Your provider can explain how these different treatments work with the medication.
- If you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding
- If you smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs
How Should I Take Haloperidol?
Haloperidol tablets and solution are usually taken 1 or 2 times per day with or without food.
Typically patients begin at a low dose of medication and the dose is increased slowly over several weeks.
The dose of the oral medication usually ranges from 5 mg to 20 mg. The dose of the long-acting injection is 25 mg to 200 mg. Only your health care provider can determine the correct dose for you.
Haloperidol oral solution should be measured with a dosing spoon or oral syringe, which you can get from your pharmacy if one is not provided with the product.
Use a calendar, pillbox, alarm clock, or cell phone alert to help you remember to take your medication. You may also ask a family member or friend to remind you or check in with you to be sure you are taking your medication.
The long-acting injection form of haloperidol is administered every 3 to 4 weeks. Your health care provider will administer these injections.
What Happens If I Miss a Dose of Haloperidol?
If you miss a dose of haloperidol, take it as soon as you remember, unless it is closer to the time of your next dose. Discuss this with your health care provider. Do not double your next dose or take more than what is prescribed.
What Should I Avoid While Taking Haloperidol?
Avoid drinking alcohol or using illegal drugs while you are taking haloperidol. They may decrease the benefits (e.g., worsen your confusion) and increase adverse effects (e.g., sedation) of the medication.
What Happens If I Overdose With Haloperidol?
If an overdose occurs call your doctor or 911. You may need urgent medical care. You may also contact the poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.
A specific treatment to reverse the effects of haloperidol does not exist.
What Are Possible Side Effects Of Haloperidol?
Common side effects
Rapid heartbeat, constipation, blurry vision, dry mouth, drop in blood pressure upon standing, extrapyramidal symptoms
Feeling drowsy, dizzy, or restless
Patients receiving haloperidol decanoate long-acting injection may notice some pain at the site of the injection. This pain should resolve after a few days.
Rare/serious side effects
Haloperidol may increase the blood levels of a hormone called prolactin. Side effects of increased prolactin levels include females losing their period, production of breast milk and males losing their sex drive or possibly experiencing erectile problems. Long term (months or years) elevated prolactin levels can lead to osteoporosis or increased risk of bone fractures.
Some people may develop muscle related side effects while taking haloperidol. The technical terms for these are “extrapyramidal symptoms” (EPS) and “tardive dyskinesia” (TD). Symptoms of EPS include restlessness, tremor, and stiffness. TD symptoms include slow or jerky movements that one cannot control, often starting in the mouth with tongue rolling or chewing movements.
Temperature regulation: Impaired core body temperature regulation may occur; caution with strenuous exercise, heat exposure, and dehydration.
All antipsychotics have been associated with the risk of sudden cardiac death due to an arrhythmia (irregular heart beat). To minimize this risk, antipsychotic medications should be used in the smallest effective dose when the benefits outweigh the risks. Your doctor may order an EKG to monitor for irregular heartbeat.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a rare, life threatening adverse effect of antipsychotics which occurs in <1% of patients. Symptoms include confusion, fever, extreme muscle stiffness, and sweating. If any of these symptoms occur, contact your health care provider immediately.
All antipsychotics can cause sedation, dizziness, or orthostatic hypotension (a drop in blood pressure when standing up from sitting or lying down). These side effects may lead to falls which could cause bone fractures or other injuries. This risk is higher for people with conditions or other medications that could worsen these effects. If falls or any of these symptoms occur, contact your health care provider.
Are There Any Risks For Taking Haloperidol For Long Periods Of Time?
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a side effect that develops with prolonged use of antipsychotics. If you develop symptoms of TD, such as grimacing, sucking, and smacking of lips, or other movements that you cannot control, contact your health care provider immediately. All patients taking either first or second generation antipsychotics should have an Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) completed regularly by their health care provider to monitor for TD.
What Other Medications May Interact With Haloperidol?
Haloperidol may block the effects of agents used to treat Parkinson’s disease such as levodopa/carbidopa (Sinemet®), bromocriptine, pramipexole (Mirapex®), ropinirole (Requip®), and others.
Haloperidol may lower your blood pressure. Medications used to lower blood pressure may increase this effect and increase your risk of falling. Propranolol (Inderal®) is an example of this type of medication.
The following medications may increase the risk of heart problems when used with haloperidol:
- Antipsychotics including chlorpromazine (Thorazine®), thioridizine (Mellaril®), iloperidone (Fanapt®), paliperidone (Invega®), pimozide (Orap®), quetiapine (Seroquel®), and ziprasidone (Geodon®).
- Antiarrhythmics (heart rhythm medications) including procainamide, quinidine, amiodarone (Cordarone®), dronedarone (Multaq®), and sotalol (Betapace®).
Metoclopramide (Reglan®) may increase the risk of EPS or TD when used in combination with haloperidol.
The following medications may increase the levels and effects of haloperidol: bupropion (Wellbutrin®), fluoxetine (Prozac®), fluvoxamine (Luvox®), ketoconazole (Nizoral®),venlafaxine (Effexor®), and paroxetine (Paxil®).
The following medications may decrease the levels and effects of haloperidol: carbamazepine (Tegretol®, Equatro®), phenytoin (Dilantin®), phenobarbital, and rifampin (Rifadin®).
How Long Does It Take For Haloperidol To Work?
It is very important to tell your doctor how you feel things are going during the first few weeks after you start taking haloperidol. It will probably take several weeks to see big enough changes in your symptoms to decide if haloperidol is the right medication for you.
Antipsychotic treatment is generally needed lifelong for persons with schizophrenia. Your doctor can best discuss the duration of treatment you need based on your symptoms and illness.
- Hallucinations, disorganized thinking, and delusions may improve in the first 1-2 weeks
- Sometimes these symptoms do not completely go away
- Motivation and desire to be around other people can take at least 1-2 weeks to improve
- Symptoms continue to get better the longer you take haloperidol
- It may take 2-3 months before you get the full benefit of haloperidol
Summary of FDA Black Box Warnings
Increased mortality in elderly patients with dementia related psychosis
- Both first generation (typical) and second generation (atypical) antipsychotics are associated with an increased risk of mortality in elderly patients when used for dementia related psychosis.
- Although there were multiple causes of death in studies, most deaths appeared to be due to cardiovascular causes (e. g., sudden cardiac death) or infection (e.g., pneumonia).
- Antipsychotics are not indicated for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis.
©2022 The College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists (CPNP) and the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI). CPNP and NAMI make this document available under the Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivatives 4.0 International License. Last Updated: January 2016.
This information is being provided as a community outreach effort of the College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists. This information is for educational and informational purposes only and is not medical advice. This information contains a summary of important points and is not an exhaustive review of information about the medication. Always seek the advice of a physician or other qualified medical professional with any questions you may have regarding medications or medical conditions. Never delay seeking professional medical advice or disregard medical professional advice as a result of any information provided herein. The College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists disclaims any and all liability alleged as a result of the information provided herein.
Verb TO BE for beginners.
What is the difficulty? Why is the theme so simple, but so many mistakes? Because, starting to learn English, not everyone restructures their thinking, but continues to think in Russian. The verb 'to be' is present in Russian, but ... we miss it when we build a sentence in the present tense. In the past, the verb 'to be' had many forms in the present tense: are, are, are, are, , and so on. But in modern Russian only 'is' is preserved: I am, he is, we are and so on. But no one says that, 'is' remains "in the mind"! Therefore, it seems very strange to us that this very "is" should be inserted in English.
- How to translate the verb to be
- Interrogative and negative and form to be
- Short form to be
In English, the verb to be has three present tenses: am, is, are .
If you are talking about yourself ( I ), then use the verb am :
I am a teacher. - I (am) a teacher.
I am happy. - I (are) happy.
If you are talking about he (he), she (she), or it (it), use the form is :
He is a doctor. - He (is) a doctor.
She is beautiful. - She (is) beautiful.
It is my dog. – This (is) my dog
If you are talking about we (we), you (you), they (they), then use the form are :
We are friends. We (are) friends.
You are hungry. - You (are) hungry.
They are my parents. – They (are) my parents. Agree that the word 'is' looks rather strange in our example sentences, but if you want to speak English, you will have to think in this way, especially in the initial stages of learning. To be can be translated with verbs 'to be', 'to be', 'to exist' although this gives the statement some formal coloring, a dash can also be used.
Another observation from practice that needs to be paid attention to. Sometimes they forget about the three forms and say this: I be a teacher . It's something like: I'm a teacher . Of course, you should get rid of such a mistake if you notice it in your speech.
To use the verb to be correctly, you need to remember the main cases of its use. Since to be acts primarily as a linking verb, its main function is to link parts of a sentence.
1. The verb to be connects a noun (pronoun) and an adjective.
Since to be is indispensable in descriptions, characterizing or describing something with adjectives, do not forget to link words with a linking verb:
I am fine. – I (are) fine.
My son (he) is happy. - My son (is) happy.
The children (they) are healthy. - Children (are) healthy. nine0009
This book (it) is interesting. - It's an interesting book.
Please note that if the subject in the sentence is a noun, then in order to choose the correct form of the verb to be, you should replace the noun with the appropriate pronoun: son – he; children – they; book - it.
2. The verb to be is used when they want to say who or what the subject of discussion is.
In other words, answering questions like: Who is this? What is it?, in the answer, use to be . Also to be required if you introduce yourself or introduce yourself:
I am your teacher. - I'm your teacher.
She is my sister Mary. This is my sister Mary.
They are my colleagues. “They are my colleagues.
3. The verb to be is used when talking about professions.
Mary is a writer. Mary is a writer.
John is a businessman. John is a businessman. nine0009
My friends are engineers. My friends are engineers.
If you are talking about someone's profession, then the verb to be can be translated as 'to be' , but this translation is not always appropriate.
4. To be is used when talking about nationalities.
Not without reason, many English textbooks begin with the study of the names of countries and nationalities, so it is very convenient to practice the use of the verb to be:
I am American. - I am American. nine0009
Anna is Russian. - Anna is Russian.
Max is Canadian. Max is Canadian.
My partners are Chinese. – My partners are Chinese.
Detailed information about nationalities in English can be found here.
5. To be is used when talking about age.
A common mistake is to use the verb have in this case. Although some languages use have when talking about age, in English always use to be in the correct form:
I am thirty (years old). - I'm thirty years old.
My sister is twenty-five (years old). My sister is twenty five years old.
The students are eighteen (years old). “Students are eighteen years old.
6. The verb to be should be used when you are talking about the location of something.
Verbs 'to be', 'situate' can be used if the content of the sentence allows:
I am in the kitchen. - I am in the kitchen.
We are at home. - We're home.
Her bag is on the table. – Her bag is on the table.
The cat is in the box. - A cat in a box.
London is in Great Britain. London is located in the UK.
7. To be (or rather its forms is and are) is an important part of the there is/there are turnover.
We will not talk about this turnover here, because we have already published detailed material on this topic. You can read more about the there is/there are turnover here, but first we recommend that you read this article to avoid confusion. nine0009
8. To be can also be used as an auxiliary verb.
In the tenses of the Continuous group, for example, to be, combined with the verb with the ending - ing , forms various tense forms.
If we again draw parallels between Russian and English, we will see that in Russian the verb to be does not carry a grammatical load, which is why we omit it so freely and without prejudice to the meaning of the sentence. If you need to ask a question, use intonation. If we want to say negation, we add the particle 'not' and that's it! In an English sentence, the verb to be is a strategically important component, because it is it that determines the type of utterance and it is to it that particle 9 is added.0013 not .
To form a negative sentence, all you need to do is put the particle not after the verb to be in one form or another:
I am not your teacher. - I'm not your teacher.
My sister is not twenty-five. “My sister is not twenty-five.
He is not at home. - He is not at home.
We are not related. - We are not relatives.
You are not busy. - Are you busy.
They are not my colleagues. They are not my colleagues. nine0009
Theoretically, each of the previous examples can be turned into a negation by adding the particle not .
If you want to ask a question, then the verb to be must be placed at the beginning of the sentence, before the subject:
Am I right? - I'm right?
Is she your sister? - Is she your sister?
Is he busy? - He is busy?
Is it my book? - It is my book?
Are we ready? - We are ready?
Are you American? - Are you American? nine0009
Are they in the room? Are they in the room?
As you can see, these questions imply answers ' Yes' or ' No' . To answer, we also need the verb to be. The short answer should be in two parts. The form of the verb to be in the answer is determined depending on the subject. Please note that when the answer is 'No', then the second part of the answer must contain a negative particle not:
Few people talk to themselves and ask themselves questions, so questions to I and we are rarely asked. But, nevertheless, they occur in certain contexts. For example, when you want to clarify something, ask again, you can ask a question with I or we . Just in case, we offer you options for short answers:
All short answers are translated either 'Yes' or 'No' , the second part remains untranslated. However, when answering in English, you should not miss the second part.
Since the verb to be is used to link words in a sentence, it is often unstressed in the flow of speech, therefore it is shortened and not pronounced in full. Therefore, is the full form of the verb to be and the abbreviated . The full form is used in formal communication, in writing, in correspondence. The abbreviated form is more informal, so it is used in conversation, in informal correspondence, in chats, and so on. All of the examples above have shown full forms, so let's compare them with the abbreviated ones:
Abbreviated forms are not used in questions, only in short answers, in the second part after yes or no .
If you have mastered all the simple rules that we have described in this material, consider that your study has been given a successful start. The most important thing is to stop thinking in Russian and start building your thoughts in the English manner, pronouncing the verb "is." Over time, this will happen "automatically" and instead of thinking about the verb to be, you will use it correctly. And from our next publications, you will learn how to use to be in the past and future tenses. nine0009
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How to use the modal verb would in English
Would is a riddle verb. In some cases it translates, in others it doesn't. Why and why would be present in sentences? What does it mean?
Would appears at all levels, several important grammatical structures are built on it, but no textbook gives a complete description of this most important verb. Therefore, knowledge of the verb would is fragmented for many. I know that most learners use would purely automatically because they have memorized a rule or a particular grammatical formula. Used correctly, but not quite consciously. nine0009
Stop bit by bit collecting knowledge and guesswork about the uses and meanings of would, it's time to get a complete picture and a solid understanding of what would is and when to use it in English.
In this article, I will tell you nine cases in which would is needed. Of course, to understand them all, you already need to have a certain language background, but I'm sure you can figure it out.
For starters, a general description. Like any modal verb, would is always used only with another (semantic) verb, which is given an additional "modality". The verb after would is used in the infinitive form without to. nine0009
The second feature of would as a modal verb is that it does not need auxiliary verbs to form interrogative and negative forms.
The abbreviated form of would is 'd, and its negative form is wouldn't.
About meanings: would is, first of all, the past form of will. When we talk about the future in the past, we need not will, but would. In this case, would is translated into Russian as “I will”, “will be”, and so on.
In addition, would has the function of a conditional mood, and can be translated as a particle "would" next to the verb. Would has a number of completely independent meanings, which we will also consider. nine0009
1. Requests and Offers
The first meaning we are introduced to at the Elementary level is requests and offers. Such calls are called interpersonal uses - in polite communication, we sometimes add a particle "would" to make the sentence softer than just the future tense:
Would you like some tea or coffee? - Would you like some tea or coffee?
I would like to ask you a question. - I would like to ask you a question.
Would like in these examples is a more polite version of want. nine0009
Would you mind sitting down for a moment? — Would you/would you mind sitting down for a minute?
Would you open the door, please? — Could you open the door, please?
A less "sophisticated" version of the last request would be "Can you open the door?", and "Will you open the door?" - can be perceived as a requirement close to the imperative mood.
2. Indirect Speech
At the Pre-Intermediate level, you have covered the topic Indirect Speech. And here you learned that will is replaced by would, which is logical, since would is the past form of will. And if the speaker said: “I will go to work tomorrow,” then in indirect speech, will go will be transformed into would go. This happens because the word said takes the whole statement into the past, that is, we look at the future from the past. Will is used only when we look to the future from the present. nine0009
He said he would go to work the next day. He said he would go to work the next day.
She asked if I would join her. She asked if I would join her.
I told my friends that I would travel to Italy in winter. — I told my friends that I would go to Italy in winter.
Note that when the verb changes to would, the future tenses will also change. I have already written in detail about how to translate statements and questions from direct speech into indirect speech. nine0009
3. Future in the Past
Here you may well have a question: how does Future in the Past differ from the previous paragraph? The main difference is that in the previous case you are always translating someone's words. And this case implies a narrative, that is, a story, a narrative: if you are telling a story about the past, and talking about events that have not yet happened at the moment you are talking about, then you need this form.
This technique is often used by writers to create intrigue in a story and to "throw the bait" ahead to keep the reader's interest:
That evening she met the man who she would marry one day. That evening she met the man she married.
We believed that he would win the race but the reality was different. — We believed that he would win the race, but the reality was different.
Read more about how to tell stories in English.
4. Conditional Sentences
Of course, for many of you, would is primarily associated with conditional sentences. In what types of conditional sentences should it be used? What part of them? What does would mean in conditional sentences? nine0305 I will give you a few short explanations that will help put everything in its place. Fortunately, the Russian language allows us to draw parallels with English.
There are three main types of conditional sentences, one of which (the first type) describes a real condition in the future, that is, we need will here, but the second and third type of conditional sentences refer to imaginary, supposed, unreal actions. This is the same “would”, that is, would.
If I were taller, I would play basketball better. — If I were taller, I would play basketball better. nine0009
If we lived in the city centre, we would go shopping every day. — If we lived in the city center, we would go shopping every day.
If I had learned English better at school, I would not have paid so much for my courses. - If I had studied English better at school, I would not have paid so much for courses.
If he had not been at that party, he would never have met her. If he hadn't come to that party, he would never have met her.
Which part would you use? nine0305 Please remember the universal rule: in conditional sentences after IF neither will nor would do not use !
In addition to the main types of conditional sentences, there is also the so-called mixed type, for the use of which you have to juggle the forms and parts of different types of conditional sentences. If you are interested in this topic, when you finish reading this article, follow the links and study the nuances of conditional sentences. Everything is easier than it might seem.
5. Would = Used to
The higher the level, the more difficult the grammar. And at some point you come across the used to construction, which is used to describe habitual, repetitive actions in the past that are no longer repeated in the present:
I used to play with dolls when I was a child. — As a child, I often played with dolls.
We used to go to the park every weekend. We went to the park every weekend.
So, in this case, in addition to used to, you can also use would:
I would play with dolls when I was a child. — As a child, I often played with dolls.
We would go to the park every weekend. We went to the park every weekend.
But note that would replaces used to only with action verbs, not with state verbs. And also on the site there is a separate article devoted to used to and would.
6. Typical Behavior and Criticizing Behavior
The next use case for would is a bit similar to the previous one. Again, this is about the past. Only in this case would is used to describe the typical behavior of a person in the past. nine0009
When I was younger, I would read for hours. When I was younger, I read for hours.
My grandfather would sit in his armchair watching TV. My grandfather often sat in an armchair and watched TV.
Learn about 9 ways to talk about habits in English.
When criticizing someone's behavior, would is also used, which is stressed in a sentence for effect:
She was friendly and nice, but she would interrupt others. – She was nice and friendly but liked to interrupt others
Would can also be found in sentences where it is used to express criticism and disapproval of a certain action in the past, in the sense of "this is in your spirit":
You would leave the door open, you are so absent-minded. - Not closing the door is your style, you are so absent-minded.
Criticizing someone's action, we can say: "I would never have done that":
I would never have said what he said. “I would never have said what he said.
7. Willingness (expression of readiness/unreadiness)
Let's unite two extremes under the concept of willingness: the expression of refusal and the expression of demand.
This is perhaps the most complex and little described use case, so you need to learn how to recognize it. It is practically not mentioned in textbooks, but is often found in colloquial speech.
Would not is used to express a refusal in the past. In this meaning, would not means refused to do something and is emphasized in speech:
He could see she was crying but she wouldn't tell him the reason why. He saw that she was crying, but she did not explain the reason.
I invited them to my house but they wouldn't come. I invited them to the house, but they didn't come in.
The laptop wouldn't work yesterday again. The laptop didn't work again yesterday.
In addition, speaking of past events, would can convey a demand, an insistent request, and denote the same thing as insisted on doing something. In this meaning it is less common than in the previous one. nine0009
I wanted to change the topic, but she would go on about her job. He wanted to change the subject, but she continued talking about work.
8. Wish + would
I'm sure you've seen sentences where wish was next to would. Would is used to politely express a wish about someone's behavior or command:
I wish you would stop talking on the phone. = Please, stop talking on the phone. I would like/ask you to stop talking on the phone. nine0009
Also, to express dissatisfaction and criticism of someone's annoying behavior or annoying situation, to express a desire to change someone's behavior:
I wish she would not boast. I wish she didn't brag.
More examples and explanations in the article "Using the word wish in English sentences".
9. Preferences (would rather, would sooner)
And again, the Russian language allows us to draw clear parallels with English. To express preference when you say "I'd rather do one than the other" use would rather or would sooner:
I'd rather work at home, if there is such an option. I would prefer to work from home if possible.
I'd rather not discuss it. Sorry, I'd rather not discuss this.
He would sooner die than talk to them. He would rather die than talk to them.
I hope this article sorted everything out in your knowledge locker called “Modal verb would”. We have identified 9 use cases, of course, there were exceptions. Please remember these seven meanings and functions of the verb would, and whenever you meet it in English speech, determine its purpose. nine0009
And to consolidate your knowledge, I suggest you use it right now! Here are nine example sentences, each of which uses the verb would.