Relationship disorders symptoms
Personality disorders - Symptoms and causes
A personality disorder is a type of mental disorder in which you have a rigid and unhealthy pattern of thinking, functioning and behaving. A person with a personality disorder has trouble perceiving and relating to situations and people. This causes significant problems and limitations in relationships, social activities, work and school.
In some cases, you may not realize that you have a personality disorder because your way of thinking and behaving seems natural to you. And you may blame others for the challenges you face.
Personality disorders usually begin in the teenage years or early adulthood. There are many types of personality disorders. Some types may become less obvious throughout middle age.
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Types of personality disorders are grouped into three clusters, based on similar characteristics and symptoms. Many people with one personality disorder also have signs and symptoms of at least one additional personality disorder. It's not necessary to exhibit all the signs and symptoms listed for a disorder to be diagnosed.
Cluster A personality disorders
Cluster A personality disorders are characterized by odd, eccentric thinking or behavior. They include paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder.
Paranoid personality disorder
- Pervasive distrust and suspicion of others and their motives
- Unjustified belief that others are trying to harm or deceive you
- Unjustified suspicion of the loyalty or trustworthiness of others
- Hesitancy to confide in others due to unreasonable fear that others will use the information against you
- Perception of innocent remarks or nonthreatening situations as personal insults or attacks
- Angry or hostile reaction to perceived slights or insults
- Tendency to hold grudges
- Unjustified, recurrent suspicion that spouse or sexual partner is unfaithful
Schizoid personality disorder
- Lack of interest in social or personal relationships, preferring to be alone
- Limited range of emotional expression
- Inability to take pleasure in most activities
- Inability to pick up normal social cues
- Appearance of being cold or indifferent to others
- Little or no interest in having sex with another person
Schizotypal personality disorder
- Peculiar dress, thinking, beliefs, speech or behavior
- Odd perceptual experiences, such as hearing a voice whisper your name
- Flat emotions or inappropriate emotional responses
- Social anxiety and a lack of or discomfort with close relationships
- Indifferent, inappropriate or suspicious response to others
- "Magical thinking" — believing you can influence people and events with your thoughts
- Belief that certain casual incidents or events have hidden messages meant only for you
Cluster B personality disorders
Cluster B personality disorders are characterized by dramatic, overly emotional or unpredictable thinking or behavior. They include antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder and narcissistic personality disorder.
Antisocial personality disorder
- Disregard for others' needs or feelings
- Persistent lying, stealing, using aliases, conning others
- Recurring problems with the law
- Repeated violation of the rights of others
- Aggressive, often violent behavior
- Disregard for the safety of self or others
- Impulsive behavior
- Consistently irresponsible
- Lack of remorse for behavior
Borderline personality disorder
- Impulsive and risky behavior, such as having unsafe sex, gambling or binge eating
- Unstable or fragile self-image
- Unstable and intense relationships
- Up and down moods, often as a reaction to interpersonal stress
- Suicidal behavior or threats of self-injury
- Intense fear of being alone or abandoned
- Ongoing feelings of emptiness
- Frequent, intense displays of anger
- Stress-related paranoia that comes and goes
Histrionic personality disorder
- Constantly seeking attention
- Excessively emotional, dramatic or sexually provocative to gain attention
- Speaks dramatically with strong opinions, but few facts or details to back them up
- Easily influenced by others
- Shallow, rapidly changing emotions
- Excessive concern with physical appearance
- Thinks relationships with others are closer than they really are
Narcissistic personality disorder
- Belief that you're special and more important than others
- Fantasies about power, success and attractiveness
- Failure to recognize others' needs and feelings
- Exaggeration of achievements or talents
- Expectation of constant praise and admiration
- Unreasonable expectations of favors and advantages, often taking advantage of others
- Envy of others or belief that others envy you
Cluster C personality disorders
Cluster C personality disorders are characterized by anxious, fearful thinking or behavior. They include avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
Avoidant personality disorder
- Too sensitive to criticism or rejection
- Feeling inadequate, inferior or unattractive
- Avoidance of work activities that require interpersonal contact
- Socially inhibited, timid and isolated, avoiding new activities or meeting strangers
- Extreme shyness in social situations and personal relationships
- Fear of disapproval, embarrassment or ridicule
Dependent personality disorder
- Excessive dependence on others and feeling the need to be taken care of
- Submissive or clingy behavior toward others
- Fear of having to provide self-care or fend for yourself if left alone
- Lack of self-confidence, requiring excessive advice and reassurance from others to make even small decisions
- Difficulty starting or doing projects on your own due to lack of self-confidence
- Difficulty disagreeing with others, fearing disapproval
- Tolerance of poor or abusive treatment, even when other options are available
- Urgent need to start a new relationship when a close one has ended
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
- Preoccupation with details, orderliness and rules
- Extreme perfectionism, resulting in dysfunction and distress when perfection is not achieved, such as feeling unable to finish a project because you don't meet your own strict standards
- Desire to be in control of people, tasks and situations, and inability to delegate tasks
- Neglect of friends and enjoyable activities because of excessive commitment to work or a project
- Inability to discard broken or worthless objects
- Rigid and stubborn
- Inflexible about morality, ethics or values
- Tight, miserly control over budgeting and spending money
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is not the same as obsessive-compulsive disorder, a type of anxiety disorder.
When to see a doctor
If you have any signs or symptoms of a personality disorder, see your doctor or other primary care professional or a mental health professional. Untreated, personality disorders can cause significant problems in your life that may get worse without treatment.
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Personality is the combination of thoughts, emotions and behaviors that makes you unique. It's the way you view, understand and relate to the outside world, as well as how you see yourself. Personality forms during childhood, shaped through an interaction of:
- Your genes. Certain personality traits may be passed on to you by your parents through inherited genes. These traits are sometimes called your temperament.
- Your environment. This involves the surroundings you grew up in, events that occurred, and relationships with family members and others.
Personality disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of these genetic and environmental influences. Your genes may make you vulnerable to developing a personality disorder, and a life situation may trigger the actual development.
Although the precise cause of personality disorders is not known, certain factors seem to increase the risk of developing or triggering personality disorders, including:
- Family history of personality disorders or other mental illness
- Abusive, unstable or chaotic family life during childhood
- Being diagnosed with childhood conduct disorder
- Variations in brain chemistry and structure
Personality disorders can significantly disrupt the lives of both the affected person and those who care about that person. Personality disorders may cause problems with relationships, work or school, and can lead to social isolation or alcohol or drug abuse.
By Mayo Clinic Staff
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Symptoms, What It is, Causes, and More
What is obsessive love disorder?
“Obsessive love disorder” (OLD) refers to a condition where you become obsessed with one person you think you may be in love with. You might feel the need to protect your loved one obsessively, or even become controlling of them as if they were a possession.
While no separate medical or psychological classification exists for OLD, it can often accompany other types of mental health illnesses. Talk to your doctor if you think you or a loved one may have the disorder. Treatment can help decrease the symptoms while also preventing complications with relationships.
Symptoms of OLD may include:
- an overwhelming attraction to one person
- obsessive thoughts about the person
- feeling the need to “protect” the person you’re in love with
- possessive thoughts and actions
- extreme jealousy over other interpersonal interactions
- low self-esteem
People who have OLD may also not take rejection easily. In some cases, the symptoms could worsen at the end of a relationship or if the other person rejects you. There are other signs of this disorder, such as:
- repeated texts, emails, and phone calls to the person they’re interested in
- a constant need for reassurance
- difficulty having friendships or maintaining contact with family members because of the obsession over one person
- monitoring the actions of the other person
- controlling where the other person goes and the activities they engage in
There’s no one single cause of OLD. Instead, it may be linked to other types of mental health disabilities such as:
This group of disorders refers to people who have emotional attachment issues, such as a lack of empathy or an obsession with another person.
Types of attachment disorders include disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) and reactive attachment disorder (RAD), and they both develop during childhood from negative experiences with parents or other adult caregivers.
In DSED, you might be overly friendly and not take precautions around strangers. With RAD, you may feel stressed and have problems getting along with others.
Borderline personality disorder
This mental health disorder is characterized by a disturbance with self-image coupled with severe mood swings. Borderline personality disorder can cause you to be extremely angry to extremely happy within a matter of minutes or hours.
Anxious and depressive episodes also occur. When considering obsessive love disorder, personality disorders can cause switches between extreme love for a person to extreme disdain.
Based on delusions (events or facts you believe to be true), this disorder is exhibited by an insistence on things that are already proven false. When it comes to obsessive love, delusional jealousy can cause you to believe the other person has reciprocated their feelings for you, even if they’ve made it clear this is indeed not true.
According to a 2005 study, delusional jealousy may be linked to alcoholism in men.
This disorder is an intersection between delusional and obsessive love disorders. With erotomania, you believe that someone famous or of a higher social status is in love with you. This can lead to harassment of the other person, such as showing up at their home or workplace.
According to Comprehensive Psychiatry, people with erotomania are often isolated with few friends, and they may even be unemployed.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a combination of obsessive thoughts and compulsive rituals. These are severe enough to interfere with your everyday life. OCD can also cause you to need constant reassurance, which can affect your relationships.
Some people are said to have relationship OCD, where obsessions and compulsions are centered around the relationship. However, this isn’t an officially recognized subtype of OCD.
Unlike delusional jealousy, obsessional jealousy is a nondelusional preoccupation with a partner’s perceived infidelity. This preoccupation can lead to repetitive and compulsive behaviors in response to infidelity concerns. These behaviors resemble OCD more so than delusional jealousy. This can cause significant distress or impair everyday functioning.
OLD is diagnosed with a thorough evaluation from a psychiatrist or other mental health professional. First, they will interview you by asking you questions about your symptoms, as well as your relationships. They’ll also ask you about your family and whether any known mental health illnesses exist.
A medical diagnosis from your primary doctor may also be needed to rule out other causes. Since obsessive love disorder intersects with other forms of mental health disabilities, it’s not classified on the American Psychological Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).
For unknown reasons, OLD affects more women than men.
The precise treatment plan for this disorder depends on the underlying cause. However, it often involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.
Medications can be used to adjust brain chemicals. In turn, this can reduce the symptoms of the disorder. Your doctor may recommend one of the following:
- anti-anxiety medications, such as Valium and Xanax
- antidepressants, such as Prozac, Paxil, or Zoloft
- mood stabilizers
It can take several weeks for your medication to work. You may also need to try different types until you find the one that works best for you. Talk to your doctor about possible side effects, such as:
- appetite changes
- dry mouth
- loss of libido
- weight gain
- worsening symptoms
Therapy is also helpful for all forms of OLD. Sometimes it’s helpful for families to be involved with therapy sessions, especially if obsessive love disorder stems from issues during childhood. Depending on the severity of the disorder and your personal preferences, you might engage in individual or group therapy. Sometimes a mental health professional will recommend both types.
Therapy options include:
- cognitive behavioral therapy
- dialectical behavioral therapy
- play therapy (for children)
- talk therapy
While OLD is gaining more attention, it’s relatively rare. It’s estimated that less than 0.1 percent of people have the disorder.
If you or a loved one has possible symptoms of obsessive love disorder, you should see a doctor. They may refer you to a psychiatrist to help determine whether you truly have OLD. You may also have another mental health illness.
When diagnosed and treated, OLD may have a positive outcome. The key, however, is to not quit therapy or treatment if you think you’re feeling better. Suddenly stopping your treatment can worsen symptoms, or make them return.
12 Signs of an Unhealthy and Painful Relationship
March 2, 2017 Relationships
Unhealthy relationships in a couple are sometimes difficult to recognize, as the damage is not immediately apparent. However, they are slowly poisoning life. There are several ways to distinguish healthy relationships from destructive ones.
Signs of an unhealthy relationship
1. Your partner constantly competes with you
For inexplicable reasons, your companion constantly compares himself to you and wants to show that he is better and cooler in everything. Often such a demonstration takes place in public, and every word you say becomes a hook for a fierce argument. Your partner uses every opportunity to assert themselves at your expense and devalue your achievements.
In a healthy relationship, both partners improve themselves and develop harmoniously. In an unhealthy relationship, you are perceived as a rival who must be defeated in any way in order to get the palm.
2. You feel as if all your energy has been sucked out of you.
Relationships affect our health and well-being. If you've been sleeping less, lost or gained weight, and are constantly feeling like a squeezed lemon, you may have an energy vampire near you.
Such people feed on the energy of other people and rejoice every time they take away other people's strength. In such relationships, you physically lack the resources, strength and desire to do something. Apathy covers you, and your own failure and depression come to the fore.
3.You are always to blame for all mortal sins
In an unhealthy relationship, the partner does not see the cause of problems and failures in his actions and is always inclined to transfer the blame to others, especially to you. You find yourself to blame for everything, including his mistakes and things beyond your control.
Your only task is to take the hit and not to piss off your partner, preventing his more frequent outbursts of anger. Sometimes you want to run away from it and stay away from your companion.
4. They constantly want to change and improve you
Do not forget that a mature and strong relationship is based on accepting a partner as he is. In unhealthy relationships, you are compared to others, while you are openly told or politely hinted that you would do well to change something in yourself in order to become better.
Perhaps you should lose or gain weight, cut or grow your hair, change your image or throw away half of your wardrobe. You always lack something in order for your partner to be completely satisfied with you.
5. Partner speaks only about himself
Your companion is not able to sympathize and empathize with others. These people have problems with emotional intelligence and empathy. The partner is not able to put himself in the place of another person, and he does not set himself such a task, because he considers himself the center of the Universe. Does he talk about himself all the time? It seems that next to you is an exemplary narcissist.
Narcissists are so carried away and self-absorbed that they do not notice what is happening around them at all. As a rule, such people talk a lot about themselves and often interrupt others, do not ask any questions and, in principle, do not know how to listen. The needs, desires and feelings of such a person always turn out to be more important than yours, since in their picture of the world everything should revolve around their person.
6.All your actions are criticized
Everything you do or say is a priori bad. No matter how hard you try, your companion will always find a reason to find fault and criticize you and your thoughts. The cooked omelette will be too salty, and the dress too short.
You will always be wrong. There is no point in making excuses or proving the opposite — all the same, there will be new reasons for dissatisfaction. No evidence and arguments will help - such a person hears only himself.
7. Partner controls all your actions
Your companion is literally obsessed with the desire to subdue your whole life. He certainly needs to know where and with whom you are, what you eat and what you are wearing now. Even if you meet with pregnant girlfriends, they will definitely call you and offer to pick up early.
Sometimes such control can be mistaken for care, but in fact your partner felt like the master of your life. People who are in healthy and harmonious relationships understand that having their own life and hobbies outside of the relationship is normal and even beneficial for the couple.
8. You are jealous of everyone and everything
Sometimes jealousy is a pleasant feeling. We are all a little flattered that someone else likes us, and we are jealous (which means they love us). But the main thing in everything is the measure. Some people turn into real tyrants, try to completely subjugate their soulmate and perceive it as property. Sometimes it comes to public humiliation with a showdown.
The partner does not trust you, reads all your messages and makes scandals because of harmless Facebook conversations*. Jealous people see treason in everything and can easily lead to hysteria with their questions. Goofy, terrorizing jealousy inevitably destroys your self-esteem, you begin to fear the wrath of your partner.
9. Partner is constantly offended
Your life is not without drama, and all your actions offend your partner to tears: he pouts, leaves, clearly shows how badly you did, and demonstrates how much you hurt his feelings. After this, you feel like a bad person, a cruel monster, and your companion enjoys the scandal.
Any attempt to talk ends with a new insult and an accusation of misunderstanding and lack of emotional intelligence. It is possible that your partner is deliberately using this tactic to manipulate your guilt.
10. Partner has not learned to speak your love language
Often people misunderstand the needs of a partner. At first, there is nothing to worry about: you can make up for everything if you want. It is possible and necessary to learn to speak the same language of love. Problems arise if for a long time the partner has not understood what you like and what you really need in love, and not him.
Psychologists identify five love languages: words of encouragement, time, gifts, help, touch. We all need something different from each other. It is important to understand what language of love your companion speaks. Imagine that your love language is time. It is sad if the partner does not understand this and tries to atone for his absence in your life with gifts.
11. Your biorhythms are too different
You still couldn't find a common language and agree on the best time to go to bed and what time to get up. Your partner lives while you sleep, and vice versa. As a result, you get upset and worried when your companion has been playing computer games all night, but slept through your only day off.
In a healthy relationship, it is possible to find a balance and change habits so that both feel comfortable. In an unhealthy relationship, this becomes a cause for mutual frustration.
12. You stopped having sex
It's hard to argue with human nature: physical intimacy and regular sexual life are a necessary attribute of a healthy and strong relationship.
If there is no intimacy in your relationship and tactile contact is reduced to a minimum, this indicates serious problems in the couple's life.
What to do if you see these signs in your relationship
At least this is a reason to think and sound the alarm. Recognizing a problem is the first step towards solving it. If you want your partner to behave differently, talk heart to heart with him and voice the problem. Communication is necessary to resolve conflicts in a relationship.
Remember that changing people without their initiative is "a pointless exercise." If a person wants to change himself and find a way out of the situation together, these relationships still have a chance. Otherwise, it is better to end the painful relationship and give yourself time to recover.
*Activities of Meta Platforms Inc. and its social networks Facebook and Instagram are prohibited in the territory of the Russian Federation.
SIGNS OF MENTAL DISORDERS (WHEN TO SEE A DOCTOR)
Signs of mental disorders, and also the frequency of their occurrence is a common question, exciting people in recent years. This is especially true in connection with the fact that the pace of life is steadily growing, and the resources of human nervous system remain unchanged. Very often mental violations develop gradually, stepwise, introducing features into the psyche a person who was previously not peculiar to him, respectively, there are good chances to notice them in time and provide proper medical care.
According to the latest data, mental disorders are detected in 25-30% of the population, that is, one in four in the world. However, it is noteworthy that while 75-80% are sick non-psychotic, mild mental disorders. serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia occur in 6-17% cases. Alcoholism - in 60%.
It must be remembered that mental disorder is not a sentence, because with sufficient and timely treatment by a specialist, as well as a responsible attitude and attention to their condition, the symptoms of mental disorders can be stopped, (and often the disorder itself can be completely cured), which will help to maintain the former social, professional status and quality of life.
This condition may accompany any mental disorders and many of the somatic diseases. Asthenia expressed in weakness, low performance, mood swings, increased sensitivity. A person starts crying easily, instantly gets irritated and loses his temper. Often asthenia is accompanied sleep disturbances, feeling of weakness, increased fatigue, inability to cope with the usual workload, study.
A wide range of obsessions includes many manifestations: from constant doubts, unpleasant thoughts, "stuck, spinning in the head", fears with which a person does not able to cope, to an irresistible desire for purity or performing certain unusual actions. Under the control of the obsessive state, a person can return home several times in order to check whether he turned off the iron, gas, water, whether he closed the door with a key. An obsessive fear of an accident can force the patient to perform some rituals that, according to the sufferer, can avert trouble. If you notice that your friend or relative washes his hands for hours, became overly squeamish and is always afraid of getting infected with something - this also obsession. The desire not to step on cracks in the asphalt, joints tiles, avoidance of certain modes of transport or people in clothing a certain color or type is also an obsessive state.
It is especially important to pay attention not to how much for short-term changes under the influence of momentary factors, how much for mood changes that were not previously characteristic a person, long-term, from 2 weeks or more.
- Longing, depression, longing for self-accusations, talk about their own worthlessness, sinfulness, about death, lack of future, hope for the best, etc.
- Unnatural frivolity, carelessness.
- Foolishness, not characteristic of age and character.
- Euphoric state, optimism without any basis.
- Apathy, painful feeling of lack of emotions.
- Fussiness, talkativeness, inability to concentrate, confused thinking.
- Irritability, anger, aggressiveness
- Inability to control emotions, tearfulness, slight breakdowns in conversation natural bashfulness, inability to restrain sexual desires or vice versa, the disappearance of libido, the absence of a morning erection in men
Unusual sensations in the body.
Stinging, burning in the skin, sensations burning, “twisting” pressure in the body, stirring “something inside”, "rustling in the head", the presence of foreign objects in the body - can signal disturbances in the nervous system.
Expressed in an obsessive, obsessive search for themselves of serious illnesses and disorders, painful "listening" to the slightest change in the state of your body. At the same time, the patient often does not trust doctors, requires repeated and deeper research, completely focused on finding difficult diseases, requires to be treated as a patient.
It is important to pay attention as a sudden increased appetite - "wolfish appetite", and its sharp decrease and perversion of taste preferences. The reason may be as in the disease gastrointestinal tract, and in the general depression of the state, or painful conviction of excessive fullness in its absence. Also it is important if previously tasty food has lost its taste, has become bland, tasteless, "like cardboard."
Do not confuse illusions with hallucinations. Illusions force a person to perceive real objects and phenomena in distorted form, while in hallucinations a person feels something that in reality does not exist.
Examples of illusions:
- the pattern on the wallpaper seems to be an interweaving of snakes or worms;
- sizes of objects are perceived in a distorted form;
- the sound of raindrops on the windowsill seems to be the cautious steps of someone terrible;
- the shadows of the trees turn into terrible creatures crawling up with frightening intentions, etc.
Hallucinations not guess, then susceptibility to hallucinations can manifest itself more noticeable. Hallucinations can affect all the senses, that is be visual and auditory, tactile and gustatory, olfactory and common, as well as combined in any combination. To the sick all he is sees, hears and feels, seems completely real. He may not believe that all this is not felt, not heard, not seen by others. Them he can perceive bewilderment as a conspiracy, deceit, mockery, get irritated at not being understood.
- Auditory hallucinations human hears various kinds of noise, fragments of words or coherent phrases. Voices can give commands or comment on every action of the patient, laugh at him or discuss his thoughts.
- Taste and olfactory hallucinations often cause a sensation of an unpleasant quality: a disgusting taste or smell.
- For tactile hallucinations, the patient it seems that someone is biting him, touching him, strangling him, that they are crawling on him insects that some creatures are introduced into his body and there move or eat the body from the inside.
- Outwardly susceptibility to hallucinations expressed in conversations with an invisible interlocutor, sudden laughter or constant intense listening to something. The patient can always to shake off something, to cry out, to examine oneself with preoccupied look or ask others if they see something on his body or in the surrounding space.
Changes in thinking
Previously uncharacteristic overestimation own abilities or abilities, confidence in one's own exclusivity, passion for esotericism, magic, suddenly appeared belief in the supernatural. The rate at which thoughts flow in the head can also change, or become uncomfortably slow, or so fast that sometimes it is very difficult to concentrate on one thought.
Delusional states often accompany psychoses. Delusion is based on erroneous judgments, and the patient stubbornly maintains its false belief, even if there are obvious contradictions with reality. Crazy ideas acquire significance that determines everything behavior. Delusional disorders can be expressed in an erotic form, or in the conviction of one's great mission, in descent from a noble kind or aliens. It may seem to the patient that someone is trying to kill or poison, rob or kidnap. Sometimes the development of delusional state is preceded by a feeling of unreality of the surrounding world or own personality.
There are people who are unsociable and unsociable in strength of his character. This is normal and should not arouse suspicion. mental disorders. But if a born merry fellow, the soul company, a family man and a good friend suddenly begins to destroy social connections, becomes unsociable, shows coldness towards those who have recently was dear to him - this is a reason to worry about his mental health. A person becomes sloppy, stops taking care of himself, maybe quit your job for no good reason, abandon your career, former goals and interests, in society can begin to behave shockingly - commit acts that are considered indecent and unacceptable.