Personality type test letters

Myers & Briggs' 16 Personality Types

Explore our in-depth descriptions of each of the 16 personality types to learn more about yourself and your loved ones. Or, if you're not sure which personality type fits you, take our free personality test .

The 16 personality types were created by Isabel Myers and Katharine Briggs, developers of the MBTI® assessment. Myers and Briggs created their personality typology to help people discover their own strengths and gain a better understanding of how people are different.

When you discover your own personality type, you'll understand more clearly why you do the things you do. You will gain confidence in your strengths and be better able to make decisions that suit your true nature.

Find Your Type


The Healer

INFPs are imaginative idealists, guided by their own core values and beliefs. To a Healer, possibilities are paramount; the reality of the moment is only of passing concern. They see potential for a better future, and pursue truth and meaning with their own flair.


The Mastermind

INTJs are analytical problem-solvers, eager to improve systems and processes with their innovative ideas. They have a talent for seeing possibilities for improvement, whether at work, at home, or in themselves.


The Counselor

INFJs are creative nurturers with a strong sense of personal integrity and a drive to help others realize their potential. Creative and dedicated, they have a talent for helping others with original solutions to their personal challenges.


The Architect

INTPs are philosophical innovators, fascinated by logical analysis, systems, and design. They are preoccupied with theory, and search for the universal law behind everything they see. They want to understand the unifying themes of life, in all their complexity.


The Champion

ENFPs are people-centered creators with a focus on possibilities and a contagious enthusiasm for new ideas, people and activities. Energetic, warm, and passionate, ENFPs love to help other people explore their creative potential.


The Commander

ENTJs are strategic leaders, motivated to organize change. They are quick to see inefficiency and conceptualize new solutions, and enjoy developing long-range plans to accomplish their vision. They excel at logical reasoning and are usually articulate and quick-witted.


The Visionary

ENTPs are inspired innovators, motivated to find new solutions to intellectually challenging problems. They are curious and clever, and seek to comprehend the people, systems, and principles that surround them.


The Teacher

ENFJs are idealist organizers, driven to implement their vision of what is best for humanity. They often act as catalysts for human growth because of their ability to see potential in other people and their charisma in persuading others to their ideas.


The Protector

ISFJs are industrious caretakers, loyal to traditions and organizations. They are practical, compassionate, and caring, and are motivated to provide for others and protect them from the perils of life.


The Composer

ISFPs are gentle caretakers who live in the present moment and enjoy their surroundings with cheerful, low-key enthusiasm. They are flexible and spontaneous, and like to go with the flow to enjoy what life has to offer.


The Inspector

ISTJs are responsible organizers, driven to create and enforce order within systems and institutions. They are neat and orderly, inside and out, and tend to have a procedure for everything they do.


The Craftsperson

ISTPs are observant artisans with an understanding of mechanics and an interest in troubleshooting. They approach their environments with a flexible logic, looking for practical solutions to the problems at hand.


The Provider

ESFJs are conscientious helpers, sensitive to the needs of others and energetically dedicated to their responsibilities. They are highly attuned to their emotional environment and attentive to both the feelings of others and the perception others have of them.


The Performer

ESFPs are vivacious entertainers who charm and engage those around them. They are spontaneous, energetic, and fun-loving, and take pleasure in the things around them: food, clothes, nature, animals, and especially people.


The Supervisor

ESTJs are hardworking traditionalists, eager to take charge in organizing projects and people. Orderly, rule-abiding, and conscientious, ESTJs like to get things done, and tend to go about projects in a systematic, methodical way.


The Dynamo

ESTPs are energetic thrillseekers who are at their best when putting out fires, whether literal or metaphorical. They bring a sense of dynamic energy to their interactions with others and the world around them.


Personality typing is a system of categorizing people according to their tendencies to think and act in particular ways. Personality typing attempts to find the broadest, most important ways in which people are different, and make sense of these differences by sorting people into meaningful groups.

What is personality typing?

The personality types described here were created by Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katharine Briggs, in the 1960's. Their theories were based on the work of psychologist Carl Jung, although they extended his ideas to create a more complete framework of personality typing. Myers and Briggs proposed that there were four key dimensions that could be used to categorize people:

  • Introversion vs. Extraversion
  • Sensing vs. Intuition
  • Thinking vs. Feeling
  • Judging vs. Perceiving

Each of the four dimensions was described as a dichotomy, or an either/or choice between two styles of being. Myers and Briggs described this as a "preference" and proposed that any individual should be able to identify a preferred style on each of the four dimensions. The sum of a person's four preferred styles becomes their personality type.

Myers and Briggs theorized that our preferences on each of the four dimensions would combine to create predictable patterns in thought and behavior, so that people with the same four preferences would share many commonalities in the way they approach their lives, from the hobbies they choose to the work that might suit them.

What is the meaning of the four letters in a personality type?

Each of the four letters in a personality type code stands for a preference in your style of thinking or behaving.

I/E: Introversion or Extraversion

The Introversion/Extraversion dimension describes how a person manages their energy.

Introverts are energized by spending quiet time alone or with a small group. They tend to be more reserved and thoughtful.

Extraverts are energized by spending time with people and in busy, active surroundings. They tend to be more expressive and outspoken.

S/N: Sensing or iNtuition

The Sensing/Intuition dimension describes how an individual processes information.

Sensors focus on their five senses and are interested in information they can directly see, hear, feel, and so on. They tend to be hands-on learners and are often described as "practical."

Intuitives focus on a more abstract level of thinking; they are more interested in theories, patterns, and explanations. They are often more concerned with the future than the present and are often described as "creative."

T/F: Thinking or Feeling

The Thinking/Feeling dimension describes how people make decisions.

Thinkers tend to make decisions with their heads; they are interested in finding the most logical, reasonable choice.

Feelers tend to make decisions with their hearts; they are interested in how a decision will affect people, and whether it fits in with their values.

J/P: Judging or Perceiving

The Judging/Perceiving dimension describes how people approach structure in their lives.

Judgers appreciate structure and order; they like things planned, and dislike last-minute changes.

Perceivers appreciate flexibility and spontaneity; they like to leave things open so they can change their minds.

How do I know which personality type I am?

Easy—take our in-depth personality type test!


THE FINE PRINT: Myers-Briggs® and MBTI® are registered trademarks of the MBTI Trust, Inc., which has no affiliation with this site. Truity offers a free personality test based on Myers and Briggs' types, but does not offer the official MBTI® assessment. For more information on the Myers Briggs Type Indicator® assessment, please go here.

Personality Type Explained


According to Carl G. Jung's theory of psychological types [Jung, 1971], people can be characterized by their preference of general attitude:

  • Extraverted (E) vs. Introverted (I),

their preference of one of the two functions of perception:

  • Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (N),

and their preference of one of the two functions of judging:

  • Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F)

The three areas of preferences introduced by Jung are dichotomies (i.e. bipolar dimensions where each pole represents a different preference). Jung also proposed that in a person one of the four functions above is dominant – either a function of perception or a function of judging. Isabel Briggs Myers, a researcher and practitioner of Jung’s theory, proposed to see the judging-perceiving relationship as a fourth dichotomy influencing personality type [Briggs Myers, 1980]:

  • Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P)

The first criterion, Extraversion – Introversion, signifies the source and direction of a person’s energy expression. An extravert’s source and direction of energy expression is mainly in the external world, while an introvert has a source of energy mainly in their own internal world.

The second criterion, Sensing – Intuition, represents the method by which someone perceives information. Sensing means that a person mainly believes information he or she receives directly from the external world. Intuition means that a person believes mainly information he or she receives from the internal or imaginative world.

The third criterion, Thinking – Feeling, represents how a person processes information. Thinking means that a person makes a decision mainly through logic. Feeling means that, as a rule, he or she makes a decision based on emotion, i.e. based on what they feel they should do.

The fourth criterion, Judging – Perceiving, reflects how a person implements the information he or she has processed. Judging means that a person organizes all of his life events and, as a rule, sticks to his plans. Perceiving means that he or she is inclined to improvise and explore alternative options.

All possible permutations of preferences in the 4 dichotomies above yield 16 different combinations, or personality types, representing which of the two poles in each of the four dichotomies dominates in a person, thus defining 16 different personality types. Each personality type can be assigned a 4 letter acronym of the corresponding combination of preferences:

The 16 personality types

The first letter in the personality type acronym corresponds to the first letter of the preference of general attitude - “E” for extraversion and “I” for introversion.

The second letter in the personality type acronym corresponds to the preference within the sensing-intuition dimension: “S” stands for sensing and “N” stands for intuition.

The third letter in the personality type acronym corresponds to the preference within the thinking-feeling pair: “T” stands for thinking and “F” stands for feeling.

The forth letter in the personality type acronym corresponds to a person’s preference within the judging-perceiving pair: “J” for judging and “P” for perception.

For example:

  • ISTJ stands for Introverted, Sensing, Thinking, Judging
  • ENFP stands for Extraverted, iNtuitive, Feeling, Perceiving

What is your personality type? Take the Test!


What do percentages next to the personality type words or letters mean?

Humanmetrics Jung Typology Test™ (JTT™) and Jung Typology Profiler for Workplace™ (JTPW™) instrument determine the expressiveness of each of the four personality type dimensions (Extraversion vs. Introversion, Sensing vs. Intuition, Thinking vs. Feeling, and Judging vs. Perceiving.)

In JTT™ and JTPW™, the scales of these four dimensions represent a continuum between two opposite poles, from 100 at one pole to 100 at another pole. I.e. Extravert-Introvert dimension is a continuum from 100 on Extraversion (i.e.  respondent is a 100% extravert) to 100 on Introversion (i.e.  respondent is a 100% introvert). In other words the scale is 200 units long:

Extravert [100% - - - 0% - - - 100%] Introvert

People may reveal features of both poles but typically have a preference of one way over the other. The letter indicates the preference and the percentage indicates the extent of it.

The E-I score of 0% means the respondent is at the borderline between being an extravert and an introvert. Having Extraversion score of greater than 0 - e.g. 20% - means being 20% more slanted toward Extraversion over Introversion. Having Introversion score of greater than 0 - e.g. 20% - means being 20% more slanted toward Introversion over Extraversion.

The same pertains to the S-N, T-F, and J-P dichotomies.

Jung called Extraversion-Introversion preference general attitude, since it reflects an individual’s attitude toward the external world distinguished by the “direction of general interest” [Jung, 1971]: the extravert maintains affinity for, and sources energy from the outer world, whereas the introvert is the other way around – their general interest is directed toward their inner world, which is the source of their energy.

As mentioned above, Jung introduced a pair of judging functions - thinking and feeling - and a pair of perception functions – sensing (or “sensation”), and intuition.

Sensing-Intuition preference represents the method by which one perceives information: Sensing means an individual mainly relies on concrete, actual information - “in so far as objects release sensations, they matter” [1], whereas Intuition means a person relies upon their conception about things based on their understanding of the world. Thinking-Feeling preference indicates the way an individual processes information. Thinking preference means an individual makes decisions based on logical reasoning, and is less affected by feelings and emotions. Feeling preference means that an individual's base for decisions is mainly feelings and emotions.

Jung introduced the idea of hierarchy and direction of psychological functions. According to Jung, one of the psychological functions - a function from either judging or perception pair – would be primary (also called dominant). In other words, one pole of the poles of the two dichotomies (Sensing-Feeling and Thinking-Feeling) dominates over the rest of the poles. The Extraversion-Introversion preference sets the direction of the dominant function: the direction points to the source of energy that feeds it – i.e. to the outer world for extraverts and to the inner world for introverts.

Jung suggested that a function from the other pair would be secondary (also called auxiliary) but still be “a determining factor” [Jung, 1971]. I.e. if Intuition is dominant, then the auxiliary one is either Thinking or Feeling. If Sensing is dominant, then the auxiliary one can also be either Thinking or Feeling. However, if Thinking is dominant, then the auxiliary one is either Sensing or Intuition, and if Feeling is dominant then the auxiliary one is either Sensing or Intuition. In other words, the auxiliary function never belongs to the same dichotomy.

Jung called feeling and thinking types “rational” because they are characterized by the dominance of judging functions that provide reasoning rationale (be it thinking or feeling). “Rational” or Judging preference results in thinking, feelings, response and behaviour that consciously operate in line with certain rules, principles or norms. People with dominant "rational" or judging preference perceive the world as an ordered structure that follows a set of rules.

He called sensing and intuitive types “irrational” because they are characterized by dominance of the functions of perception (either sensing or intuition), and therefore their “commissions and omissions are based not upon reasoned judgment but upon the absolute intensity of perception” [Jung, 1971]. “Irrational” or Perceiving preference operates with opportunities, i.e. with a range of possible outcomes that result from assumed premises or from sensations, mostly driven by the unconscious processes. People with dominant "irrational" or Perceiving preference see the world as a structure that can take various forms and outcomes. It is possible to determine, either by observation or by asking certain questions, preference of Judging vs. Perceiving and the strength thereof in a person.

  1. Jung, C. G. (1971). Psychological types (Collected works of C. G. Jung, volume 6, Chapter X)
  2. Briggs Myers, I. (1980, 1995) Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type

5 personality tests that can decide the fate of an applicant at an interview

Once upon a time, in order to get a job, it was enough to send a resume to the right company without errors, provide good references and answer a couple of questions.

Today, many job seekers notice that success is increasingly dependent on personal rather than professional qualities.

According to the 2014 Trends Report published by consulting agency CEB, 62% of HR professionals use personality tests for recruiting. In 2010 this figure was 50% (according to the research center Aberdeen Group). nine0005

If you haven't come across such practice yet, you still have a chance to prepare for such tests.

What for? Companies are constantly looking for new ways to make sure they are making offers to the right candidates.

Not only do they want to weed out those who can't do the job so as not to waste time and money repeating the process, but they also want to reject those who are ready to leave their place as soon as a new opportunity presents itself.

"Personality tests allow us to analyze behavioral responses associated with professional competence," says Paul Gorrell, Ph.D., founder and director of Progressive Talent. nine0005

Employers use these evaluation systems to compare applicants' performance against the requirements of the position they are applying for. There are no right or wrong answers to personality test questions, just some of them do not correspond to what the employer wants to hear.

"For example, if the job involves active sales, and the applicant is indecisive, not inclined to take risks, and is too slow to adapt to the situation, most likely he is not suitable," explains Gorrell. - "But in the customer service department, such a candidate would come in very handy." nine0005

However, not all assessment methods are the same. Some of them allow you to select ideal candidates with great accuracy, while others can be completely ineffective.

"All means of recruitment are good for development, but not all are good for selection," warns Gorrell.

That is why we decided to evaluate the existing methods. What is the result? Three popular personality tests turned out to be quite acceptable, and two did not pass the test, because they cannot be used to judge the competence of the candidate. nine0005

1. Caliper test (Caliper Profile)

Description: This rating system has been used for 50 years and allows you to determine the presence of certain personal qualities (for example, perseverance or accuracy) that are relevant to work.

Take, for example, the ability to empathize. According to Gorrell, the test is designed to reveal "a combination of qualities that help to find out how well a person understands other people, how flexible and ready to contact. This can come in handy when hiring employees who will be responsible for customer service or implementing changes in the company. ". nine0005

What the questions look like: The candidate is asked to choose the statement that best reflects their point of view and tick the appropriate box on the questionnaire. From the remaining options, they are asked to choose the statement that best reflects the candidate's point of view.

For example:
A. Sometimes it's better to lose than to offend someone.
B. I am good at the art of small talk.
Q. We must always follow accepted norms and protocols. nine0037 D. During the working day, I sometimes lose control of the situation.

Conclusion: An effective test! "The Caliper Profile is great for identifying people's motivations," says Gorrell. "Unlike other tests, it evaluates both positive and negative aspects, allowing you to see the big picture."

2. Gallup StrengthsFinder

Description: The test was developed decades ago at the Gallup Institute (which is where all this research is now being done). The authors suggested that other methodologies put too much emphasis on candidates' weaknesses. nine0005

Based on the answers to 177 questions, the researchers draw a conclusion about the positive qualities that the respondent may have. The result includes the 5 strongest qualities that determine success in a particular area of ​​activity.

Let's say the candidate scored the most points on the "positive attitude" item. This means that he will be able to excel in a job that involves constant rejection (for example, in a call center or a fundraising organization). nine0005

If he strives for achievements, then he has the very place in an organizational or managerial position.

What questions look like: Each question consists of two statements.

For example: "I enjoy helping people" and "When I have a difficult task that needs to be done perfectly, I rely on the strengths of my colleagues and do not try to do everything myself."

The respondent must choose the statement that best describes them. In addition, he can indicate that the statement is "extremely accurate" or "neutral". nine0005

Conclusion: An effective test! "Unlike the Caliper Profile, in the Gallup StrengthsFinder, strengths are considered an indicator of a potential employee's success," says Gorrell.

3. Typology Myers-Briggs

Description: This is a very popular personality test that allows you to determine belonging to one of 16 groups based on such qualities as common sense and intuition, extraversion and introversion, rational and sensory perception, planning and reaction. nine0005

For example, if someone says they are an INTJ, know that they are an introvert who relies on intuition, prefers to think rationally and plan their actions.

About 80% of employees hired by Fortune 500 companies pass the Myers-Briggs test. In addition, many companies around the world use it in the recruitment process.

What questions look like: Each question has two possible answers. For example: When communicating with others, do you prefer to reach agreement or listen to new information and opinions? nine0005

The first option is of type J (planning), the second is of type P (reaction).

Conclusion: Failed test! It was originally designed to determine personal preference. "Of course, it can be used for self-knowledge, but it has nothing to do with work," says Gorrell.

HR representatives who select employees on the basis of Myers-Briggs tests may miss out on really valuable people or mistakenly hire those who do not meet their expectations, all because they overly trust the test. nine0005

Even the authors of the test themselves are concerned about the misuse of the methodology, so they published a message on their website asking them not to use it when recruiting and laying all responsibility for the possible consequences on employers.

According to Gorrell, some of the answers to the test questions may generate bias against women and some other groups of respondents.

4. Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire

Description: This test is also called 16PF. It was developed in 1949. psychologist Raymond Kettel, who identified 16 personal qualities that each person possesses to a different extent.

The questionnaire consists of 170 items that can surprise those who are used to ordinary personality tests (including those mentioned above). They offer to describe their reactions to certain events in the work environment, rather than the personality as a whole.

Will you be able to complete everything that you are entrusted with? How do you deal with stressful situations? 16PF is able to answer these questions. nine0005

What questions look like: The candidate can answer "yes", "no" or "don't know" (meaning that he is not sure of the answer or did not understand the question). Examples of statements: "When I'm bored, I "turn off" and start to dream", "When the team needs tactful persuasion, I usually take this role myself."

Conclusion: An effective test! According to Gorrell, 16PF is an effective tool for employee development, because. he evaluates practical decisions, not the individual as a whole.

5. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

Description: This is a personality test to be administered by an objective graduate (such as a psychologist) in order to assess the patient's needs from a therapeutic point of view.

Unlike other tests that can be taken online, MMPI results cannot be interpreted on your own or left to a recruiter. In the workplace, the MMPI is only used in areas of high psychological risk (such as the police). nine0005

What questions look like: Answers can be right or wrong. For example: "I often wake up with a headache" or "Sometimes I feel worthless."

Conclusion: Failed test! "The information that is required to get the test results is irrelevant to the job," says Gorell. "Some companies tried to use this test, got several lawsuits and lost the case."
Translation: Airapetova Olga

free and paid, from a couple of minutes to an hour

At the word "career guidance" the majority recalls the tests of a school psychologist in grades 10-11, which were supposed to help choose a "life's work". But the choice made at 17 is not always the right one.

If you are no longer a student, but still find yourself thinking “Who do I want to be?”, Perhaps you should look at career guidance tests again. We have collected career guidance tests for adults that will help identify the strengths of a person. nine0005

📊 Career guidance from HeadHunter

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MSU psychologist test. After passing, the participant receives a detailed report with graphs and textual recommendations about the career vector and suitable activities. The report is accompanied by a list of the 15 most suitable professions

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Duration: 1 hour
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Test developed by a consultant psychologist at UrFU. Consists of 14 subtests to test professional preferences, different types of thinking and personality aspects. nine0005

The results report can be obtained in two ways. The free report will contain the 7 most suitable professions and professional priorities, while the paid report will contain features of character and thinking that affect work. There is a sample paid report on the site

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Duration: 45 minutes
Cost: 349 R for a full report

In the free part, based on these characteristics, a report is given describing suitable professions. nine0005

In the full version, a description of professional interests and abilities is attached. Sample report

⤴️ Dutch test

Duration: 10-15 minutes
Cost: free

Questionnaire based on the theory of professional choice. According to her, success in professional activity depends on the correspondence between the type of personality and the type of professional environment.

Test summary - a description of the participant's personality type and a list of directions in which he will be most comfortable developing

💎 Potemkina test

Duration: 10-15 minutes
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The test was invented by psychologist Olga Potemkina. 80 questions will help determine the aspirations in professional activity and the values ​​\u200b\u200bthat an ideal job brings to a person.

Test result - a score from 1 to 10 on 8 scales of value orientations - from orientation to power to orientation to freedom

🤖 CareerExplorer

Duration: 30 minutes
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Non-standard English language test built on machine learning. In addition to questions on abilities and hobbies, it is proposed to choose the descriptions of university courses that you like and indicate information about work experience.

As a result, the test-taker receives a list of suitable professions and educational tracks. More career matches will open in the paid report

⚖️ Values ​​Assessment

Duration: 10 minutes
Cost: free

English language test based on work adaptation theory.

Learn more