On campus drinking
College Drinking | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
Harmful and underage college drinking are significant public health problems, and they exact an enormous toll on the lives of students on campuses across the United States.
Drinking at college has become a ritual that students often see as an integral part of their higher education experience. Some students come to college with established drinking habits, and the college environment can lead to a problem. According to a national survey, almost 53 percent of full-time college students ages 18 to 22 drank alcohol in the past month and about 33 percent engaged in binge drinking during that same time frame.1 For the purposes of this survey, binge drinking was defined as consuming 5 drinks or more on one occasion for males and 4 drinks or more for females. However, some college students drink at least twice that amount, a behavior that is often called high-intensity drinking. 2
What is “Binge Drinking?”
Many college alcohol problems are related to binge drinking. NIAAA defines binge drinking as a pattern of drinking alcohol that brings blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to 0.08 percent—or 0.08 grams of alcohol per deciliter—or higher.* For a typical adult, this pattern corresponds to consuming 5 or more drinks (male), or 4 or more drinks (female), in about 2 hours.11
Drinking this way can pose serious health and safety risks, including car crashes, drunk-driving arrests, sexual assaults, and injuries. Over the long term, frequent binge drinking can damage the liver and other organs.
*BAC of 0.08 percent corresponds to 0.08 grams per 100 milliliters.
Consequences of Harmful and Underage College Drinking
Drinking affects college students, their families, and college communities.
The most recent statistics from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) estimate that about 1,519 college students ages 18 to 24 die from alcohol-related unintentional injuries, including motor vehicle crashes. 3
The most recent NIAAA statistics estimate that about 696,000 students ages 18 to 24 are assaulted by another student who has been drinking.4
Although estimating the number of alcohol-related sexual assaults is exceptionally challenging—since sexual assault is typically underreported—researchers have confirmed a long-standing finding that 1 in 5 college women experience sexual assault during their time in college.5 A majority of sexual assaults in college involve alcohol or other substances.6,7 Research continues in order to better understand the relationships between alcohol and sexual assault among college students. Additional national survey data are needed to better estimate the number of alcohol-related assaults.
About one in four college students report experiencing academic difficulties from drinking, such as missing class or getting behind in schoolwork. 8
In a national survey, college students who binge drank alcohol at least three times per week were roughly six times more likely to perform poorly on a test or project as a result of drinking (40 percent vs. 7 percent) than students who drank but never binged. The students who binge drank were also five times more likely to have missed a class (64 percent vs. 12 percent).9
Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)
Around 9 percent of full-time college students ages 18 to 22 meet the criteria for past-year AUD, according to a 2019 national survey.10
Other consequences include suicide attempts, health problems, injuries, unsafe sexual behavior, and driving under the influence of alcohol, as well as vandalism, damage, and involvement with the police.
How Much Is a Drink?
To avoid binge drinking and its consequences, college students (and all people who drink) are advised to track the number of drinks they consume over a given period of time. That is why it is important to know exactly what counts as a drink.
In the United States, a standard drink (or one alcoholic drink-equivalent) is one that contains 0.6 fl oz or 14 grams of pure alcohol (also known as an alcoholic drink- equivalent), which is found in the following:
- 12.0 oz of beer with about 5 percent alcohol content
- 5.0 oz of wine with about 12 percent alcohol content
- 1.5 oz of distilled spirits (e.g., gin, rum, tequila, vodka, and whiskey) with about 40 percent alcohol content
Unfortunately, although the standard drink (or alcoholic drink-equivalent) amounts are helpful for following health guidelines, they may not reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single mixed drink could contain much more alcohol than a standard drink. In addition, the percentage of pure alcohol varies within and across beverage types (e.g., beer, wine, and distilled spirits).
Factors Affecting Student Drinking
Although some students come to college already having some experience with alcohol, certain aspects of college life—such as unstructured time, widespread availability of alcohol, inconsistent enforcement of underage drinking laws, and limited interactions with parents and other adults—can lead to the problem. In fact, college students have higher binge-drinking rates and a higher incidence of driving under the influence of alcohol than their noncollege peers.
The first 6 weeks of freshman year are a vulnerable time for heavy drinking and alcohol-related consequences because of student expectations and social pressures at the start of the academic year.
Factors related to specific college environments also are significant. Students attending schools with strong Greek systems or prominent athletic programs tend to drink more than students at other types of schools. In terms of living arrangements, alcohol consumption is highest among students living in fraternities and sororities and lowest among commuting students who live with their families.
An often overlooked preventive factor involves the continuing influence of parents. Research shows that students who choose not to drink often do so because their parents discussed alcohol use and its adverse consequences with them.
Addressing College Drinking
Ongoing research continues to improve our understanding of how to address the persistent and costly problem of harmful and underage student drinking. Successful efforts typically involve a mix of strategies that target individual students, the student body as a whole, and the broader college community.
Strategies Targeting Individual Students
Individual-level interventions target students, including those in higher risk groups such as first-year students, student athletes, members of Greek organizations, and mandated students. The interventions are designed to change student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to alcohol so they drink less, take fewer risks, and experience fewer harmful consequences.
Categories of individual-level interventions include the following:
- Education and awareness programs
- Cognitive-behavioral skills-based approaches
- Motivation and feedback-related approaches
- Behavioral interventions by health professionals
Strategies Targeting the Campus and Surrounding Community
Environmental-level strategies target the campus community and student body as a whole. They are designed to change the campus and community environments where student drinking occurs. Often, a major goal is to reduce the availability of alcohol, because research shows that reducing alcohol availability cuts consumption and harmful consequences on campuses as well as in the general population.
Alcohol Overdose and College Students
Thousands of college students are transported to the emergency room each year for alcohol overdose, which occurs when there is so much alcohol in the bloodstream that areas of the brain controlling basic life-support functions—such as breathing, heart rate, and temperature control—begin to shut down. Signs of this dangerous condition can include the following:
- Mental confusion, stupor
- Difficulty remaining conscious or inability to wake up
- Slow breathing (fewer than eight breaths per minute)
- Irregular breathing (10 seconds or more between breaths)
- Slow heart rate
- Clammy skin
- Dulled responses, such as no gag reflex (which prevents choking)
- Extremely low body temperature, bluish skin color, or paleness
Alcohol overdose can lead to permanent brain damage or death, so a person showing any of these signs requires immediate medical attention. Do not wait for the person to have all the symptoms, and be aware that a person who has passed out can die. Call 911 if you suspect alcohol overdose.
A Mix of Strategies Is Best
For more information on individual- and environmental-level strategies, visit NIAAA's CollegeAIM (which stands for College Alcohol Intervention Matrix) guide and interactive website. Revised and updated in 2020, CollegeAIM rates more than 60 alcohol interventions for effectiveness, cost, and other factors—and presents the information in a user-friendly and accessible way.
In general, the most effective interventions in CollegeAIM represent a range of counseling options and policies related to sales and access. After analyzing alcohol problems at their own schools, officials can use the CollegeAIM ratings to find the best combination of interventions for their students and unique circumstances.
Research suggests that creating a safer campus and reducing harmful and underage student drinking will likely come from a combination of individual- and environmental-level interventions that work together to maximize positive effects. Strong leadership from a concerned college president in combination with engaged parents, an involved campus community, and a comprehensive program of evidence-based strategies can help address harmful student drinking.
For more information, please visit: https://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/CollegeAIM
1 SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Statistics and Quality. 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Table 6.21B—Types of Illicit Drug, Tobacco Product, and Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Gender: Percentages, 2018 and 2019. https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/reports/rpt29394/NSDUHDetailedTabs2019/NSDUHDetTabsSect6pe2019.htm#tab6-21b. Accessed January 11, 2021.
2 Hingson, R.W.; Zha, W.; and White, A.M. Drinking beyond the binge threshold: Predictors, consequences, and changes in the U.S. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 52(6):717–727, 2017. PMID: 28526355
3 Methodology for arriving at estimates described in Hingson, R. ; Zha, W.; and Smyth, D. Magnitude and trends in heavy episodic drinking, alcohol-impaired driving, and alcohol-related mortality and overdose hospitalizations among emerging adults of college ages 18–24 in the United States, 1998–2014. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 78(4):540–548, 2017. PMID: 28728636
4 Methodology for arriving at estimates described in Hingson, R.; Heeren, T.; Winter, M.; and Wechsler, H. Magnitude of alcohol-related mortality and morbidity among U.S. college students ages 18–24: Changes from 1998 to 2001. Annual Review of Public Health 26:259–279, 2005. PMID: 15760289
5 Muehlenhard, C.; Peterson, Z.; Humphreys, T.; Jozkowski, K. Evaluating the one-in-five statistic: Women's risk of sexual assault while in college. The Journal of Sex Research 54(4-5):549–5756, 2017. PMID: 28375675
6 Carey, K.B,; Durney, S.E.; Shepardson, R.L.; Carey, M.P. Incapacitated and forcible rape of college women: Prevalence across the first year. Journal of Adolescent Health 56(6):678–680, 2015. PMID: 26003585
7 Lawyer, S.; Resnick, H,; Bakanic, V.; Burkett, T.; Kilpatrick, D. Forcible, drug-facilitated, and incapacitated rape and sexual assault among undergraduate women. Journal of American College Health 58(5):453–460, 2010. PMID: 20304757
8 Wechsler, H.; Lee, J.E.; Kuo, M.; et al. Trends in college binge drinking during a period of increased prevention efforts. Findings from 4 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study Surveys: 1993-2001. Journal of American College Health 50(5):203–217, 2002. PMID: 11990979
9 Presley, C.A.; and Pimentel, E.R. The introduction of the heavy and frequent drinker: A proposed classification to increase accuracy of alcohol assessments in postsecondary educational settings. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 67(2):324–331, 2006. PMID:16562416
10 SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Statistics and Quality. 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Table 6.23B—Alcohol Use Disorder in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2018 and 2019. https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/reports/rpt29394/NSDUHDetailedTabs2019/NSDUHDetTabsSect6pe2019.htm#tab6-23b. Accessed September 17, 2020.
11 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Defining binge drinking. What Colleges Need to Know Now. https://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/media/1College_Bulleting-508_361C4E.pdf. Accessed October 22, 2021.
Fall Semester—A Time for Parents To Discuss the Risks of College Drinking
As college students arrive on campus this fall, it is typically a time of new experiences, new friendships, and making memories that will last a lifetime. Unfortunately for many, it is also a time of harmful and underage drinking and of dealing with its aftermath—from vandalism, sexual assault, and other forms of violence to injuries and death.
Rates and Consequences of College Drinking
According to the 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 52.5 percent of full-time college students ages 18 to 22 drank alcohol in the past month, and 33.0 percent engaged in binge drinking in the past month. NSDUH defines binge drinking as 5 or more drinks on an occasion for men and 4 or more drinks on an occasion for women. (NIAAA defines binge drinking as a pattern of drinking alcohol that brings blood alcohol concentration [BAC] to 0.08 percent—or 0.08 grams of alcohol per deciliter—or higher. For a typical adult, this pattern corresponds to consuming 5 or more drinks [male], or 4 or more drinks [female], in about 2 hours.) In addition, 8.2 percent engaged in heavy alcohol use (defined by NSDUH as binge drinking on 5 or more days in the past month). These binge drinking and heavy alcohol use rates are both higher than for those not attending college.1
The consequences of harmful and underage drinking by college students are more significant, more destructive, and more costly than many parents realize. And these consequences affect students whether they drink or not. Researchers estimate that each year:
- Deaths: 1,519 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol-related unintentional injuries, including motor vehicle crashes.2
- Assaults: 696,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 are assaulted by another student who has been drinking.3
- Sexual Assaults: Although estimating the number of alcohol-related sexual assaults is exceptionally challenging—since sexual assault is typically underreported—researchers have confirmed a long-standing finding that 1 in 5 college women experience sexual assault during their time in college.4 A majority of sexual assaults in college involve alcohol or other substances.5,6 Research continues in order to better understand the relationships between alcohol and sexual assault among college students. Additional survey data are needed to better estimate the number of alcohol-related assaults.
- Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): Roughly 9 percent of college students meet the criteria for AUD.7
- Academic Consequences: About 1 in 4 college students report academic consequences from drinking, including missing class, falling behind in class, doing poorly on exams or papers, and receiving lower grades overall.8
Early Weeks Are Critical
Although some students come to college already having some experience with alcohol, certain aspects of college life, such as unstructured time, the widespread availability of alcohol, inconsistent enforcement of underage drinking laws, and limited interactions with parents and other adults, can intensify the problem.
The first 6 weeks of freshman year are a vulnerable time for harmful and underage college drinking and for alcohol-related consequences because of student expectations and social pressures at the start of the academic year.
Parents Can Help
An often-overlooked protective factor involves the continuing influence of parents during the college years. Research shows that students who abstain from drinking often do so because their parents discussed alcohol use and its adverse consequences with them. During these crucial early weeks, parents can do a number of things to stay involved.
Parents can help by:
Talking with students about the dangers of harmful and underage college drinking—such as the possible legal and school penalties for underage drinking, and the risks of alcohol overdose, unintentional injuries, violence, unsafe sexual behavior, academic failure, and other adverse consequences.
Reaching out periodically and keeping the lines of communication open while staying alert for possible alcohol-related problems.
Reminding students to feel free to reach out to them to share information about their daily activities and to ask for help if needed.
Learning about the school’s alcohol prevention and emergency intervention efforts as well as the school’s policies and procedures in place this fall for the coronavirus pandemic. (See “Resources Are Available” below).
Making sure students know the signs of alcohol overdose or an alcohol-related problem, and how to help.
Resources Are Available
For parents who want to discuss the consequences of drinking with their college students, a variety of helpful resources are available from NIAAA at https://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov.
These resources include a parents’ guide that offers research-based information plus helpful advice on choosing the right college, staying involved during freshman year, and getting assistance if faced with an alcohol-related crisis. The website also provides links to alcohol policies at colleges across the country, an interactive diagram of how alcohol affects the human body, and an interactive alcohol cost calculator.
Additionally, NIAAA’s CollegeAIM—the College Alcohol Intervention Matrix, available at https://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/CollegeAIM—is a booklet and website that helps schools and parents address harmful and underage student drinking by identifying effective alcohol interventions.
1 SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Table 6.21B – Types of Illicit Drug, Tobacco Product, and Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Gender: Percentages, 2018 and 2019. https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/reports/rpt29394/NSDUHD…. Accessed December 8, 2020.
2 Methodology for arriving at estimates described in Hingson, R.; Zha, W.; and Smyth, D. Magnitude and trends in heavy episodic drinking, alcohol-impaired driving, and alcohol-related mortality and overdose hospitalizations among emerging adults of college ages 18–24 in the United States, 1998–2014. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 78(4):540–548, 2017. PMID: 28728636
3 Methodology for arriving at estimates described in Hingson, R.; Heeren, T.; Winter, M.; et al. Magnitude of alcohol-related mortality and morbidity among U.S. college students ages 18–24: Changes from 1998 to 2001. Annual Review of Public Health 26:259–279, 2005. PMID: 15760289.
4 Muehlenhard, C.; Peterson, Z.; Humphreys, T.; Jozkowski, K. Evaluating the one-in-five statistic: Women's risk of sexual assault while in college. The Journal of Sex Research 54(4-5):549–5756, 2017. PMID: 28375675
5 Carey, K.B.; Durney, S.E.; Shepardson, R.L.; Carey, M.P. Incapacitated and forcible rape of college women: Prevalence across the first year. Journal of Adolescent Health 56(6):678–680, 2015. PMID: 26003585
6 Lawyer, S.; Resnick, H,; Bakanic, V.; Burkett, T.; Kilpatrick, D. Forcible, drug-facilitated, and incapacitated rape and sexual assault among undergraduate women. Journal of American College Health 58(5):453–460, 2010. PMID: 20304757
7 SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Table 6.23B – Alcohol Use Disorder in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2018 and 2019. Accessed October 1, 2020.
8 Wechsler, H.; Dowdall, G.W.; Maenner, G.; et al. Changes in binge drinking and related problems among American college students between 1993 and 1997: Results of the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study. Journal of American College Health 47(2):57-68, 1998. PMID: 9782661
Expert: "There is a caste of untouchable drivers who get away with drunkenness" - Sobkor02
The Chekmagushevsky court kept driver Mars Guzayarov in custody until January next year, who killed four young girls in the village of Bakaly, Bakalinsky district of Bashkiria. Recall that in the early morning of July 18, the defendant driving an Audi A5 in a state of intoxication at a speed of more than 100 km / h drove into the oncoming traffic lane and partially onto the left side of the road. At that moment there were four girls. One of them was not even 18 years old. All died at the scene. nine0003
The accused, hoping for a commutation of the sentence, admitted his guilt in the crime committed. A drunk driver can go to jail for eight to 15 years.
Sergei Zhukov, a member of the Human Rights Council under the head of the region, told how to protect our citizens from criminals at the wheel. Sergei Nikolaevich believes that every driver who gets drunk behind the wheel is a potential killer.
- And society must accept this axiom, - says the human rights activist. - For this, it is necessary to change not only public opinion, but the ideology of our traffic cops. It's no secret that there is a caste of untouchable drivers who get away with a lot. These are majors, deputies and officials who somehow solve the problem with traffic inspectors. I do not want to assert that the Bashkir traffic cops are all bribe-takers, especially since a lot is being done in the regional traffic police in order to eradicate bribery. But it is necessary to carry out such work with the personnel of the UGIBDD of the Ministry of Internal Affairs for the Republic of Belarus, so that in the head of each patrol there is a clear statement - there are no untouchables among those who drive drunk. nine0003
According to Mr. Zhukov, if every drunk driver caught serious responsibility for this misconduct, it is unlikely that the statistics of drunk driving would be so high.
- During the year traffic inspectors of Bashkiria detained over seven thousand people who were driving under the fumes of alcohol, - he states. “And if a person were once caught drunk driving and was severely punished, then this would be a science not only for him, but also for his friends. Therefore, traffic cops must clearly understand: lovers of drunk driving should not be let go, they must be held accountable without exception, no matter who they are and no matter what connections they have. nine0003
Sergei Zhukov believes that traffic inspectors are inefficient when conducting raids.
- When is the most common time for a drunk to drive? he asks. - When he travels from guests or a club, and this is four or five in the morning on Friday, Saturday or Monday night. At the same time, I see that traffic inspectors go on raids at 10 am. It is clear that at this time the traffic flow is greater and more opportunities to catch violators. But a drunkard driving should be stopped in the morning or at night.
The human rights activist is also sure that the State Duma deputies should work on the problem of drunk driving, as there are many discrepancies in the legislation.
- If traffic inspectors come across a "savvy" driver, he can declare that he has the right not to give documents - the law allows this, - Sergei Nikolayevich states. - So Russian parliamentarians should create a clear regulation for traffic police officers on how they should act so that dual situations do not arise. nine0003
Mr. Zhukov considers active propaganda to be another way to fight drunk driving.
- The entire propaganda machine of the state should be involved here, - he believes. – It is necessary to tell people not only about the fact that they caught a drunk driving, but also about the punishment he received, how it negatively affected his future life. So that spouses, relatives and children understand what a threat a drunk and inappropriately thinking driver poses and rush to their knees and do everything so that a drunken man does not get behind the wheel. nine0003
Sergei Zhukov approved the initiative of the head of Bashkiria, Radiy Khabirov, who proposed to adopt a bill on bringing information about drunk drivers to their employers.
- Can you imagine, you get a paper with a stamp on it, where it says that you were caught drunk driving, fined and deprived of a driver's license? he says. - What a shame! And that is an effective measure. Let employers decide for themselves what to do with such an employee. If drunk driving costs the car owner a career and business reputation, then the situation on the roads may change for the better. nine0003
The human rights activist sees another problem in the fact that “young people today do not watch TV or read newspapers”.
- At the same time, most young people, without proper life experience and information about what awaits drunk drivers, may not see anything wrong with driving with the breeze being drunk, - he explains. – And this information needs to be conveyed to them through social networks or applications that they use. And the state is obliged to direct all forces and means to educate the younger generation. Because if today they are not taught how to behave correctly on the road, we will get an even bigger problem in the future. nine0003
The design of the scientific and educational campus "Bolshaya Ivanovo Manufactory" will begin in 2023
Photo: Press Service of the Government of the Ivanovo Region
building world-class campuses. The governor of the Ivanovo region Stanislav Voskresensky took part in the session.
Recall that the task of creating 25 new world-class university campuses with the most modern conditions for study and research in the next decade was set by Russian President Vladimir Putin. nine0003
"These campuses should become points of attraction for talented children from all over the country, as well as centers for the development of science and the economy of the regions where these educational institutions are located," said the President of Russia.
The first eight projects have already begun to be implemented in Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Ufa, Kaliningrad, Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Chelyabinsk and Tomsk. In 2025-2026, nine more campuses will be built in Ivanov, Samara, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Khabarovsk, Perm, Arkhangelsk, Tyumen, Veliky Novgorod, on the Sirius federal territory. All projects these projects became winners of the competitive selection of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia. nine0003
During the introductory session, the winners of the first selection shared their experience in implementing their projects. The participants also discussed topical issues and exchanged views.
Recall that the planned total area of the scientific and educational campus "Bolshaya Ivanovo Manufactory" is more than 44 thousand square meters. meters, including modern dormitories for 2.5 thousand students, an educational center and a technology park with laboratories and coworking, multifunctional spaces with a public library and service infrastructure. For 2023 - 2024 planned work on the design of the campus and the modernization of engineering communications, from 2025 - construction work. nine0003
Governor Stanislav Voskresensky spoke about the project of the scientific and educational campus "Big Ivanovo Manufactory" at a meeting with residents on December 8.
"This is such a strategic project for the Ivanovo region. Many people probably know that we had a higher education in the region about a hundred years ago, and this was a very important milestone in the development of the city and the entire region. Now an important milestone is the rise to a new the level of quality of our higher education, because when we manage to do this, these will be jobs of a completely different quality. There will be a so-called "knowledge economy", a high-performance economy in which, most importantly, salaries are higher. Another goal is to restart the space that is significant for the city - the center of Ivanovo. The project is designed for several years.