Narcissistic or psychopath


Basic Differences Between Psychopathy & Narcissistic Personality Disorder [Part I] - Neuroinstincts

 Psychopathy & Narcissistic Personality Disorder Differences

© 2014 Rhonda Freeman | All Rights Reserved

Before we take a closer look at the differences between psychopathy and narcissistic personality disorder, let’s review how these personality disorders are similar.

Many symptoms of psychopathy and narcissistic personality disorder overlap. Miller, Dir, Gentile, Wilson, Pryor, & Campbell (2010), found a moderate positive correlation (.39) between the two conditions. Interestingly, many scientific studies uncovered similar findings.

Several experts in the field suspect that narcissistic personality disorder and psychopathy are conditions that lie along a continuum or spectrum. I agree with this stance, because they take very similar approaches in their interactions with others. 

Individuals with both conditions tend to be exploitive of even the people who love them, with minimal regard for the pain they cause.

Similar to psychopathy, narcissistic personality disorder is suspected to be more common among males. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th ed. (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) “50 to 75% are male.” Both groups tend to ‘blame shift’ and refuse to accept responsibility or be accountable for poor behavior.

Overview of the similarities and differences between psychopathy & narcissistic personality

 

Similarities

Arrogant

Superficial

Vindictive

Charming | Charismatic

Dominant

Selfish

Exploitive of others

Immoral (care-based)

Low in empathy

Insensitive

Antagonistic

Promiscuous

Manipulative

 

 

Differences

Extremely sensitive to the opinion of others (Narcissistic personality)

Requires positive attention (Narcissistic personality)

Minimally burdened by anxiety or fear (Psychopathy)

Deceitful (Psychopathy)

Low Conscientiousness (Psychopathy)

Aggressive (Psychopathy)

Indifferent to the opinion of others (Psychopathy)

Fragile (Narcissistic personality)

Easily prone to boredom (Psychopathy)

Impulsive style (Psychopathy)

Promiscuity (Psychopathy)

The differences in the list above is not always cut and dry. Those who meet diagnostic criteria for narcissistic personality disorder can also demonstrate a pattern of deceitfulness or some of the other traits primarily demonstrated within psychopathy. For example, an individual with narcissistic personality disorder can certainly demonstrate patterns of promiscuity when they are seeking the admiration needed to keep them functioning. 

Therefore, the labels above are tagged to the traits that are most commonly found within that particular disorder and not necessarily only found within that condition. Skilled clinicians (through thorough evaluations) will be able to tease out if the condition is present and which symptoms are true reflections of a particular disorder.

When clinicians are involved in the diagnostic process of determining the presence of a personality disorder it is not uncommon to find features and traits of more than one condition. Often human beings simply do not fit one. Blending of personality disorders is not an uncommon occurrence.

Let’s go a bit more into the conditions.

[Can Stock Photo Inc. | © 2009 Tiero]

Psychopathy is a disorder that impacts the way the brain processes emotional information. fMRI studies of the brain have demonstrated that there are significant limitations in their ability to process certain emotional states.

Kiehl, Smith, Hare, Mendrek, Forster, Brink, Liddle (2001) examined a psychopath’s ability to process words that should elicit a response from the brain’s ’emotion processing regions’.  They presented a group of criminal psychopaths as well as two groups of non-psychopaths with a word-list memory test that consisted of neutral and negative words.

A normal brain should respond to the negative words by processing them using both the thinking and emotion processing areas (e.g., paralimbic region). What they found was quite interesting. When the psychopaths were compared to the non-psychopath groups the results indicated that the group with psychopathy processed the negative words through the thinking (cognitive) regions only. There was minimal engagement from their emotional regions, which completely contrasts the workings of a normal brain.

The negative words did not elicit the emotional system to respond. Interestingly, psychopaths used their thinking regions ‘more’ when presented with negative (emotion eliciting) words, thereby demonstrating better recall of the negative words within the list. It suggests that the thinking areas of their brains work harder when they are presented with emotionally charged information. 

Essentially, the psychopaths did not use the emotion processing regions of their brain as it should or like the non-psychopathic groups. Instead they relied upon their language processing (semantic) and decision making areas – the thinking regions.

_______

It is possible that one could extrapolate and conclude that if a person cannot process emotional information properly, then many experiences or people that should hold deep meaning, simply do not. For an individual with strong psychopathic traits, everything is replaceable, particularly if it has lost its usefulness, appeal, or ‘newness’.

A “chair” or “wife” –

feels the same.

There is not a deep emotional bond with either – only a needed use.

 

 

 

 

 

Although emotional states such as genuine appreciation are low, individuals with psychopathy are prone to intense feelings of anger, low frustration tolerance, and boredom (Blair, 2010). They can easily shift into a disdainful and contemptuous state when they are no longer stimulated or interested in a partner. This sudden change can come across or ‘feel‘ cold and callous to the former object of their affection.

Individuals with strong psychopathic traits can communicate something that should be emotional with very little emotional tone, as though there were no genuine feelings behind their words (because there really is not).

Due to their brain disorder, those with psychopathy rarely learn from their mistakes. They tend to repeat the same behaviors – particularly if the activity is

a) pleasure oriented,

b) has a significantly stimulating ‘chase’ period, and/or

c) has a high pay off.

Most tend to run an agenda that is in extreme opposition to the wellbeing, safety and harmony of others. They are deceitful, remorseless, and often dangerous.

Psychopaths frequently engage in violating behaviors. It is not uncommon for those with strong traits to consistently infringe the rights of others, often in the most egregious ways. [See our series – Psychopathy and Society]

There is a tendency to lie for purposes of bolstering their image,  to get out of trouble, or at times for no apparent benefit or reason at all. It is not uncommon for those with psychopathy to have a near complete inability to accept fault or responsibility for any pain or chaos created by their behavior. They are manipulators, con artists, and see others for their use or purpose. Calculating how a particular person, group, thing, or scenario benefits them, even to the demise of others who caused them no harm, is often the norm for an individual with psychopathy.

Although individuals with narcissistic personality disorder are also exploitive –  violating others, deceitfulness, and conning are more common amongst psychopaths. Many with psychopathy enjoy attention, however their love of attention has very little to do with approval or admiration from the source. Whereas, individuals with narcissistic personality disorder love attention as well (admiration), however they tend to need positive attention for validation.

Their feelings can be easily hurt (e.g., “injury”) if others do not reflect back to them their specialness. For many with narcissistic personality disorder, this can lead to reactions of  agitation, aggression, or punishment of the perceived offending party.

It is not uncommon for an individual with narcissistic personality disorder to be bothered by what others think of them and only want to be held in high regard. Hence, they use their audience to reflect back how special they are.

Conversely, an individual with psychopathy really does not care what others think of them – their self esteem is minimally tied to external relationships. However, many with this condition want to be held in high regard, but this tends to be tide to power or manipulation. Their feelings of superiority is not based on the opinion of others.

If there is an audience, they tend to abuse those individuals or manipulate and use them for personal gain or exploitation purposes, (e.g., for sex, reproduction, public perception of normalcy, child care, money, housekeeping, further their power, do their ‘dirty work’, a ‘project’ partner to corrupt or engage in perversions).

Go to part II


References

• Want the basics of psychopathy? You might find this article helpful, Psychopath Basics Q and A 

Narcissist or Psychopath—How Can You Tell?

Source: Photographee_eu/Shutterstock

A question I am often asked on social media is: What differentiates the narcissist from the psychopath? This is a profound question that has many divergent views, depending on who you talk to.

As I have written in previous posts, narcissists, in my experience, are noteworthy for their principal trait of overvaluing themselves at the expense of devaluing others. They think of themselves as special, privileged, entitled, and void of flaws—in other words, they give themselves plenty of latitude, while giving others little to none. In their mind, they are always right, and the rules don’t really apply to them. They are incapable of admitting mistakes and taking responsibility. If things work, they believe it is thanks to them. If things fail, it’s the fault of others.

Most of all, narcissists (as defined by and meeting the criteria in Dangerous Personalities, Rodale 2014) cannot bring themselves to see anyone else as their equal. So they put others down (co-workers, subordinates, family members), crush their aspirations, criticize them, or treat them with indifference, disdain, or contempt. If challenged, narcissists will react not with anger, but with rage. They are incapable of true empathy or understanding, and in all ways, they see themselves as perfect, even though they are, according to Dr. Stuart C. Yudofsky, author of Fatal Flaws: Navigating Destructive Relationships With People With Disorders of Personality and Character, severely flawed of character.

Here is a reminder of how narcissists view themselves. These specifics may seem breathtaking in their arrogance and haughtiness—but then, those are traits that define the narcissist:

1. I love myself and I know you do, too. In fact, everyone does—I can’t imagine anyone that doesn’t.

2. I have no need to apologize. You, however, must understand, accept, and tolerate me no matter what I do or say.

3. I have few equals in this world, and so far, I have yet to meet one. I am the best ... (manager, businessman, lover, student, etc.).

4. Most people don’t measure up. Without me to lead, others would flounder.

5. I appreciate that there are rules and obligations, but those apply mostly to you, because I don’t have the time or the inclination to abide by them. Besides, rules are for the average person, and I am far above average.

6. I hope you appreciate all that I am and everything that I have achieved for you—because I am wonderful and faultless.

7. I do wish we could be equals, but we are not and never will be. I will remind you with unapologetic frequency that I am the smartest person in the room and how well I did in school, in business, as a parent, etc., and you must be grateful.

8. I may seem arrogant and haughty, and that’s OK with me—I just don’t want to be seen as being like you.

9. I expect you to be loyal to me at all times, no matter what I do; however, don’t expect me to be loyal to you in any way.

10. I will criticize you, and I expect you to accept it, but if you criticize me, especially in public, I will come at you with rage. One more thing: I will never forget or forgive. I will pay you back one way or another—because I am a “wound collector.”

11. I expect you to be interested in what I have achieved and in what I have to say. I, on the other hand, am not at all interested in you or in what you have achieved, so don’t expect much curiosity or interest from me about your life. I just don’t care.

12. I am not manipulative; I just like to have things done my way, no matter how much it inconveniences others or how it makes them feel. I actually don’t care how others feel—feelings are for the weak.

13. I expect gratitude at all times, for even the smallest things I do. As for you, I expect you to do as I demand.

14. I only associate with the best people, and frankly, most of your friends don’t measure up.

15. If you would just do what I say and obey, things would be better.

As you can imagine, the narcissist is quite the pill to take if you live with one, work for one, or are governed by one. But don’t take my word for it. Talk to anyone who has been victimized by a narcissist. It is a graduate-level lesson in humiliation and indifference.

Psychopath by Another Name—Predator

Now we come to the psychopath. Here is where definitions and terms get a bit tricky, because there is little agreement between Robert Hare (the premier expert in the world on psychopaths), criminologists, and mental health professionals. Compounding all of this, for the average person seeking to educate themselves or help, the DSM-V (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th revision) and the World Health Organization’s ICD-10 (The International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th edition) are frankly no road maps to understanding these individuals, who habitually live by taking advantage of others physically, mentally, emotionally, psychologically, or financially, without remorse.

That is why when I wrote Dangerous Personalities with Toni Sciarra Poynter, I avoided using the term "psychopath," choosing instead to use the term "predator. " I felt that for the average person, this term was easier to understand than all the other terms upon which there was little agreement, such as sociopath, psychopath, habitual criminal, or anti-social personality. If the objective is to keep the public safe — and that is certainly mine — far better to have a term that people can understand and can put to use.

In talking to victims of social predation for more than 35 years and in doing research for various books, I found that victims don’t care whether the person who held a knife to their throat or who took their life’s savings is a psychopath or a sociopath. The only thing they care about is recognizing what these individuals are like, so they can avoid them or deal with them effectively.

Unfortunately, predators have always been with us, in one form or another, and they’ve been called many things. In the Bible, there are more than 600 entries dealing with “evil.” Past or present, when people speak of someone who is evil or who has done something evil, what they’re generally talking about is social predation. Victimizing others without a conscience defines Cain in the book of Genesis, as well as the serial rapist in any university town today.

Social predators live by taking advantage of others. They come in all varieties, shapes, and forms, from every level of society. Some live lawlessly on the streets, mugging people or worse. Others have respectable jobs where they transact mayhem. They see themselves as unrestrained by rules or laws. Morals and ethics, to them, are mere words. They have little or no regard for others, and what's more, they will take advantage of them, finding exploitable weaknesses or the right opportunity. No matter how safe you think you are, social predators will undermine and get around whatever safety mechanisms you have in place. They lack the ability to be introspective or to restrain themselves from doing harm to society and are quite content violating human rights.

What predators have in common is a gross disregard for the sanctity of others. For them, the most important priority isn’t living according to a higher social standard, but rather not getting caught. The Ted Bundys, Bernard Madoffs, and Jerry Sanduskys of this world are impervious to decency. Human lives are something to prey upon in their own chosen way, and they have absolutely no regrets about what they do. They are evil, yes, but more specifically they are predators, and as such, they need a human to take advantage of. Unctuous, beguiling, deceptive, mendacious, amoral, cold, degenerate, Machiavellian, malevolent, sleazy, uncaring, wicked, and unfeeling—that is who they are. They differ from the narcissist in that taking advantage of others is their most prized objective in their life.

From talking to predators over a quarter of a century, as I have, one learns a few things. Here are some chilling, eye-opening quotes from them as to how they feel about themselves, life, and their victims. If you need a trigger warning, this is it—a medieval-sized trebuchet trigger warning.

How the Predator Thinks

1. I could care less about human rights—what about my rights? I have to take care of me first.

2. Laws and rules are meant to be broken. There is always a shortcut—there is always a way around the rules.

3. Most people are dupes—they should have seen it coming. I can’t help it if they can’t defend themselves.

4. Women deserve to be treated the way they are—look how they dress and lead us on. You think they don’t know what they are doing to us?

5. Cheating? Everyone does it; everyone is out for themselves. I am no more of a cheat than a bank.

6. So what if I lie, what’s the harm? Everyone lies. In any case, I needed to.

7. Law and rules are meant to be broken—they are stupid rules, anyway. The trick is to not get caught.

8. It’s not my concern if someone suffers. They shouldn’t have been there—it was their bad luck. Accidents happen all the time; this was no different.

9. I don’t know why I did it. I just felt like doing it.

10. I don’t feel emotions like everyone else. I just don’t. I don’t get it. I feel the same every day.

11. Yeah, I have a long rap sheet. I’ve been in and out of jail all my life—but that’s not who I am. The police are always picking on me.

12. She begged for her life, but at that moment, it didn’t mean anything—I had control over her, and it felt good.

13. She kept saying no, but I couldn’t stop. I didn't want to stop.

14. She kept arguing with me, so I punched her, and that stopped her complaining. What’s the big deal? She asked for it. She knew better than to push me.

15. All investments are risky—in a way they, too, are to blame for being so greedy. It’s their greed that made them invest with me.

Take a deep breath. Did you note how callous and indifferent these individuals are? They truly have no conscience, as Robert Hare pointed out so well in his book Without Conscience. They do as they please, and they rationalize everything they do. In most cases, they will not change, and they don’t respond well to therapy. They are out to get you or something you value or hold dear with as much concern as a snake has for a passing rodent.

In Dangerous Personalities, we enumerated over 200* specific traits that differentiate the narcissist from the predator, and those should be examined closely if you truly want to differentiate these two personality types. Nevertheless, one of the things that I look for in people flawed of character is this: What are they after? Do they want recognition and praise? Or do they want something from you? If so, what?

Another differentiator is that narcissists tend to do things in public; they cherish public adulation and recognition and love a servile, laudatory audience. In contrast, the social predator, for the most part, wants to work in secret and prefers isolation. Any effort to isolate you should be a red flag saying danger!

These individuals want to separate you from family and friends or isolate you out of public view. In isolation, they can do their deeds. They may seek to control your mind or emotions (as in a cult), or worse, they will want you in a place or situation where they can take control of your body. Thus, they may corner you between parked vans, try to get you into the car, or get you to go to their hotel room or a house out of the way; anywhere they can have their way with you in isolation. Alternatively, the conman/swindler may want you to invest your money with them without telling anyone: They restrain you from asking others for their opinions; they create exigent circumstance where time is a factor, or any other excuse to keep you from thinking about what you are doing or making a phone call.

By the way, there is nothing that says a person cannot be both a malignant narcissist and a social predator. History is replete with these individuals who, when they act out, bring pure misery. Just take a look at Jim Jones of Jonestown in Guyana and Charles Manson, for starters. But that’s for a different day.

As you can imagine, there are many more differences between the narcissist and the so-called psychopath that should be explored—this is a brief take from my perspective. There are many books that can help you study the differences between the two if you are so interested, I have listed some below.

I will caution you that at some point in your life you will either associate with, work alongside, work for, or be governed by a narcissist or a social predator. The quicker you identify these individuals for what they are as a result of their behavior, the greater your chances of avoiding being victimized. Lastly, after talking to hundreds of victims over the years, it bears repeating here: “You have no social obligation to be tormented or to be victimized—ever.” Stay safe.

*For a full checklist of the traits of the narcissist and the social predator, please see Dangerous Personalities (Rodale) chapters I and IV.

Copyright © 2017, Joe Navarro.

Do narcissists and psychopaths really exist?

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Author: Natalya Boldyreva

May 31, 2022

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When people talk about psychopaths, Hannibal Lecter is immediately remembered, and Dorian Gray is famous among narcissists. But these people are literary characters who attract and repel at the same time. Hannibal Lecter in The Silence of the Lambs, played by Anthony Hopkins, seems suave, well-mannered and even charming, but at the same time he kills people and does not worry about it.

If you step out of the world of cinema and literature, you might find that the narcissist or psychopath is the girl next door, the boss at work, or the guy on a date.

Narcissists and psychopaths do exist, but not in such an exaggerated form as writers and directors show.

First, let's define terms. In the DSM-5 manual of mental disorders, narcissism, or narcissistic personality disorder, is the official diagnosis.

It is more difficult with psychopaths: there is no such diagnosis. Usually, psychopathy is referred to as antisocial personality disorder, but with reservations: for example, antisocial disorder is not associated with the absence of complex emotions and attachments, but psychopathy is. In general, psychopathy is considered a type of antisocial personality disorder.

Both of these diseases are common: for example, the prevalence of psychopathy is estimated at 1-2%, so only in the USA there can be from 3 to 6 million people, and in Russia - from 1.5 to 3 million. And even more daffodils about 5% of the population. If you count for Russia, it turns out almost 7.5 million - this is like all residents of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region.

Interestingly, among prisoners, the percentage of psychopathy is the highest - 30%, although violence and criminal behavior are not typical features of psychopaths. People with psychopathic personality traits, like narcissists, can be found in a wide variety of fields - business, politics, law enforcement, entertainment.

Psychopaths are said to lack empathy and narcissists are said to be in love with themselves. This is true, but in part.

Daffodils. In narcissistic personality disorder, people have an inflated sense of self-importance and a deep need for undue attention and admiration, as well as a lack of empathy for others. Such people have dysfunctional relationships with others and extremely vulnerable to the slightest criticism of self-esteem.

People with a narcissistic disorder become genuinely upset when they are not admired or given the special favors they deserve. Here are examples of typical behavior of narcissists:

think they are better than others and want to communicate only with people who are just as special;

insist they have the best car, apartment, job;

become angry and impatient if not given special attention;

strive for excellence in everything, dream of success, power, an ideal partner and universal recognition.

Psychopaths. With psychopathy, everything is more complicated - first of all, you need to distinguish between psychopaths and people with psychopathic traits.

Psychopathic traits include antisocial behavior, impulsiveness, lack of guilt and empathy, heartlessness. About 29% of the population may exhibit one or two psychopathic traits without being true psychopaths. And here are the features of psychopaths:

  • superficial charm - psychopaths can be good conversationalists and charismatic people;
  • need for stimulation - they love excitement, are intolerant of routine and are ready to break rules and laws just to experience this feeling;
  • tendency to lie pathologically - psychopaths almost always lie;
  • inflated self-esteem - this makes them related to narcissists. Psychopaths consider themselves above the generally accepted rules and laws, important and worthy;
  • manipulativeness - psychopaths are able to manipulate people, for example, play on guilt, and force others to do what they need;
  • lack of remorse and empathy - psychopaths do not care how their actions affect others. They do not feel guilty, they are indifferent even to family members, they do not show empathy. Psychopaths are almost always cold, but can show dramatic emotions when it suits them.

In addition, psychopaths can live at the expense of others, because it is easy for them to manipulate others, and also lead a promiscuous sex life.

Nobody knows what causes psychopathy and narcissism. As with other personality disorders, determining the exact causes is very difficult. This may be the influence of:

genetics - inherited traits;

environment - excessive criticism or excessive adoration of parents;

neurobiology - features of brain development.

In general, scientists think that psychopathy is a genetic or hereditary disease that is associated with underdevelopment of the parts of the brain responsible for emotions. But there are other opinions: that psychopathy is associated with genetics only by 50%, and the remaining 50% is the environment, for example, the cruelty of loved ones and social disadvantage.

Speaking of narcissism, some scientists believe that this disorder can manifest itself in children with a genetic predisposition due to overprotection or, conversely, neglect by their parents. In general, everything is like with psychopaths: a little genes, a little biology, a little external influence.

Narcissism and psychopathy are more common in men. These disorders develop mainly in adolescence or a little later. But, even if a teenager shows a trait, for example, a narcissist, this does not mean that he will develop a narcissistic personality disorder.

Psychopathy and narcissism have common features: like psychopaths, narcissists lack attention, they have a high opinion of themselves, they do not enter into deep emotional relationships, they seek to manipulate others, they can be outwardly charming. But narcissists, unlike psychopaths, are not aggressive, not prone to pathological deception, and may not exhibit criminal behavior.

However, not all psychopaths are prone to violence: there is a type of successful psychopath who would rather become company leaders than end up in prison. According to some reports, one in twenty-five bosses may be a psychopath.

People who have worked or lived with narcissists or psychopaths may have experienced emotional abuse.

According to the American Domestic Violence Line, emotional abuse can take many forms. The abuser may track the location of another person, insult, threaten, deceive, try to isolate from family and friends, make them feel worthless and dependent on him.

Most likely, the more pronounced the disorder, the more others will suffer from such a person. Mild forms can be dealt with with the help of psychotherapy, but it must be remembered that often people with such disorders do not want to change: they do not see problems and do not consider that something is wrong with them. As a result, it is those around you who have to find ways to coexist, but it's hard.

If your partner, loved one or boss is a narcissist or psychopath, their behavior may affect you. Psychologists usually advise building strong personal boundaries and trying not to be manipulated, but this is not so easy to do. So perhaps the best solution is to stay away from narcissists and psychopaths.

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Psychopaths, NARSISSISS, SOOOOPATA.

General signs

Manipulators:
psychopath, narcissist, sociopath

Manipulations in our life, unfortunately, are not uncommon. My articles are written for your understanding, not labeling, because, unfortunately, we are not taught this in everyday life, and no one is immune from getting into various situations or toxic relationships. More knowledge - less destruction of your personality. I hope that this knowledge will be significant for you, perhaps it will save someone's life.

We see manipulations from childhood, however, only when they become unbearable and begin to destroy us from within, we understand that emotional or physical abuse is taking place, we begin to think about it, and even then not always. Because even in our childhood, manipulations of guilt, to a mild degree, we can take from loved ones for granted, thinking that these are appeals to our conscience.

However, we will talk about everyday manipulations later. Today I want to touch on the most complex types of personality disorders that need to be paid attention to and taken action, as these are forms of psychological and sometimes physical abuse.


Often hearing the words - sociopath, psychopath or narcissist (not to be confused with flowers), we think that these are some kind of monsters that we can immediately recognize that they allegedly "will be written on their faces" and we immediately understand. Earlier I mentioned that most often they are charming, charismatic people, “the dream of a lifetime”, but this is just another mask of a manipulator.
Of course, it is more correct to say - narcissistic, psychopathic or sociopathic pathological personality disorder, but in articles for easier understanding they are reduced to the usual names - narcissist, psychopath and sociopath. Today I will touch on their most common features, then we will analyze each type separately, since there are differences, they must be understood in order to determine the threat and make decisions. In other countries, this is taken more seriously than in our country, since in the post-Soviet space it is still not customary to talk about it and “to wash dirty linen in public”, which sometimes leads to serious consequences.

First and foremost, these are pathological personality disorders that are caused by both genetic and social deviations, that is, changes are caused not only by behavioral deviations, but also by changes in the brain to one degree or another, which is important. This is not treated, but to one degree or another it is corrected by society, so some adaptive types, they are also called highly effective, can achieve great achievements and a high social level.

      What unites them is that all these types have: extreme egocentrism of thinking, lack of empathy, weakness or lack of emotional attachment and behavior that goes beyond the usual norms. That is, when determining the criteria, three areas are taken into account: thinking, emotional background and behavior.

          A high degree of selfishness is present in all of them, the world must revolve around them, and they adapt everyone to solve their problems in various manipulative ways. The degree of one's own guilt is practically absent, or it is a criterion artificially adapted by society, they are always right! Everyone around is to blame, even those who have done a lot for them - everything will be used and turned against you “they didn’t ask you”, they will always find an excuse for themselves. Any of their apologies is nothing more than a method of another manipulation, when they realize that they have gone too far, but in their hearts they do not consider themselves guilty. Even in cases of physical violence, they will say “it was you who pissed me off and brought me to such a state.”

          They act only in their own interests, goals, for the sake of satisfying their needs and their own comfort - this is the main thing for them, and they will adapt everyone to achieve them. There are many ways - from causing you to feel helpless and defenseless to fear and panic. In a state of dependence, the victim already behaves herself in such a way as not to cause feelings of aggression, discontent or anger. But often seeing humility, this can turn them on even more, since impunity and a state of self-importance cause inappropriate behavior.

              Feelings of compassion, empathy, pity are absent, although sometimes pity can be shown to animals, but not always. Seeing that a person has fallen or is in pain, this causes them uncontrollable laughter, and not sympathy, to one degree or another with a share of sadism, they like to watch videos where people are injured or get into dangerous situations, this causes laughter and the phrase “so they and it is necessary, stupid, they themselves are to blame, ”even in accidents. You probably noticed that there are more and more videos of this format now, this is for you to think about. Your tears are absolutely indifferent to them, this is only a signal that they have achieved their goal, received moral satisfaction, but they do not feel compassion.