Minnesota psychological test questions
MMPI Practice test Questions and Explanations
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a psychological evaluation presented in 2 stages. It is issued for a multitude of reasons, but one common reason to take this evaluation is as a pre-employment assessment. This is thanks to the exam’s ability to show the test-taker’s propensity for negative behaviors caused by innate personality traits.
In other words – it can show employers if you will be well-suited for the pressures and demands of various positions.
MMPI Vs MMPI-2 Vs MMPI-2-RF
There are multiple versions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the MMPI, MMPI-2-RF, and the MMPI-2. The main difference between these tests is that the MMPI-2 is an updated version of the original MMPI. This test was created in response to heavy criticism regarding racial and economic bias in the original MMPI.
The MMPI-2 contains 567 true or false questions based on hypothetical scenarios that may or may not relate directly to the workplace. The test typically takes around 100 to 120 minutes to complete.
The MMPI-2-RF was created in 2008 and is a shortened version of the MMPI-2. It contains only 338 questions (still true or false) and can be completed in as little as 40 minutes.
The MMPI-2 is considered an industry standard, which means it is likely the test you will be taking if you are asked to take an MMPI exam.
What is The MMPI Testing for?
The MMPI evaluates candidates on 10 clinical scales. They are as follows:
- HS – Hypochondriac tendencies and a fear of disease
- D – Depressive disorders, symptoms, or overall poor mood
- Hy – General hysteria when under stress
- Pd – The tendency to rebel or refused to conform, irritability, and impulsivity
- Mf – Masculinity or lack of
- Pa – Persecuting thoughts and paranoia
- Pt – Inability to resist behaviors and thoughts, Psychatenia
- Sc – Schizophrenic signs, social alienation, bizarre behavior
- Ma – Hypomania, overly quick speech, hyperactivity that induces depression
- Si – Antisocial, problems keeping relationships, inability to maintain social commitments
The exam also accounts for whether or not questions were answered truthfully, which can be detected through a multitude of ways depending on how the exam is issued. This requires accuracy and consistency when answering questions that can be improved through appropriate practice techniques.
Start practice today and improve your hiring chances
How to Practice for an MMPI
One of the biggest downfalls for pre-employment test takers is being unprepared for an exam. This can lead to a lack of confidence, a misunderstanding of the exam, and more. If you are facing an MMPI exam, you need to use the best practice materials available and fill yourself with the knowledge necessary to do well.
At Next-Interview, we have the practice materials necessary to advance your MMPI test-taking skills! Don’t miss out on your dream career because of one personality assessment, check out our MMPI practice test today!
MMPI Test Examples
Multiple choice behavioural questions.
- I am easily awakened by a noise
- My judgment is better than it ever was
- I wish I could be as happy as others seem to be
- I am an important person
- I get angry sometimes
Free Assessment Test
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is one of the most commonly used psychological tests in the world.
The test was developed by clinical psychologist Starke Hathaway and neuropsychiatrist J.C. McKinley, two faculty members at the University of Minnesota. It was created to be a tool for mental health professionals to help diagnose mental health disorders.
Since its publication in 1943, the test has been updated several times in an attempt to eliminate racial and gender bias and to make it more accurate. The updated test, known as the MMPI-2, has been adapted for use in over 40 countries.
This article will take a closer look at the MMPI-2 test, what it’s used for, and what it can help diagnose.
The MMPI-2 is a self-report inventory with 567 true-false questions about yourself. Your answers help mental health professionals determine whether you have symptoms of a mental illness or personality disorder.
Some questions are designed to reveal how you feel about taking the test. Other questions are intended to reveal whether you’re being genuine or are under- or over-reporting in an effort to influence the test results.
For most people, the MMPI-2 test takes 60 to 90 minutes to complete.
A shorter version of the test, the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (RF), has 338 questions. This shortened version takes less time to complete — between 35 and 50 minutes for most people.
Researchers have also designed a version of the test for adolescents ages 14 to 18. This test, known as the MMPI-A, has 478 questions and can be completed in about an hour.
There is also a shorter version of the test for teenagers called the MMPI-A-RF. Made available in 2016, the MMPI-A-RF has 241 questions and can be finished in 25 to 45 minutes.
Although the shorter tests are less time consuming, many clinicians opt for the longer assessment because it has been researched over the years.
MMPI tests are used to help diagnose mental health disorders, but many mental health professionals don’t rely on a single test to make a diagnosis. They usually prefer to gather information from many sources, including their own interactions with the person being tested.
The MMPI should only be administered by a trained test administrator, but the test results are sometimes used in other settings.
MMPI evaluations are sometimes used in child custody disputes, substance abuse programs, educational settings, and even employment screenings.
It’s important to note that using the MMPI as part of a job qualification process has caused some controversy. Some advocates argue that it violates the provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
The test items on the MMPI are designed to find out where you are on ten different mental health scales.
Each scale relates to a different psychological pattern or condition, but there’s a lot of overlap between the scales. Generally speaking, very high scores may indicate a mental health disorder.
Here’s a brief explanation of what each scale evaluates.
Scale 1: Hypochondriasis
This scale contains 32 items and is designed to measure whether you have an unhealthy concern for your own health.
A high score on this scale could mean that worrying about your health is interfering with your life and causing problems in your relationships.
For example, a person with a high Scale 1 score might be prone to developing physical symptoms that don’t have an underlying cause, especially during periods of high stress.
Scale 2: Depression
This scale, which has 57 items, measures satisfaction with your own life.
A person with a very high Scale 2 score could be dealing with clinical depression or having frequent suicidal thoughts.
A slightly elevated score on this scale could be an indication that you’re withdrawn or unhappy with your circumstances.
Scale 3: Hysteria
This 60-item scale evaluates your response to stress, including both your physical symptoms and emotional response to being under pressure.
Studies have shown that people with chronic pain may score higher on the first three scales because of prolonged, heightened health concerns.
Scale 4: Psychopathic deviate
This scale was originally intended to reveal whether you are experiencing psychopathology.
Its 50 items measure antisocial behaviors and attitudes, in addition to compliance or resistance to authority.
If you score very high on this scale, you might receive a diagnosis with a personality disorder.
Scale 5: Masculinity/femininity
The original purpose of this 56-question test section was to elicit information about people’s sexuality. It stems from a time in which some mental health professionals viewed same-sex attraction as a disorder.
Today, this scale is used to evaluate how consistently you seem to identify with gender norms.
Scale 6: Paranoia
This scale, which has 40 questions, evaluates symptoms associated with psychosis, particularly:
- extreme suspicion of other people
- grandiose thinking
- rigid black-and-white thinking
- feelings of being persecuted by society
High scores on this scale could indicate that you are dealing with either a psychosis disorder or a paranoid personality disorder.
Scale 7: Psychasthenia
This 48-item scale measures:
- compulsive behaviors
- symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
The term “psychasthenia” is no longer used as a diagnosis, but mental health professionals still use this scale as a way of evaluating unhealthy compulsions and the disruptive feelings they cause.
Scale 8: Schizophrenia
This 78-item scale is intended to show whether you have, or are likely to develop, a schizophrenia disorder.
It considers whether you’re experiencing hallucinations, delusions, or bouts of extremely disorganized thinking. It also determines to what degree you may feel alienated from the rest of society.
Scale 9: Hypomania
The purpose of this 46-item scale is to evaluate the symptoms associated with hypomania, including:
- excessive undirected energy
- rapid speech
- racing thoughts
- delusions of grandeur
If you have a high Scale 9 score, you may be having symptoms associated with bipolar disorder.
Scale 10: Social introversion
One of the later additions to the MMPI, this 69-item scale measures extroversion or introversion. This is the degree to which you seek out or withdraw from social interactions.
This scale considers, among other things, your:
Validity scales help test administrators understand how genuine a test taker’s answers are.
In situations where test results could impact a person’s life, such as employment or child custody, people might be motivated to over-report, under-report, or be dishonest. These scales help reveal inaccurate answers.
The “L” or lie scale
People who score high on the “L” scale may be trying to present themselves in a glowing, positive light by refusing to acknowledge traits or responses they fear could make them look bad.
The “F” scale
Unless they’re choosing random answers, people who score high on this scale may be trying to seem in worse condition than they actually are.
These test items aim to reveal inconsistencies in answer patterns. It’s important to note that a high score on the “F” scale could also indicate severe distress or psychopathology.
The “K” scale
These 30 test items focus on self-control and relationships. They’re intended to reveal a person’s defensiveness around certain questions and traits.
Like the “L” scale, items on the “K” scale are designed to highlight a person’s need to be seen positively.
The CNS scale
Sometimes called the “Cannot Say” scale, this evaluation of the entire test measures how often a person doesn’t answer a test item.
Tests with more than 30 unanswered questions may be invalidated.
The TRIN and VRIN scales
These two scales detect answer patterns that indicate the person taking the test chose answers without actually considering the question.
In a TRIN (True Response Inconsistency) pattern, someone uses a fixed answer pattern, such as five “true” followed by five “false” answers.
In a VRIN (Varied Response Inconsistency) pattern, a person responds with random “trues” and “falses.”
The Fb scale
To catch a significant change in answers between the first and second halves of the test, test administrators look at 40 questions in the second half of the test that aren’t usually endorsed.
If you answer “true” to these questions 20 more times than you answer “false,” the test administrator may conclude that something is distorting your answers.
It could be that you’ve become fatigued, distressed, or distracted, or that you have begun to over-report for another reason.
The Fp scale
These 27 test items are intended to reveal whether you’re intentionally or unintentionally over-reporting, which can indicate a mental health disorder or extreme distress.
The FBS scale
These 43 test items, which are sometimes called the “symptom validity” scale, are designed to detect intentional over-reporting of symptoms. This can sometimes happen when people are pursuing personal injury or disability claims.
The “S” scale
The Superlative Self-Presentation scale takes a look at how you answer 50 questions about serenity, contentment, morality, human goodness, and virtues like patience. This is to see if you could be intentionally distorting answers to look better.
If you under-report in 44 of the 50 questions, the scale indicates that you may be feeling a need to be defensive.
The MMPI-2 has a total of 567 test items, and it will take you between 60 and 90 minutes to finish. If you’re taking the MMPI2-RF, you should expect to spend between 35 and 50 minutes answering 338 questions.
There are booklets available, but you can also take the test online, either by yourself or in a group setting.
The test is copyrighted by the University of Minnesota. It’s important that your test is administered and scored according to the official guidelines.
To be sure that your test results are interpreted and explained to you accurately, it’s a good idea to work with a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist specially trained in this kind of testing.
The MMPI is a well-researched and respected test designed to help mental health professionals diagnose mental health disorders and conditions.
It’s a self-reporting inventory that evaluates where you fall on 10 scales related to different mental health disorders. The test also uses validity scales to help test administrators understand how you feel about taking the test and whether you’ve answered the questions accurately and honestly.
Depending on which version of the test you take, you can expect to spend between 35 and 90 minutes answering the questions.
The MMPI is a reliable and widely used test, but a good mental health professional won’t make a diagnosis based solely on this one assessment tool.
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The Minnesota Multi-Phasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a standardized psychometric questionnaire designed to quantify various personality and psychopathological aspects, along with assessing an individual's attitude towards taking a test. Psychologists and other mental health professionals use various versions of the MMPI methodology to help develop treatment and mental health plans, help with differential psychodiagnostics, help answer legal questions within forensic psychology, and select job candidates in the recruitment process. nine0021 By the way, you can order a professional interpretation of the test results from me.
The original development of MMPI was started in 1939 at the University of Minnesota by Stark R. Hathaway and J. Charnley McKinley. They needed a tool that could help evaluate adult patients during routine psychiatric evaluations and that could accurately determine the severity of their impairments. In addition, Hathaway and McKinley were interested in developing an objective assessment of the dynamics of the patient's condition as a result of treatment, psychological assistance, or exposure to other variables in the patient's life. nine0019
In their original work, Hathaway and McKinley used a method of constructing MMPI clinical scales called empirical scale development, or criteria-based strategy. It refers to the design, selection and evaluation of items within scales based on some external reference criterion. Test statements were selected for inclusion in the methodology based on the extent to which people suffering from a certain mental pathology or having certain symptoms give different answers from the answers of a group of healthy people. For example, the statement "In the morning I usually wake up refreshed and rested" is a theoretically sound statement that can be used in assessing depression. However, it turned out that the sample population of depressed patients did not respond to this question, in contrast to the groups of patients with hypochondria, hysteria and psychasthenia. Therefore, the statement was not included in scale 2 (Depression), but was included in scales 1,3 and 7. That is, the final criterion for including statements in the questionnaire is based on whether healthy people and those with a certain pathology react differently to these statements. nine0019
Most of the MMPI statements are relatively self-explanatory and relate mainly to psychiatric, psychological, neurological, or physical symptoms. The items included in the MMPI clinical scales were selected on the basis that each of the items in the given scale truly predicts the patient's belonging to a particular clinical group. For example, in developing the Depression Scale, the responses of patients who were clinically depressed were compared with those of a group of "normal" people. However, some of these statements are psychologically obscure because the underlying psychological process they evaluate is not intuitively obvious. For example, the item "I sometimes tease animals" is more often answered "wrong" by depressed subjects than by normal ones. Thus, the statement was included in the scale 2 (Depression), although at first glance it does not seem to give a direct assessment of the degree of a person's depression. Items that empirically differentiated groups of depressed patients and healthy people constituted the Depression scale. People who scored high on this scale exhibited the symptoms found in the control group of depressed patients. Thus, a high score on the Depression scale indicates that the patient responded similarly to the criteria group of depressed patients and differed from the normal group. (Video recording of an interview with Stark Hathaway at 1973, describing his original work on the MMPI, can be viewed at www.umn.edu/mmpi)
The 1943 MMPI test format consisted of 504 affirmative statements that could be answered “true” or “false. ” Later, the number of statements was increased to 566 by including repeated items and scales of 5 (masculinity-femininity) and 0 (social introversion).The classic MMPI had 13 standard scales, of which 3 were related to validity scales and 10 to clinical or personality scales.Restandardization of the MMPI test, held at 1989 by the University of Minnesota Press, (James Butcher, John R. Graham, and W. Grant Dahlstrom), retained the same basic format, but changed, removed, and/or added a number of elements, resulting in a total of 567. While similar to MMPI, MMPI-2 has several important differences. The new variants of MMPI-2 and MMPI-A (adolescent) retained the original 10 clinical/personality scales, as well as the original 3 validity scales, but the total number of validity scales was increased to seven: the earlier validity scales (L, F, K) were four new validity scales have been added (VRIN, TRIN, F1, F2). Six additional scales have also been added (eg Immaturity, Anxiety, Suppression). Fifty-eight items were removed from the original form, some of the wording of the items was changed, and new items related to adolescent issues (eg, A-dep/teenage depression) were included. nine0019
A newer version of MMPI-2-RF containing only 338 claims was published in 2008. While the MMPI-2-RF is a newer technique with a reduced time to complete the test (typically 40 to 50 minutes), the MMPI-2 is still the most widely used test due to its extensive research base and familiarity with the technique. psychologists. Currently (2020), based on MMPI-2-RF, a new version of the MMPI-3 test has been released, containing 52 scales, the execution time of which takes only 25-50 minutes. nine0019
The clinical and personality scales of the MMPI methodology are known both by their numbers and by their abbreviations. Scales are not just diagnostic categories, but measures of personal qualities. Although the scales were originally designed to distinguish between normal and abnormal behavior, it is generally considered much more useful to think of the scales as indicating clusters of personality variables. For example, scale 2 (Depression) mentioned above might include characteristics such as mental apathy, self-abasement, and a tendency to worry about even relatively small things. Instead of simply labeling a person as "diagnostic", the descriptive approach creates a richer, deeper, and broader assessment of the personality that is being tested by the MMPI. This approach is especially clearly reflected in the description of the personality through the system of two and three peak profile codes. nine0019
Accurate interpretation of MMPI test results requires consideration of both the overall configuration of the various scales and the respective client demographics. In many cases, the same test profile can mean something completely different on another person's profile. For example, a "psychotic" profile can be simulated in the case of hyperintense purposeful activity when a person solves a crisis life problem. Or, for example, an elevated scale of 3 (Hysteria) could indicate a person who denies conflicts, demands support from others, expresses optimism, and is somewhat naive in interpersonal relationships. However, if this rise is accompanied by a high 4th scale (Psychopathic Deviations), it is likely to be characteristic of a passive-aggressive personality with strong repressed anger. This anger is usually expressed indirectly, and any negative consequences of it for other people are likely to be strongly denied by the subject. Thus, it is important for the clinician to avoid using purely quantitative or mechanical formulas to interpret the profile. Instead, the overall context of the personality profile should be assessed. Not only the specific scale must be considered in the context of the overall test configuration, but additional sources such as demographic characteristics (age, education, socioeconomic status, ethnicity), behavioral observations, other psychometric tests, relevant history can often improve accuracy. the breadth and sensitivity of personality descriptions. nine0019
Description of the MMPI test scales (SMIL)
L - False F - Reliability K - Correction 1 - Hypochondria 2 - Depression 3 - Hysteria 4 - Psychopathy 6 - Paranoia 7 - Psychasthenia 8 - Schizophrenia 9 - Hypomania 0 - Introversion
MMPI can serve as an objective, reliable screening tool to assess an individual's personality characteristics and symptomatic behavior. The interpretive information available to describe test results has been extensively researched and documented over nearly 70 years of clinical use. With over 18,000 books and articles published on the MMPI and MMPI-2, the test has become the most commonly used clinical psychological test in the world. In addition, over 150 translations of the original MMPI and 32 translations of the MMPI-2 were made. The test is used in more than 45 countries. The widespread acceptance of MMPI by researchers and practitioners is due to a number of factors:
1. MMPI-2 has been validated in a number of clinical and human studies. The information it provides is relevant in many situations where it is useful to understand the personal characteristics of the subject. The personality profile provides the clinician with a visual representation of important information plotted on an easy-to-read graphic, and it provides a wealth of normative and clinical data for interpreting a holistic profile. The published literature contains a wide range of descriptive information on numerous clinical groups. nine0019
2. MMPI-2 provides an objective assessment of a client's personality characteristics through multiple methods (for an up-to-date review of the literature, see www.umn.edu/mmpi).
3. MMPI-2 is one of the easiest personality assessment tools to use in clinical practice because it requires little professional time to use. At the same time, interpretation requires attentiveness, skill and experience of a qualified psychologist.
4. MMPI-2 is cost effective because testing and processing can be automated. Automated MMPI reports can provide a very detailed and accurate clinical profile assessment. After the computer evaluates the test results, the psychologist writes a report, interpreting the test results in the context of the person's medical history and current psychological problems. nine0019
5. MMPI-2 is one of the simplest clinical personality tests for students and professionals because of the abundance of published material. Some suggested general resources for interpreting MMPI-2:
- Butcher, J. N. (Ed.). (1997). Personality assessment in managed care: Using the MMPI-2 in treatment planning. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Butcher, J. N. (Ed.). (2000). Basic sources for the MMPI-2. nine0059 Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
- Butcher, J. N. (2005). A beginner's guide to the MMPI-2 (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Butcher, J. N. (Ed.). (2006). MMPI-2: A practitioner's guide. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
- Graham, J. R. (2006). MMPI: Assessing personality and psychopathology (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. nine0007 Greene, R. (2000). The MMPI: An interpretive manual (2nd ed.). New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Articles on the topic:
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MMPI test "Methodology of multifaceted personality research"
to section Contents
Among the questionnaire methods of personality research, the Minnesota questionnaire test, usually abbreviated MMPI, formed by the first letters of the full name - Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, has acquired the greatest prevalence. This test was proposed by Hathaway and McKinley at 1941g. and has been greatly improved since then. The authors of the test set themselves the task of creating a methodology that allows the most complete study of various aspects of the personality and the current mental state, simple enough and convenient for widespread practical use, empirically standardized and allowing statistical control of the result. In its modern form, as noted by Delay, Perse, and Pichot (1966), the test fulfills all of these requirements. This conclusion is undoubtedly supported by the use of the test in psychohygienic research, various branches of physical medicine, and other areas of research (Butcher, 1969; Welsh and Dahlstrom 1956; Dahlstrom, Welsh, 1960; good e. a., 1961; Delay e. a., 1966).
SELECTION OF STATEMENTS
In order to enable a broad study of normal and pathological personality, the authors included in the test 550 statements, initially classified into areas according to the content of the statement, as follows.
I. Somatic sphere: general health - 9 statements, general neurological symptoms - 19, cranial nerves - 11, motor skills and coordination - 6, sensitivity - 3, vasomotor system, trophic disorders, etc. - 10, heart and organs breathing - 3, gastrointestinal tract - 11, genitourinary system - 3.
II. Psychological characteristics: habits - 19 statements, family relations - 26, profession - 18, education - 12, sexual behavior - 16, attitude towards religion - 19, attitude towards social norms (law, order, etc. ) - 46, social behavior - 72, issues related to the severity of male or female interests - 55, moral attitudes - 33.
III. Psychopathological disorders: depressive tendencies - 32 statements, hypomanic - 24, obsessions - 15, phobias - 29, delirium, hallucinations and illusions - 31, sadistic and masochistic tendencies - 7. In addition, 15 statements were included in the test, revealing the tendency of the subject to look in the eyes of the researcher in the most favorable possible light.
Statements were selected using typical patient statements, descriptions contained in clinical guidelines, and previously developed psychological tests. The MMPI includes questions from classic personality tests, psychiatric tests, attitude tests, and interest tests. nine0019
STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION
This initial indicative distribution of statements, of course, did not claim to reveal the significance of each of them for determining certain personality traits or actual mental state, it only provided a fairly complete coverage of those areas that were supposed to be investigated. The identification of this significance was carried out in the process of empirical standardization and test validation. For this purpose, the statements included in the test were presented to a large group of healthy individuals, relatives of somatic patients, who were treated at the clinics of Männeoot University and representative of the population. Each subject had to express his attitude to the statement, recognizing it as true or false. At the same time, typical reactions were revealed for the normative group of healthy subjects to each of the presented statements. nine0019
Subsequently, these reactions were compared with the reactions obtained in the study of eight groups of typical patients representing certain forms of pathology, and those statements were selected that statistically significantly differentiated the normative group of healthy individuals and each of the studied groups of patients. The selected statements were combined into scales named according to the group of patients for which each scale was validated.