Jung briggs personality types
Personality test based on Jung and Briggs Myers typology
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What is Personality Type?
According to Jung's theory of psychological type, people can be characterized using the following three criteria:
- Extraversion - Introversion
- Sensing - Intuition
- Thinking - Feeling
Briggs Myers emphasized that the Judging - Perceiving relationship also influences characteristics of personality type. ..
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More Personality Type Resources
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- Communication Strategies for Different Personality Types
- Learning Styles of the 16 Personality Types
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- Determine Other People's Personality
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ESFJ: Extraverted Sensing Feeling Judging
Extraverted Sensing Feeling Judging
Guardians of birthdays, holidays and celebrations, ESFJs are generous entertainers. They enjoy and joyfully observe traditions and are liberal in giving, especially where custom prescribes.
All else being equal, ESFJs enjoy being in charge. They see problems clearly and delegate easily, work hard and play with zest. ESFJs, as do most SJs, bear strong allegiance to rights of seniority. They willingly provide service (which embodies life's meaning) and expect the same from others.
ESFJs are easily wounded. And when wounded, their emotions will not be contained. They by nature "wear their hearts on their sleeves," often exuding warmth and bonhomie, but not infrequently boiling over with the vexation of their souls. Some ESFJs channel these vibrant emotions into moving dramatic performances on stage and screen.
Strong, contradictory forces consume the ESFJ. Their sense of right and wrong wrestles with an overwhelming rescuing, 'mothering' drive. This sometimes results in swift, immediate action taken upon a transgressor, followed by stern reprimand; ultimately, however, the prodigal is wrested from the gallows of their folly, just as the noose tightens and all hope is lost, by the very executioner!
An ESFJ at odds with self is a remarkable sight. When a decision must be made, especially one involving the risk of conflict (abhorrent to ESFJs), there ensues an in-house wrestling match between the aforementioned black-and-white Values and the Nemesis of Discord. The contender pits self against self, once firmly deciding with the Right, then switching to Prudence to forestall hostilities, countered by unswerving Values, ad exhaustium, winner take all.
As caretakers, ESFJs sense danger all around--germs within, the elements without, unscrupulous malefactors, insidious character flaws. The world is a dangerous place, not to be trusted. Not that the ESFJ is paranoid; 'hyper-vigilant' would be more precise. And thus they serve excellently as protectors, outstanding in fields such as medical care and elementary education.
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Based on Jung’s framework of cognitive functions
ESFJs live in their Extraverted Feeling functioning. Feeling, a rational (i.e., deciding) function, expresses opinions easily in the E world of objects and people. ESFJs have the ability to express warmth, rage, and a range of other emotions. Actions are encouraged or rebuked based on how they affect other people, especially people near and dear to the ESFJ. This type's vocal decisiveness predisposes many of its number to facility with administration and supervision.
The secondary Sensing function aids and abets the dominant Fe in that sensate data is collected and at once compared with the inner forms or standards. Data on which decisions are made are thus focused and given a contrast which tends to be stronger and clearer than the original stimuli. The strengthening effect of Si on Fe may be responsible for this type's reputation for wearing their "hearts on their sleeves." At any rate, ESFJs reflect the "black and white" view of reality which is common to the SJ types.
Intuition is tertiary--as the ESFJ matures, and as situations arise which call for suspension of criticism, Ne is allowed to play. Under the leadership of the Fe function, iNtuition allows for a loosening of the more rigid Si rights and wrongs; teasing and slapstick humor emerge. ESFJs are also capable of discerning patterns and philosophies, but such perceiving is subject to the weakness of the tertiary position, and the results often lack the variety and complexity of connections that more complex systems require.
The inferior Ti function may rarely be expressed. In fact, ESFJs may take affront at the aloof, detached nature of dominant Ti types, or conversely, be drawn to them. Some ESFJs construct rationale which have the appearance of (Jungian) Thinking logic, but under scrutiny are in fact command performances of "Thinking in the service of Feeling," (i.e., Thinking-like conclusions which do not obey the tenets of impersonal logic; they rather construct scenarios from only those "hard, cold facts" which support the conclusion reached by the dominant Extraverted Feeling function. To wit:
You don't sew with a fork, so I see no reason to eat
with knitting needles.
-- Miss Piggy, on eating Chinese Food
(by Joe Butt - published under license)
Theory of Carl Jung and Myers-Briggs Typology: 2academy - LiveJournal(source site TYPOLOGY. psychological types)
What is a typology? ( nine0042 Carl Jung Theory and Myers-Briggs Typology )
Psychological type theory states that each of us has natural preferences and that our true psychological type shows how we prefer to act in different situations and in what environment we feel most comfortable.
Studying your own psychological type will help you find out why some areas of life are easy for you, and others only after a hard struggle. Studying the psychological types of others will help you find the most effective way to communicate with them and understand in which areas they excel best. nine0045
The typology is widely used. It is especially notable for its indispensability in the areas of personal growth and self-improvement. The study and application of the theory of psychological types can be a powerful and useful tool if it is used as a tool of knowledge, and not as a method of framing people or justifying behavior.
The sixteen psychological types we use are based on research by Carl Gustav Jung, Catharina K. Briggs, and Isabel Briggs Myers. nine0045
Carl Jung was the first to develop the theory that every person has a psychological type. He was convinced that there are two classes of psychological "functions" used by people: the first through which we receive information ("perceive" things) and, second, on the basis of which we make decisions. Within each of these two classes, there are two opposite ways of functioning: we receive information through 1) sensations, or 2) intuition, and make decisions based on 1) objective logic, or 2) subjective feelings. nine0045
Jung said that in their lives people use all four functions listed above, but each individual uses different functions with different success and frequency. In this way, an individual order of preference for these functions can be determined. The function that is used most often is called "dominant". The dominant function is supported by an auxiliary (2nd) function, a third (3rd) function and a subordinate (4th) function. Carl Jung argued that people can have either an "extroverted" or "introverted" dominant function. The dominant function is so important that it sets the tone for other functions and for all human behavior in general. Thus, eight psychological types were identified:
Extraverted Sensing (modern types: ESFP, ESTP)
Introverted Sensing (modern types: ISTJ, ISFJ)
Extraverted Intuitive (modern types: ENFP, ENTP)
Intuitive (modern types: ENFP, ENTP)
Introverted Sensing (modern types: ISTJ, ISFJ) INFJ, INTJ)
Extraverted Thinker (modern types: ESTJ, ENTJ)
Introverted Thinker (modern types: ISTP, INTP)
Extraverted Feeler (modern types: ESFJ, ENFJ)
· Introverted Feeler (modern types: INFP, ISFP)
Katharina Briggs developed Jung's writings. But only Katharina's daughter - Isabelle Briggs Myers - made the work on psychological types really noticeable. Based on the work of Jung and her mother, she confirmed the importance of dominance and support in determining psychological type. Now that the ancillary function has been taken into account, it has become clear that there is another characteristic preference not considered by Jung - Decision / Perception. Following this discovery, Isabelle Briggs Myers developed a method for determining the type - test MBTI (Myers Briggs Type Indicator).
The development of Carl Jung's theory today suggests that each person primarily operates in four categories:
· direction of energy flow;
· method of obtaining information;
· the way of making decisions;
· the main daily routine.
In these categories, we "prefer" to be:
· Extroverts or Introverts;
Sensing or Intuitive; nine0045
Thinking or Feeling;
Decisive or Perceiving.
It is natural for all of us to have only one way of behaving within each category, which we use more easily and more often than the other. Therefore, we are said to "prefer" one function over another. The combination of our "preferences" determines the psychological type. While all people function within a full range of preferences, each person has a natural preference that falls into one or another of the four possible categories. nine0045
The direction of the energy flow determines where we get the bulk of our motivation from. We receive it from within ourselves (Introverted, I ntroverted) or from external sources (Extroverted, E xtraverted). Our dominant function is concentrated outside or inside us.
The way we receive information determines how we perceive and assimilate information. Do we trust our five senses (Sensing, S ensing) or rely on our instincts (Intuitive, i N tuitive).
The third preference for how we make decisions shows whether we tend to make decisions based on logic and objective reasoning (Thinking, T hinking), or based on a personal, subjective value system (Feeling, F eeling).
These three preferences became the basis of Carl Jung's theory of psychological types. Isabelle Briggs Myers developed the theory of the fourth preference, which determines how we interact with the world around us on a daily basis. We are organized and purposeful, and feel more comfortable in a planned and structured environment (Judging), or flexible and diverse, and prefer an open and unsystematic environment (Perceiving). From a theoretical point of view, if we know that our most developed Extraverted function is a decision-making function, then we prefer Decision. If our most developed Extraverted function is information gathering, then we prefer Perception. nine0045
Possible combinations of basic preferences form 16 psychological types. This does not mean that all people will fall exclusively into one or the other category. If we are primarily Extroverts, this does not mean that we do not tend to behave like Introverts. From day to day, we operate across a spectrum of preferences. As we grow and learn, most of us develop the ability to function well in areas that are unnatural for our base types. In the trials and tribulations of life, we develop some areas much better than others. With all of this in mind, it becomes clear why we cannot confine people to established patterns of behavior. However, in the context of this theory, we can determine our natural preferences and learn about our natural strengths and weaknesses. nine0045
© Alexey Lukyanets (ESTJ), 2006
Original © BSM Consulting, 1998—2006
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2 Academy, Martian Tractor, Half Day World, Half Day School, SINGULARITY ZONE. +oThe puzzler:
Mind control: brainwashing or self-propulsion?
"Great Coding" - new books. nine0047 About the comprehensive development of the planet, or about the keys to a brighter future.
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Personality typology in psychology - according to Jung, Myers-Briggs
Personality typology is super popular, a field in demand today both in classical science and its applied areas, and even in everyday life, everyday psychology. Assigning oneself to a type seems to be an interesting exercise. However, in order for typing not to become entertainment, such attribution must always serve the purpose. Most often, this goal is to ensure that the person being typed, understanding his own individuality, develops as a person, resolves psychological problems, not just classifies himself as one type and fences himself off. nine0045
Different authors describing personality differences, the concept of personality typology and, in the key of differential psychology, the concepts of individuality, even temperament, character, were described as synonymous in their meaning, sometimes putting an equal sign between them. Individuality was considered by some in a broad sense as a personality, character merged with personality. Here, differential psychology reveals divergences from the general one, which separates, clearly delimiting these concepts.
Individuality is traditionally defined by the sum of properties that separate one personality from another. Properties can intersect and correlate with each other, forming stable characteristics. However, such a sum of properties is not yet a type. Considering the concept of personality typology, we now assume a set of not only interrelated traits, but those that together have an integral structure, a gestalt organization. Differing from classes of properties, simple associations, the type implies a strict allocation of the skeleton of characteristics, reliance on these characteristics, the main feature that centers all the others. nine0045
Psychological typologies of personality
Two ways of constructing typological classifications should be distinguished - the path from below and the path from above. The path from below is also called empirical or inductive, when we go from a particular property to a set of properties, their generalization. This is how such specific basic personality typologies are built, such as, for example, the classification of psychopathy in psychiatry. The second path, the path from above, can be called theoretical and deductive. The researcher here goes from a theoretical assumption, from some important, but perhaps not even always provable axiom, from the general to the particular, he first identifies the main features of the type, which he then tries to empirically substantiate and verify. Psychoanalyst Carl Jung built the typology in this way. nine0045
The main personality typologies for their construction have three tasks. The research task is to find a rationale, usually bodily, morphological, anatomical or anatomical-physiological for character types - as the ancients said, to connect the soul with the body. The empirical-descriptive task is to identify the maximum number of individual classes or specific types, for example, anomalies of character, in order to develop specific advice for each such group, specifically addressed to them, to control behavior. The more varied the classification, the more precise such individually directed advice and guidance can become. The third, actually therapeutic task, which is not always immediately noticeable, is connected with building a typology from above, more precisely, deductively. Any discussion of individuality is associated with psychotherapy, and the researcher here runs the risk of not knowing exactly the characteristics of each representative of the types, but this is justified by the fact that the selection of such general characteristics is a certain language and means that are offered to the typed for understanding his own individuality. nine0045
The presence of psycho-corporeal correspondences in the structure of the body and character allows us to substantiate the bodily essence of psychological properties. Hippocrates described the humoral, liquid theory of this relationship. Sechenov, Pavlov, Teplov, Nebylitsyn relied on the properties of the central nervous system. Temperament settled on the subject's bodily constitution, which is even worldly combined for us with his specific lifestyle, mode of behavior. This is well illustrated in the short story Thick and Thin. The fat one is good-natured, talkative, while the thin one is wary, sometimes vindictive, vindictive, observant. However, everyday observation is always superficial, intuitive, in it the particular is taken for the general. nine0045
Ernst Kretschmer, a German psychiatrist at the beginning of the last century, built his constitutional typology, which is described in his book Body Structure and Character, in three steps. At the first stage, he singled out the main types of constitution and correlated them with the presence of a mental illness. Kretschmer set himself the task of highlighting clear parameters in appearance for each personality type he discovered so that he had a specific face. As a result, after that he separated three types that were as different as possible from each other, although initially there were many more types, also mixed, not having qualitative specifics. nine0045
The first type, asthenic, is characterized by a weak development of the musculoskeletal system, seems to be taller than his actual height due to thinness, has an angular profile - a somewhat reduced chin and an elongated nose. The second type, called athletic, has a figure that corresponds to the stereotype of masculinity. The third type, called the picnic, has developed body cavities, its figure resembles a model of a snow woman. Even if the picnic takes care of himself, his face betrays him - it has a pentagonal profile, as well as a short neck. nine0045
Asthenic physique is characterized by psychological characteristics described as schizothymia, literally - a tendency to splitting. Schizothymic has abstract thinking, it can be found among mathematicians and philosophers, where there is a need to build a model of the world, to distance oneself from the world in order to systematize it. Shizotimik is a man of ideas, a consistent and ardent supporter of it. Picnic is characterized by cyclothymia associated with emotional fluctuations. Cyclothymics prefer those areas of knowledge in which there is a need to describe the object as it is, for example, geography, botany. He not only perceives the world, but feels it, gives it an emotional assessment. He is inclined to take into account the real situation, to change his positions if the reality has changed, he is inclined to compromise. nine0045
Kretschmer outlined a certain polarity, opposition between types, which will be developed in further typologies. He also approached the selection of properties according to the principle of correlation, and therefore today the Kretschmer approach to differentiation is manifested in an attempt to find a third party, for example, environmental influences that explain the formation of certain bodily and psychological parameters.
Following Kretschmer, his follower Sheldon continued to study personality types in connection with the body. Sheldon's analysis strategy has changed. If Kretschmer considered specific carriers of types, then Sheldon does not single out integral types and does not aim at a qualitative analysis, but describes each character with a list of parameters, quantitatively. Sheldon for each carrier highlights the signs of a certain physique, its indices. nine0045
Further, at the intersection of psychology and psychiatry, mental illnesses were identified, followed by accentuations, which are an exacerbation of features, but are not a violation, are within the normal range. The study of accentuations was carried out by Gannushkin, Lichko, their methods are still widely used in psychiatry and the differential field of psychology.
Jung's personality typology
Jung, following the philosopher Kant, builds his own typology in order to reveal the means for personality development. He deals with his patients, whom typology can help to survive psychological difficulties, but Jung considers both himself and healthy people to be typified. Unlike the diagnostic map of accentuations according to Gannushkin and Lichko, Jung does not hide his analysis from his patients. nine0045
Jung, looking through the history of art, music, poetry, philosophy, notices that people are usually singled out in pairs, for example, rational and emotional. In this pairing, he sees an important meaning, and makes his main discovery - like natural opposing forces, for example, stretching, compressing, exhaling, inhaling, two opposite directions can be distinguished in the psyche, attitudes towards extraversion and introversion.
Both directions are present in the psyche of every subject, but one of them always prevails. Jung explains this through that psychoanalytic construction, in which there is one attitude in the mind, and the opposite one in the unconscious. Jung's idea here, however, is to balance yourself. nine0045
Next, Jung highlights another dichotomy, opposed to each other thinking and emotions, then speaks of the dominant mental function. He finds another pair of characteristics, sensory-intuition. He considers all these functions to be non-equilibrium present in the structure of the psyche, one of them always dominates.
Sensory is a sensation, our perception of how the action of our act occurs. Emotion is associated with the acceptance of a perceived event on an emotional level. Thinking allows you to make sense of the situation. Intuition, which, according to Jung, means the ability to anticipate the consequences of an act, its future results, is associated with the ability to imagine. nine0045
Jung could be followed by another author, Lazursky, who, along with the identification of types, considers levels of development. This attempt is present, although far from being indisputable.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is based on Young's typology. Both of its creators did not have a psychological education, however, after reading Jung's "Psychological Types", they began to actively type in practice, conducting observations of people's behavior, his research. Living in wartime, they had the opportunity to observe large masses of people in non-standard situations, and on the basis of this material they described in more detail the differences in types. nine0045
More MBTI has been effectively developed as a system that allows you to form work teams, select staff, and predict the behavior of employees in the company. Specialists using the MBTI aim to build the right management in connection with the types of personalities of both the leader and subordinates. MBTI allows you to separate not only the strengths, but also the weaknesses of the subject and, concentrating on the strengths, place the employee in the most suitable position for him in the organization. nine0045
According to the MBTI, the type of person is represented in four formats. The first is the source of energy, from where a person draws energy. An extrovert receives energy from outside, he needs to constantly act and communicate, this is his way of survival and comfort zone. It is in the process of interaction with the external world that he receives an impetus for development and material for it. An introvert, on the contrary, draws energy from within himself and therefore loves solitude.
The next one is the center of attention, a way of obtaining information about the world around us. Here we are dealing with sensorics as a support for the sense organs, intuition as a supraconscious process of analysis, forecasting and anticipation of events. The sensory type is based on the present and already received past experience, while the intuitive is able to see figuratively, the whole picture, as if from above. nine0045
This is followed by the decision-making center of the thinking or feeling way. The thinking type reasons on the basis of right and wrong, and the feeling type on the basis of personal values.
And the last pair of characteristics, judgment and perception, are related to the lifestyle of the individual. Judgment people live in an orderly, predictable world, while perception people live in a deep, elemental world with options open to all kinds of choices, which is why decisions they don't make until the last moment. nine0045
Simultaneously with Briggs Myers, Aushra Augustinavichiute worked on her typology, called socionics, which is also a continuation of Jung's typology. It was also based on Kempinski's theory of the so-called informational metabolism. Socionics has become a field of knowledge that studies how a person receives, then processes, and then gives out information. Later, they began to talk not only about information, but already about energy-information exchange.
In addition to the division into dichotomies in terms of fidelity, as well as the division into sensorics, intuitives, thinkers, which are called logicians in socionics, and feelers, which are called ethics, rational people of judgment and the so-called irrationals, people of perception, socionics also has a model of the psyche , 8 ordered functions arranged in priority. Here mental, vital blocks, subtypes, accentuations of types are considered. nine0045
Special attention in socionics deserves the theory of duality - the ideal compatibility of types that complement each other and form a closed ring through their energy and information exchange. Such an exchange is associated with the return of each in a pair of content according to its strong functions and a request for acceptance according to its weak ones. It is believed that the so-called duals in socionics provide each other with information through the most comfortable channels, while mutually protecting the partner in painful matters for him. nine0045
In socionics, in addition to dual relations, relations between all types are considered, which makes this typology unique. It allows not only to describe the carrier of the type, but also to consciously and effectively influence him, as far as it is possible within the framework of his type, supplying information and energy through the channels he needs. Areas of creativity are described in which the person being typed will be most effective, will be able to act not only without exhaustion, but, on the contrary, getting satisfaction from self-realization. As well as areas of least resistance of the psyche, activities in which will not only be unreasonably costly for the carrier of the type, but even often traumatic. nine0045
Today socionics has been widely developed as a typology and even as a field of philosophy, and some experts seek to bring it into the status of a separate science. This typology has practical significance in business, personal relationships, self-identification, value self-determination, professional orientation, and the creation of optimally functioning teams.