Dsm 5 personality disorder clusters

Personality disorders - Symptoms and causes


A personality disorder is a type of mental disorder in which you have a rigid and unhealthy pattern of thinking, functioning and behaving. A person with a personality disorder has trouble perceiving and relating to situations and people. This causes significant problems and limitations in relationships, social activities, work and school.

In some cases, you may not realize that you have a personality disorder because your way of thinking and behaving seems natural to you. And you may blame others for the challenges you face.

Personality disorders usually begin in the teenage years or early adulthood. There are many types of personality disorders. Some types may become less obvious throughout middle age.

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Types of personality disorders are grouped into three clusters, based on similar characteristics and symptoms. Many people with one personality disorder also have signs and symptoms of at least one additional personality disorder. It's not necessary to exhibit all the signs and symptoms listed for a disorder to be diagnosed.

Cluster A personality disorders

Cluster A personality disorders are characterized by odd, eccentric thinking or behavior. They include paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder.

Paranoid personality disorder
  • Pervasive distrust and suspicion of others and their motives
  • Unjustified belief that others are trying to harm or deceive you
  • Unjustified suspicion of the loyalty or trustworthiness of others
  • Hesitancy to confide in others due to unreasonable fear that others will use the information against you
  • Perception of innocent remarks or nonthreatening situations as personal insults or attacks
  • Angry or hostile reaction to perceived slights or insults
  • Tendency to hold grudges
  • Unjustified, recurrent suspicion that spouse or sexual partner is unfaithful
Schizoid personality disorder
  • Lack of interest in social or personal relationships, preferring to be alone
  • Limited range of emotional expression
  • Inability to take pleasure in most activities
  • Inability to pick up normal social cues
  • Appearance of being cold or indifferent to others
  • Little or no interest in having sex with another person
Schizotypal personality disorder
  • Peculiar dress, thinking, beliefs, speech or behavior
  • Odd perceptual experiences, such as hearing a voice whisper your name
  • Flat emotions or inappropriate emotional responses
  • Social anxiety and a lack of or discomfort with close relationships
  • Indifferent, inappropriate or suspicious response to others
  • "Magical thinking" — believing you can influence people and events with your thoughts
  • Belief that certain casual incidents or events have hidden messages meant only for you
Cluster B personality disorders

Cluster B personality disorders are characterized by dramatic, overly emotional or unpredictable thinking or behavior. They include antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder and narcissistic personality disorder.

Antisocial personality disorder
  • Disregard for others' needs or feelings
  • Persistent lying, stealing, using aliases, conning others
  • Recurring problems with the law
  • Repeated violation of the rights of others
  • Aggressive, often violent behavior
  • Disregard for the safety of self or others
  • Impulsive behavior
  • Consistently irresponsible
  • Lack of remorse for behavior
Borderline personality disorder
  • Impulsive and risky behavior, such as having unsafe sex, gambling or binge eating
  • Unstable or fragile self-image
  • Unstable and intense relationships
  • Up and down moods, often as a reaction to interpersonal stress
  • Suicidal behavior or threats of self-injury
  • Intense fear of being alone or abandoned
  • Ongoing feelings of emptiness
  • Frequent, intense displays of anger
  • Stress-related paranoia that comes and goes
Histrionic personality disorder
  • Constantly seeking attention
  • Excessively emotional, dramatic or sexually provocative to gain attention
  • Speaks dramatically with strong opinions, but few facts or details to back them up
  • Easily influenced by others
  • Shallow, rapidly changing emotions
  • Excessive concern with physical appearance
  • Thinks relationships with others are closer than they really are
Narcissistic personality disorder
  • Belief that you're special and more important than others
  • Fantasies about power, success and attractiveness
  • Failure to recognize others' needs and feelings
  • Exaggeration of achievements or talents
  • Expectation of constant praise and admiration
  • Arrogance
  • Unreasonable expectations of favors and advantages, often taking advantage of others
  • Envy of others or belief that others envy you
Cluster C personality disorders

Cluster C personality disorders are characterized by anxious, fearful thinking or behavior. They include avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

Avoidant personality disorder
  • Too sensitive to criticism or rejection
  • Feeling inadequate, inferior or unattractive
  • Avoidance of work activities that require interpersonal contact
  • Socially inhibited, timid and isolated, avoiding new activities or meeting strangers
  • Extreme shyness in social situations and personal relationships
  • Fear of disapproval, embarrassment or ridicule
Dependent personality disorder
  • Excessive dependence on others and feeling the need to be taken care of
  • Submissive or clingy behavior toward others
  • Fear of having to provide self-care or fend for yourself if left alone
  • Lack of self-confidence, requiring excessive advice and reassurance from others to make even small decisions
  • Difficulty starting or doing projects on your own due to lack of self-confidence
  • Difficulty disagreeing with others, fearing disapproval
  • Tolerance of poor or abusive treatment, even when other options are available
  • Urgent need to start a new relationship when a close one has ended
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
  • Preoccupation with details, orderliness and rules
  • Extreme perfectionism, resulting in dysfunction and distress when perfection is not achieved, such as feeling unable to finish a project because you don't meet your own strict standards
  • Desire to be in control of people, tasks and situations, and inability to delegate tasks
  • Neglect of friends and enjoyable activities because of excessive commitment to work or a project
  • Inability to discard broken or worthless objects
  • Rigid and stubborn
  • Inflexible about morality, ethics or values
  • Tight, miserly control over budgeting and spending money

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is not the same as obsessive-compulsive disorder, a type of anxiety disorder.

When to see a doctor

If you have any signs or symptoms of a personality disorder, see your doctor or other primary care professional or a mental health professional. Untreated, personality disorders can cause significant problems in your life that may get worse without treatment.

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Personality is the combination of thoughts, emotions and behaviors that makes you unique. It's the way you view, understand and relate to the outside world, as well as how you see yourself. Personality forms during childhood, shaped through an interaction of:

  • Your genes. Certain personality traits may be passed on to you by your parents through inherited genes. These traits are sometimes called your temperament.
  • Your environment. This involves the surroundings you grew up in, events that occurred, and relationships with family members and others.

Personality disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of these genetic and environmental influences. Your genes may make you vulnerable to developing a personality disorder, and a life situation may trigger the actual development.

Risk factors

Although the precise cause of personality disorders is not known, certain factors seem to increase the risk of developing or triggering personality disorders, including:

  • Family history of personality disorders or other mental illness
  • Abusive, unstable or chaotic family life during childhood
  • Being diagnosed with childhood conduct disorder
  • Variations in brain chemistry and structure


Personality disorders can significantly disrupt the lives of both the affected person and those who care about that person. Personality disorders may cause problems with relationships, work or school, and can lead to social isolation or alcohol or drug abuse.

By Mayo Clinic Staff


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Cluster A Personality Disorders: Living Detached and Distrustful

Eccentric, detached, and distrustful are characteristics of cluster A personality disorders, which include paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personalities.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition, text revision (DSM-5-TR) lists 10 personality disorders. These are conditions defined by long-standing impairing or distressing patterns of behaviors, thoughts, and personality traits.

Grouped together by defining similarities, these personality disorders fall into three clusters:

  • cluster A: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal personality disorders
  • cluster B: antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic personality disorders
  • cluster C: avoidant, dependant, obsessive-compulsive personality disorders

Cluster A personality disorders are conditions that often involve characteristic behaviors or traits that are considered eccentric, distrustful, and detached. Emotional unavailability may also be a sign.

The DSM-5-TR lists three cluster A personality disorders:

  • Paranoid personality disorder: Persistent behaviors and thoughts that center on suspiciousness, doubt, and mistrust of others.
  • Schizoid personality disorder: Persistent patterns of social detachment and limited emotional expression.
  • Schizotypal personality disorder: Persistent paranoid or suspicious thoughts, avoidance of close relationships, and distortions of thought or perception.

Globally, a 2019 systematic review and meta-analysis spanning several decades found approximately 3.8% of people around the world live with a cluster A personality disorder, compared to cluster B disorders at 2.8% and cluster C disorders at 5.0%.

Only a mental health professional can accurately diagnose a cluster A personality disorder, because these conditions go beyond a specific set of simple behaviors or attitudes.

What is a personality trait?

A personality trait is an enduring pattern in your thoughts, perceptions, and ability to relate to the environment around you.

It’s not your capacity to run the fastest or jump the highest. It is, however, your determination to train the hardest or your drive to learn the best techniques.

Paranoid personality disorder involves a persistent mistrust of the people around you and a suspicious attitude.

The DSM-5-RT diagnostic criteria for paranoid personality disorder involve the presence of four or more of the following symptoms:

  1. unwarranted suspicion that others are being deceptive, exploitative, or deliberately harmful
  2. persistent doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or peers
  3. a reluctance to confide in others out of fear that information could be used against you
  4. tendency to take innocent remarks or actions as masked threats
  5. unforgiveness of perceived slights
  6. constant perception of character attacks and tendency to retaliate or react
  7. recurring, unjustified suspicions about partner infidelity

Living with paranoid personality disorder can mean you appear rigid, unable to collaborate, or are quick to develop negative stereotypes.

Schizoid personality disorder, a condition involving relationship detachment and limited emotional expression toward others, tends to begin by early adulthood, and has a variety of presentations.

The DSM-5-RT states that four or more of the following symptoms must be present to receive a schizoid personality disorder diagnosis:

  1. feeling no desire for, or enjoyment of, a close relationship, even among family members
  2. preference for solitary activity
  3. little or no interest in sexual experiences with others
  4. rarely, if ever, a need to seek pleasure from activities
  5. lacking friends and people to confide in beyond immediate relatives
  6. appearing emotionally detached, aloof, or unexpressive
  7. seeming indifferent to positive or negative input from others

People with schizoid personality disorder are typically called “loners.” You may rarely experience emotional extremes, like anger or elation, and you may be oblivious to typical social cues.

Schizotypal personality disorder is considered the most well-researched cluster A personality disorder.

It’s defined by features like a limited capacity to establish close relationships, eccentric behaviors, and ideas and perceptions that are atypical.

According to the DSM-5-RT, five or more of the following symptoms must be present to receive a schizotypal personality disorder diagnosis:

  1. false beliefs that worldly events or happenings are directly related to you
  2. magical beliefs or fantasies that directly influence behavior
  3. atypical perception of the surroundings
  4. persistent, paranoid, or suspicious thoughts
  5. uncommon speech and thinking patterns
  6. pervasive social anxiety regardless of relationship level
  7. diminished or inappropriate emotional expression
  8. eccentric behavior or appearance
  9. absence of close friends other than immediate relatives

Living with schizotypal personality disorder can mean you feel you have special powers or supernatural control over others. You might speak in riddles, rhymes, or a dialect you associate with otherworldly ability.

You may express using unique mannerisms or have an unkempt manner of dress.

Overall, all personality disorders can benefit from psychotherapy. The goal is to learn about the disorder and how your thoughts, feelings, and behaviors may be influenced by it.

As your understanding grows, your mental health team can help you identify how your actions affect those around you. You can learn new ways to manage and cope with the underlying factors in cluster A personality disorders.

Common forms of psychotherapy for personality disorders include:

  • cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
  • dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)
  • psychodynamic therapy
  • group therapy
  • psychoeducation

There are no medications for cluster A personality disorders. However, if you live with overlapping symptoms of other conditions, like depression, medications can help.

Antipsychotics and other mood stabilizers, as well as antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications are typically used to treat overlapping symptoms.

Cluster A personality disorders are three conditions that share eccentric behaviors and a reluctance or inability to form close, trusting relationships.

Whether you live with paranoid, schizoid, or schizotypal personality disorder, symptoms can cause you significant distress or prevent you from everyday levels of function.

Symptoms of cluster A disorders can be managed, and psychotherapy is the go-to treatment in these cases.

Group B personality disorders: features, treatment and more



Personality disorders are a type of mental health condition. They can lead to permanent, long-term, and unhealthy patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.

There are three main groups of personality disorders: Cluster A, Cluster B, Cluster C.

Each cluster has several unique properties that are used to classify symptoms. Within three clusters, 10 personality disorders are grouped. There are four personality disorders in cluster B, including:

  • antisocial personality disorder
  • borderline personality disorder
  • histrionic personality disorder
  • narcissistic personality disorder

Personality disorders from different groups can be diagnosed.


Each personality disorder has its own unique symptoms or characteristics. According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), symptoms should:

  • have a seizure in adolescence or early adulthood
  • be stable over time
  • lead to personality problems or impairment

Antisocial personality disorder

People with antisocial personality disorder exhibit disrespect and violations of other rights. Anger and manipulation are used for personal gain. They may mistreat other people, lie, or cheat for these personal gains. They are also more prone to stealing. However, as a rule, they do not repent of their deeds. nine0003

People with antisocial personality disorder also have an increased risk of drug or alcohol addiction.

Borderline personality disorder

People with borderline personality disorder often have unstable personal relationships. It can also affect how you view yourself. Symptoms include:

  • impulsive behavior
  • chronic feelings of emptiness
  • chronic feelings of abandonment
  • intense rage attacks
  • reckless behavior

People with this disorder may also exhibit suicidal behavior.

Read more: Please don't get me wrong, I have borderline personality disorder »

Histrionic Personality Disorder

People with Histrionic Personality Disorder often strive to be the center of attention. They may engage in a variety of attention-demanding behaviors, often in socially unacceptable situations. This behavior may include:

  • provocative interactions
  • theatrics
  • false sense of closeness

People with this disorder have an increased risk of suicidal gestures.

Read more: Understanding why people cut themselves off, hide and how to help themselves »

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

People with this personality disorder believe they are superior to others. Symptoms include:

  • extremely negative reaction to criticism
  • heightened self-esteem
  • preoccupation with grandiose thoughts of success
  • excessive need for admiration
  • strong sense of entitlement

People with this disorder often exhibit a lack of empathy and may use personal relationships to improve their self-esteem.

Causes and risk factors

Personality disorders are likely caused by a combination of genetics and environmental factors.

Jedan study she found a strong association between borderline personality disorder and a history of sexual trauma. More studying, they found an association between children who were verbally abused by their mothers and various personality disorders, including borderline and narcissistic personality disorders.

A recent review also found similarities in the anatomical features of the brains of people with personality cluster B. This suggests that brain development may also contribute to these disorders. nine0003

Ostrazhivanye found a significant association between cluster B personality disorder and family history. Having parents or siblings with a personality disorder increases the risk of developing the disorder.


It is important not to diagnose yourself or others if you see signs of a personality disorder. A personality disorder should only be diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional.

Mental health professionals use the DSM-5 to diagnose personality disorders and other mental health conditions. To be diagnosed, people must meet the criteria listed for the specific disorder. nine0003

You will probably need to have several sessions with a therapist before being officially diagnosed. During your meeting, they will ask you various questions about your life, many of which may make you feel very personal. It is important to be open and honest with your mental health professional. This will help them make an accurate diagnosis.

According to the DSM-5, you must meet the following requirements to be diagnosed with Cluster B Personality Disorder:

  • Symptoms first appeared in early adulthood.
  • If you are under 18, you must have had symptoms for at least one year.
  • Symptoms must not be the result of other disorders or specific stressful situations.

Your doctor may want to talk to family members to help you understand your symptoms. This is because it can be difficult to recognize the symptoms in oneself. Your doctor will not share what you have told them with your family members, nor will he share with you what your family members have shared. nine0003


Treatment will likely involve a variety of methods and will require your commitment. Your doctor may recommend trying something new during treatment. And you may need to continue seeing your doctor even after your symptoms improve.


Psychotherapy is usually a key part of any treatment plan. This is sometimes called talking therapy.

During psychotherapy, you will have the opportunity to express your thoughts and feelings in a non-judgmental environment. People with Group B personality disorders may find it difficult to establish a comfortable relationship with a therapist. You should not take this as a sign that the therapy is not working. nine0003

Your doctor may recommend both dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).

DBT is used to teach new skills and encourage change. It can be group or individual lessons.

CBT focuses on problem solving and teaches skills to identify problematic thoughts and beliefs.


There are no drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of personality disorders. Some medicines may be helpful if your doctor uses them to suppress some of the symptoms, or to treat a psychiatric or psychiatric disorder that occurs at the same time. The most commonly used medications include:

  • mood stabilizers
  • antidepressants
  • antipsychotics
  • anti-anxiety drugs

Talk to your doctor about possible side effects and let him know if your symptoms do not improve or worsen. You should also avoid using drugs or alcohol while taking these medicines as they may increase the risk of side effects.

Helping a loved one

If a family member or friend has been diagnosed with a personality disorder, be supportive and open. Tell them impartially when they violate your boundaries. They may not always fight for social cues, but a little guidance can help them identify behaviors that may be affecting their condition. nine0003

If you think a person with group B symptoms is a danger to themselves or others, call your local emergency services.


People with cluster B personality disorders often have difficulty maintaining healthy relationships and may exhibit emotional and impulsive symptoms. Treatment for this condition is possible with medication, although you may need a combination of treatments, including therapy and, in some cases, medication. nine0003

Suicide Prevention

If you think someone is in imminent danger of harming themselves or harming another person:

  • Call 911 or your local emergency number.
  • Stay with the person until help arrives.
  • Remove all weapons, knives, medicines, or other items that could cause damage.
  • Listen, but don't judge, argue, threaten or yell. nine0014

If you think someone is thinking about suicide, seek crisis help or a suicide prevention hotline. Contact the National Suicide Prevention Center at 800-273-8255.

Sources: National Suicide Prevention i Department of Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services

Types of personality disorders and their treatment. Paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, hysterical disorder, obsessive-compulsive, obsessive-compulsive, anxiety, narcissistic

The main feature of personality disorders is pronounced maladaptive features of the psyche - such patients do not know how and cannot get along with others, adapt to new conditions. Previously, personality disorders were called psychopathy, but over time, experts adopted a Western point of view - psychopathy is still a separate mental disorder. There are several types of personality disorders, sometimes there are mixed types of the disease. Treatment should only be carried out by experienced professionals, but the main problem with this disorder is that patients for the most part do not recognize their mental problems. nine0003

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Types of personality disorders and features of their treatment

Every fifteenth inhabitant of our planet suffers from a personality disorder. Moreover, he himself hardly perceives his condition as a disease that requires an appeal to specialists. He will justify all his actions and consider his behavior normal. Treatment denies, and the consequences are unpredictable. nine0003

Personality disorder: adjustment difficulties

Personality disorder is a maladaptive pattern of behavior caused by a persistent mental disorder that is not associated with a physical or neurological disease. This pathology is difficult to correct, because the patient does not believe that he needs treatment. There is no motivation, which is a catalyst for positive changes. The individual himself does not seek to get rid of the violation and does not make good contact with psychotherapists. Late appeal to specialists leads to the fact that the patient gets an appointment with a psychiatrist already in the stage of deep neglect of the disease. It can be difficult to relieve symptoms and cure. The first signs of the disease are actively manifested in adolescence. Before this period, individual episodes are possible, but only after the period of puberty can we talk about the problem. Individuals with cognitive personality disorder do not understand why others talk about any of their problems. After all, they believe that behavior and actions are normal. People with personality disorders are poorly perceived in society. They often have difficulties in personal communication. But at the same time, patients do not feel pangs of remorse and have no sympathy for others. After a certain time, their relationship with the world is built not according to the principle of personal adaptation to society, but according to the scheme, when the society is forced to accept or not accept a problematic person. The lack of motivation and desire to be treated exacerbates the problem, since not every doctor can find an approach to such a patient, relieve the symptoms of exacerbation and help get rid of the problem. nine0003

Specific personality disorders

In Soviet times, overly emotional individuals were often called psychopaths. Such a characterization and classification was not inherent in Western psychiatry. Psychopathy is a serious violation of a behavioral nature, in which, against the background of underdevelopment of a number of personality traits, one clearly dominates. This includes a number of deviations. Types of personality disorders:

  • § Paranoid - the patient is dominated by overvalued ideas. He attaches special importance to his personality. But he treats others with hostility, suspecting them of malicious intent. A person with a pathology does not recognize its presence. When relatives or friends pay attention to a cognitive deviation and try to take him to a specialist, he will assure that everything is in order with him and deny the existence of a problem. Very sensitive to criticism. nine0014
  • § Schizoid - this diagnosis is characterized by introversion, isolation, decreased interest in life's things. The patient does not perceive the accepted norms of social behavior, often behaves eccentrically. Schizoid personality disorders are associated with a great passion for some kind of activity in which the individual succeeds. For example, he may be pathologically addicted to various health systems, to the point of attracting other people to his interests. Experts believe that in this way a certain asociality is replaced. Also, such patients may have problems with alcohol, drugs or other types of addiction. nine0014
  • § Dissocial - a characteristic feature of this personality disorder is the patient's cognitive defiant behavior in order to get what he wants. With all this, such patients are able to win over people, including doctors. This type is especially pronounced in late adolescence.
  • § Hysterical - the main goal of such patients is to draw attention to their person in any way, including defiant behavior. The diagnosis is more typical for women. Atypical capriciousness, inconstancy of desires, extravagance, deceit are observed. In order to attract attention, the patient invents non-existent diseases for himself, the symptoms of which can be given out by the autonomic system and which is difficult to remove. nine0014
  • § Obsessive-compulsive - patients with this type of personality disorder pathologically strive for order and perfection. They have no sense of humor, they try to be perfect in everything. When the set ideal goals are not achieved, they can fall into depressive states.
  • § Anxiety - such a personality disorder is characterized by the cultivation of a personal inferiority complex. Patients are in a state of perpetual anxiety and uncertainty. From childhood, such patients are shy and timid. Often suspect others of hostility. They are prone to depression. nine0014
  • § Narcissistic - a deviation in which a person manifests self-admiration from childhood, a desire to be constantly admired. Such a patient does not accept criticism: he reacts to it either with resentment or with aggression. Indifferent to the feelings of other people, prone to exploiting them to achieve their own goals.

Different forms of psychopathy require an individual approach to treatment. Personality disorders should not be confused with character accentuation. In the latter case, a person also has behavioral features, but they lie within the upper limit of the norm. In addition, it is adapted to social conditions. The classification of classical psychopathy is inappropriate here. Diagnosis and types are different. nine0003

Causes that cause personality and behavioral disorders

All specific personality disorders are usually divided into three clusters. Their classification:

  • § types of cluster A psychopathy: paranoid and schizoid;
  • § Cluster B psychopathy: hysterical, asocial, narcissistic;
  • § Types of cluster B psychopathy: obsessive-compulsive, depressive.

The causes of cluster A psychopathy are considered to be genetic and hereditary. The fact is that among the relatives of patients who have a personality disorder, as a rule, there is at least one with schizophrenia. A hereditary predisposition to pathologies can also be traced in cluster B and C psychopathy. The first option can also be aggravated by problems with alcohol: in families of people who drink, children often develop with disorders. There is a version that cognitive specific personality disorders may be associated with hormonal disorders in the body. If a person has elevated levels of testosterone, estrone and estradiol, the consequences of this are manifested in the form of aggression. In addition, he does not produce enough endorphins, which, in turn, leads to depressive disorders. The social factor also plays an important role in the formation of the psychotype. For active children, space is important. If they are forced to be brought up in a closed space, small areas, this leads to the appearance of hyperactivity. Anxious babies from birth can become balanced if they are raised by emotionally stable parents. A calm mother can help a child become confident, and an anxious one can not remove, but increase his personal anxiety state. Character traits become noticeable already in early childhood. In adolescence, they can already develop as a personality disorder. Cognitive impairment is manifested in a decrease in memory, increased fatigue. Pathologies of the nervous system are observed more often in people with an asocial temperament. nine0003

Mixed personality disorder

This type of psychopathy is less studied than others. The classification has no special criteria. The patient manifests forms of one or the other type of disorders that are not persistent. Therefore, this type of disorder is also called mosaic psychopathy. But it is also difficult for a person with a mixed type of disorder to get along in society because of the peculiarities of their behavior. Instability of character is often the basis that contributes to the development of various types of addiction. Mixed personality disorder may be accompanied by alcoholism, drug addiction, gambling addiction. Mosaic psychopathy can combine symptoms of the schizoid and paranoid types. Such people do not know how to build social contacts in society, they are obsessed with overvalued ideas. With the predominance of paranoid symptoms, patients suffer from increased suspicion. They are prone to scandals, threats, like to write angry complaints about everyone and everything. Specialists are alarmed if signs (classification) of several disorders coexist in one patient: schizoid, hysterical, asthenic, excitable. In this case, there is a high risk of developing schizophrenia. Brain injuries or complications after a number of diseases can lead to mosaic types of pathology. This mixed personality disorder is considered acquired. If we consider the situation in detail, it will look like this: a person already has an innate tendency to mosaic psychopathy, which, due to certain circumstances, is superimposed by organic pathology. Mosaic disorder requires specific treatment only when symptoms worsen, or if there is organic build-up. Then neuroleptics, tranquilizers, vitamins can be prescribed by a specialist. nine0003

Infantile personality disorder

With this type of psychopathy, signs of social immaturity are pronounced. A person is not able to withstand stressful situations and relieve tension. In difficult circumstances, he does not control his emotions in the same way as children do. Infantile personality disorders for the first time clearly declare themselves in adolescence. Hormonal storms that occur at this time with a person cause changes in the psycho-emotional sphere. As you get older, the diagnosis can only progress. It is possible to finally talk about the presence of the disease only after reaching 16-17 years. In stressful circumstances, the patient manifests himself immature, poorly controls aggression, anxiety, fear. Such a person is not hired for military service, they are denied employment in law enforcement agencies. Permits to carry weapons or obtain a driver's license are decided on a limited and strictly case-by-case basis, according to an assessment of signs and condition. nine0003

Transient personality disorder

This diagnosis refers to borderline conditions, when the symptoms of deviation are difficult to attribute to any type of personality disorder. The main causes of psychopathy are long-term stressful situations. In the modern world, a person is surrounded by many unfavorable factors: troubles at work, military operations, difficult family circumstances, financial failures, moving... All this disrupts the usual way of life and unbalances. If such circumstances last too long, the human psyche does not always have a reserve to survive and overcome them. Transient personality disorder has its own characteristics:

  • § disorientation;
  • § hallucinations;
  • § nonsense;
  • § inhibition of verbal and motor functions.

Even one of the symptoms can already signal a disorder. This diagnosis is special in that the disease does not last too long: sometimes only a day, and sometimes a month. It suddenly arises and just as it passes. Sometimes a person can go to sleep with a disturbance, and get up in a normal emotional state with residual effects in the form of increased anxiety or sleep disturbances. With each new stress, a spontaneous return of pathology is possible. Such a diagnosis does not pass without a trace. In the event that there are signs of delirium or hallucinations, such a person requires special treatment, because his condition can also threaten those around him. In the period between exacerbations, the patient experiences emotional burnout, in which nerve cells are also destroyed. Therefore, even for preventive purposes, it is recommended to take vitamins and herbal remedies. As historical examples show, partial transient personality disorder is not a benign condition. Many of the famous serial killers and maniacs had this diagnosis. They led a normal life, had families, work, but during the period of exacerbations they committed crimes. When Western experts studied the brains of executed criminals, they did not find significant changes in it. All its parts corresponded to the norm of a healthy person. And only stressful conditions could lead to the appearance of signs of a personality disorder, which entailed antisocial acts. Perhaps, if during the period when the first signs of the disease appeared, there would have been a person nearby who noticed this and helped to contact a specialist, such consequences could have been avoided. Being face-to-face with continuous stressful situations, the psyche simply could not stand it. The mechanism of the development of the disease was launched. nine0003

Treatment for personality disorders

When a person is diagnosed with psychopathy, they rarely agree with it. The peculiarity of this disease is that the patient does not see problems in himself, but looks for them in others. Treatment in this case is always difficult. According to statistics, only one in five of them agree to accept help. Treatment of psychopathy is carried out individually. It includes sessions of psychotherapy and, if necessary, the use of drugs. In difficult cases, when the antisocial behavior of the patient poses a threat to others, treatment can be carried out in a hospital. Disputes among specialists are caused by the treatment of borderline conditions. Some believe that the patient needs help only during exacerbations, while others insist on constant support. In any case, the treatment of psychopathy has been going on for many years. With the patient's tendency to impulsive acts that can threaten life and health, psychotropic drugs are connected.

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