Different coping mechanisms for stress
Tips for Coping with Stress|Publications|Violence Prevention|Injury Center|CDC
Many of us are facing challenges that can be stressful, overwhelming, and cause strong emotions in adults and children. Public health actions, such as physical distancing, can make us feel isolated and lonely and can increase stress and anxiety.
After a traumatic event, people may have strong and lingering reactions. Learning healthy ways to cope and getting the right care and support can help reduce stressful feelings and symptoms.
The symptoms may be physical or emotional. Common reactions to a stressful event can include:
- Feelings of fear, shock, anger, sadness, worry, numbness, or frustration
- Changes in appetite, energy, desires, and interests
- Difficulty sleeping or nightmares, concentrating, and making decisions
- Physical reactions, such as headaches, body pains, stomach problems, and skin rashes
- Worsening of chronic health problems
- Worsening of mental health conditions
- Increased use of tobacco, alcohol, and other substances
It is natural to feel stress, anxiety, grief, and worry during traumatic events such as mass shootings, natural disasters, or pandemics. Below are ways that you can help yourself, others, and your community manage stress.
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Healthy Ways to Cope with Stress
Feeling emotional and nervous or having trouble sleeping and eating can all be normal reactions to stress. Here are some healthy ways you can deal with stress:
- Take breaks from watching, reading, or listening to news stories, including those on social media. It’s good to be informed but hearing about the traumatic event constantly can be upsetting. Consider limiting news to just a couple of times a day and disconnecting from phone, tv, and computer screens for a while.
- Take care of yourself. Eat healthy, exercise, get plenty of sleep, and give yourself a break if you feel stressed out.
- Take care of your body.
- Take deep breaths, stretch, or meditate.
- Try to eat healthy, well-balanced meals.
- Exercise regularly.
- Get plenty of sleep.
- Avoid excessive alcohol, tobacco, and substance use.
- Continue with routine preventive measures (such as vaccinations, cancer screenings, etc.) as recommended by your healthcare provider.
- Get vaccinated against COVID-19 as soon as possible; get a booster shot if you are age 18 or older.
- Make time to unwind. Try to do some other activities you enjoy.
- Talk to others. Talk with people you trust about your concerns and how you are feeling. Share your problems and how you are feeling and coping with a parent, friend, counselor, doctor, or pastor.
- Connect with your community- or faith-based organizations.
- Avoid drugs and alcohol. These may seem to help, but they can create additional problems and increase the stress you are already feeling.
- Recognize when you need more help. If problems continue or you are thinking about suicide, talk to a psychologist, social worker, or professional counselor.
Check out Taking Care of Your Emotional Health for more information and resources.
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Helping Others Cope
Taking care of yourself can better equip you to take care of others. Helping others cope with stress through phone calls or video chats can help you and your loved ones feel less lonely or isolated.
Helping Children and Youth Cope with Stress
Children and youth often struggle with how to cope with stress. Youth can be particularly overwhelmed when their stress is connected to a traumatic event—like a natural disaster, family loss, school shootings, or community violence. Parents, caregivers, and educators can take steps to provide stability and support that help young people feel better.
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Tips for Parents and Caregivers
It is natural for children to worry when scary or stressful events happen in their lives. Talking to your children about these events can help put frightening information into a more balanced setting. Monitor what children see and hear about stressful events happening in their lives. Here are some suggestions to help children cope:
- Maintain a normal routine. Helping children wake up, go to sleep, and eat meals at regular times provide them a sense of stability.
- Talk, listen, and encourage expression. Listen to your child’s thoughts and feelings and share some of yours. After a traumatic event, it is important for children to feel they can share their feelings and that you understand their fears and worries.
- Watch and listen. Be alert for any change in behavior. Any changes in behavior may be signs that your child is having trouble and may need support.
- Stressful events can challenge a child’s sense of safety and security. Reassure your child about his or her safety and well-being. Discuss ways that you, the school, and the community are taking steps to keep them safe.
- Connect with others. Talk to other parents and your child’s teachers about ways to help your child cope. It is often helpful for parents, schools, and health professionals to work together for the well-being of all children in stressful times.
Tips for Kids and Teens
After a traumatic event, it is normal to feel anxious about your safety and security. Even if you were not directly involved, you may worry about whether this type of event may someday affect you. Check out the tips below for some ideas to help deal with these fears.
- Talk to and stay connected to others. Talking with someone you trust can help you make sense out of your experience. If you are not sure where to turn, call your local crisis intervention center or a national hotline.
- Take care of yourself. Try to get plenty of sleep, eat right, exercise, and keep a normal routine.
- Take information breaks. Pictures and stories about a disaster can increase worry and other stressful feelings. Taking breaks from the news, Internet, and conversations about the disaster can help calm you down.
Tips for School Personnel
School personnel can help their students restore their sense of safety by talking with the children about their fears. Other tips for school personnel include:
- Reach out and talk. Create opportunities to have students talk, but do not force them. You can be a model by sharing some of your own thoughts as well as correct misinformation.
- Watch and listen. Be alert for any change in behavior. Are students withdrawing from friends? Acting out? These changes may be early signs that a student is struggling and needs extra support from the school and family.
- Maintain normal routines. A regular classroom and school schedule can provide a sense of stability and safety. Encourage students to keep up with their schoolwork and extracurricular activities but do not push them if they seem overwhelmed.
- Take care of yourself. You are better able to support your students if you are healthy, coping and taking care of yourself first. Eat healthy, exercise, get plenty of sleep, and give yourself a break if you feel stressed out.
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Mental Health and Crisis
Resources and Social Support Services
- Food and Food System Resources During COVID-19 Pandemic
- Disaster Financial Assistance with Food, Housing, and Bills
- Coronavirus Resources for Renters
- US Department of Labor Coronavirus Resources
- If you are struggling to cope, there are many ways to get help. Call your healthcare provider if stress gets in the way of your daily activities for several days in a row.
- During times of extreme stress, people may have thoughts of suicide. Suicide is preventable and help is available. More about the risk of suicide, signs to watch for, and how to respond if you notice these signs in yourself or a friend or a loved one, can be found here.
- Free and confidential crisis resources can also help you or a loved one connect with a skilled, trained counselor in your area.
After a natural disaster, it’s normal to feel different and strong emotions. Coping with these feelings and getting help when you need it will help you, your family, and your community recover from a disaster. Resources to help with coping and stress after a natural disaster are available for teens as well as parents and professionals.
If you are in crisis, get immediate help:
- Call 911
- Disaster Distress Helpline: call or text 1-800-985-5990 (for Spanish, press “2”) to be connected with a trained counselor.
- Call or text 988
- Chat at 988lifeline.org
- National Domestic Violence Hotline: 1-800-799-7233 or text LOVEIS to 22522
- National Child Abuse Hotline: 1-800-4AChild (1-800-422-4453) or text 1-800-422-4453
- National Sexual Assault Hotline: 1-800-656-HOPE (4673) or Online Chat
- The Eldercare Locator: 1-800-677-1116 TTY Instructions
- Veteran’s Crisis Line: 1-800-273-TALK (8255) or Crisis Chat or text: 8388255
Find a health care provider or treatment for substance use disorder and mental health
- SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662-HELP (4357) and TTY 1-800-487-4889
- Treatment Services Locator Website
- Interactive Map of Selected Federally Qualified Health Centers
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- How Right Now
- Coping with a Disaster or Traumatic Event
- General Public: Care for Yourself [348 KB, 1 page]
- Young Adults: Care for Yourself [839 KB, 1 page]
- HHS ASPR TRACIE COVID-19 Behavioral Health Resources external icon
- Food and Food System Resources During COVID-19 Pandemic
For Families and Children
- Helping Children Cope during the Pandemic
- Helping Children Cope with Emergencies
- Coping After a Disaster [1. 9 MB, 20 pages]– A Ready Wrigley activity book for children age 3-10
- Teen Depression
- Family Caregivers: Care for Yourself [732 KB, 1 page]
- Students: Care for Yourself [688 KB, 1 page]
- Food Assistance Programs
For People at Higher Risk for Serious Illness
- Serious Illness Care Program COVID-19 Response Toolkit
- Older Adults: Care for Yourself [911 KB, 1 page]
For Healthcare Workers and First Responders
- Emergency Responders: Tips for Taking Care of Yourself
- Disaster Technical Assistance Center
- First Responders: Care for Yourself [770 KB, 1 page]
- Clinicians: Care for Yourself [685 KB, 1 page]
For Other Workers
- Working Adults: Care for Yourself [818 KB, 1 page]
- Critical Workers: Care for Yourself [719 KB, 1 page]
- Teachers: Encourage Your Students to Care for Themselves [976 KB, 1 page]
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9 Healthy Coping Mechanisms for Stress I Psych Central
When your stress levels are high, using healthy coping skills can help you reset and relax.
Stress is a part of everyday life. But constant, elevated stress levels can take a toll and make it challenging to function.
Research has shown that stress can affect the body, leading to heart disease and chronic pain conditions.
Finding and practicing healthy ways to cope with stress can help you reduce its impact on your daily life and the chances it affects you in the long run.
Looking inward and checking in with yourself daily by naming and noticing your thoughts and emotions is helpful, says Tanya J. Peterson, a certified counselor and mental health educator based in Oregon.
Peterson adds that pausing when you experience distressing thoughts or emotions can help deactivate your fight, flight, or freeze response and calm you down.
Doing this activates the part of your nervous system that signals the body to rest and digest, Peterson says.
Stress is an inevitable part of life, and it’s impossible to avoid or eliminate it.
Peterson recommends trying to accept the presence of your stress. But “this doesn’t mean giving up or resigning yourself to stress and problems,” she adds.
By accepting stress, you can stop fighting it. Battling stress and trying to shove it down doesn’t get rid of the stressor. It may even make you feel more stressed.
Coming to terms with the fact that you can expect a certain amount of stress in your life may make it easier to cope when life throws you a curveball.
Meditation is another valuable strategy for coping with stress. Mindfulness or meditation exercises can help you relax and allow you to approach your negative thoughts and emotions from another vantage point.
Meditation can be as simple as closing your eyes and creating a blank space in your mind. Or you can try guided sessions with the help of meditation apps or videos.
Ultimately, the goal is to relax and center yourself.
Peterson also recommends putting some distance between you and your stress. “Remind yourself that you are experiencing a specific thought or feeling, but that doesn’t necessarily represent your permanent reality. ”
Ask yourself: “What else is happening in that moment?” Peterson says.
What else can you focus on? Is there something else you can think about aside from what’s causing you stress?
Distancing yourself can also mean distracting yourself temporarily from what’s stressing you out. That doesn’t mean bottling it up and forgetting about it, though.
This may involve setting aside small moments where you take a break from tasks, chores, and life’s daily stressors. Or it may include removing yourself from the situation that’s causing you to feel stressed.
For example, if the news gives you anxiety, take breaks from social media or limit your consumption to only a few times a day or week.
You don’t need to ignore the news entirely, but it may not be healthy for your stress levels to review or absorb everything happening in the world.
Give your body the tools to cope with stress when it comes your way. Peterson says some of these healthy habits involve:
- doing yoga
- eating a balanced diet
The American Psychological Association (APA) recommends including a rainbow of fruits and veggies in your diet. It also recommends avoiding substances, such as alcohol, that can adversely impact your ability to handle and cope with stress.
A healthy habit also includes doing something you love. You don’t have to completely alter your lifestyle to improve your ability to handle stress. Small changes can make a big difference.
Meditation can involve breathing exercises, but it’s fine to focus solely on deep breathing if you find it difficult to clear your mind.
Deep breathing exercises can help slow your heart rate and calm you when the world feels like it’s spinning too fast.
Share your worries and fears with the people you trust.
Talking about things that are stressing you out may help you unburden yourself and feel less overwhelmed.
According to the APA, having a solid support network can improve your ability to cope with stress.
Providing friends and family with support also has benefits. It’s essential to make sure that you and those around you give and receive support. One-sided relationships can end up causing you more stress than relief.
“Rather than just seeking to reduce [stress], shift your attention,” Peterson says.
This doesn’t mean getting rid of stress by distracting yourself. Instead, Peterson suggests, replacing your stress involves taking small steps to add more of what you want to your life.
For example, do you wish you had a better work-life balance? It might be useful to make an action plan to schedule more family time.
Or maybe you want to have a more vibrant social life. Consider spending less time worrying and stressing over your limited social circle and finding ways to connect with others.
The progressive muscle relaxation technique aims to release tension throughout the body.
To do progressive muscle relaxation, use the following steps:
- Sitting or lying in a comfortable position, take a few deep breaths.
- Starting with your toes, tense each muscle in the body for 5 to 10 seconds, then release.
- Work your way up your body to your face and head muscles, tensing and relaxing each set of muscles in turn.
Stressful moments and events happen to us all. And experiencing high levels of daily stress can be overwhelming. Finding ways to cope with stress can help you tackle it head-on.
But if stress is a daily occurrence, isn’t letting up, and is causing symptoms of anxiety or depression, it may be time to consider talking with a mental health professional.
If you’re constantly worrying over everything and find yourself unable to detach from your anxious thoughts, you may want to seek help from a professional.
If you’re not sure where to look for mental health support, consider checking out Psych Central’s Find a Therapist page.
The concept of stress resistance. Resourceful ways to overcome stress. Methods of self-regulation of a stressful state - Psychology of safety
G. Selye in his work "The Stress of Life" noted that whatever the cause of stress (cold, heat, pain, melancholy or even happiness), in other words, no matter what requirements it imposes on us life, the same physical symptoms occur in the human body.
Specialist of the Ministry of Emergency Situations located in the emergency zone, a businessman who is under constant pressure from clients and employees; an airport dispatcher who knows that a moment's easing of attention means hundreds of deaths; an athlete who is insanely hungry for victory - they are all stressed. Their problems are completely different, but medical studies have shown that the body reacts stereotypically, with the same biochemical changes, the purpose of which is to cope with the increased demands on the "human machine". The factors that cause stress are different, but they set in motion the same, in essence, biological stress response.
G. Selye called all the adaptive mechanisms that are activated in the human body under stress as the “general adaptation syndrome”, or “stress reaction”. Let's take a closer look at this syndrome, which consists of 3 stages of development: the stage of anxiety, the stage of resistance, the stage of exhaustion
1. The stage of anxiety is our body's initial response to danger or threat in order to help us cope with the situation. This adaptive mechanism arose at the dawn of evolution, when in order to survive, it was necessary to overcome the enemy or avoid meeting him. Our body responded to danger with an explosion of energy that increased physical and mental abilities. Such a short-term “shake-up” of the body affects almost all organ systems, which is why many researchers of the problem of stress call this stage “emergency”.
Traditionally, in the stage of anxiety, a phase of shock and anti-shock is distinguished. As soon as the brain perceives danger, anxiety hormones are released into the blood in large quantities, the heart beats faster, blood from the internal organs rushes to those parts of the body that are to be acted upon (muscles of the trunk, arms and legs), the liver produces more sugar to provide the muscles with energy . The resources of the body are spent uneconomically, here everything is at stake in an attempt to achieve the goal at any cost. These and other complex changes usually occur instantly and correspond to the shock phase. Since an excessive excess of hormones and energy, as well as the functioning of organ systems “for wear and tear” are a threat to the life of the body, the shock phase is quickly replaced by the anti-shock phase, during which the first mechanisms that reduce the impact of stress are activated.
Thus, the biological meaning of the stage of anxiety lies in the maximum mobilization of the body's adaptive resources, quickly bringing a person into a state of intense readiness - readiness to fight or flee from danger.
2. The stage of resistance (resistance) occurs if the stress factor is too strong or continues its action for a sufficiently long period of time. At this stage, adaptation to changing circumstances takes place. As a result of this, stable adaptation occurs: the activity of physiological processes decreases sharply, all resources are spent optimally - the body is ready for a long struggle for life, its resistance to various influences is increased.
All changes that occur at this stage of the adaptation syndrome can be considered reversible, since the cessation of exposure to the stressor returns the body to a normal state.
3. Stage of exhaustion. If we continue to go towards stress for a long time, then there will come a point when we will no longer be able to find the strength to cope with the situation. At this stage, the energy is exhausted, the physiological and psychological defenses
are broken. The person no longer has the ability to resist stress. Help can only come from outside - either in the form of support or in the form of removing the stressor. Persistent maladaptive disturbances occur at this stage, and if the stressor continues to act, the organism may die.
Since stress is associated with any activity, only those who do nothing can avoid it. We face stress all the time, solving certain problems. We can experience stress when standing in a long line, facing difficulties at work and problems in the family, when we want to do a lot and there is no time for it, when there are unrealized opportunities and in many other situations, the list of which is endless. But at the same time, all people have different resistance to stress (stress resistance).
The most well-known physiological features that provide increased resistance to stress include:
• Type of nervous system. People with a weak type of nervous system are less resistant to stress. In extreme types (cholerics, melancholics), adaptation to the effects of stressors is not stable. Sooner or later, factors affecting the psyche lead to the development of neuroses, which are characterized by disorganization of both mental and autonomic functions. As a rule, in melancholic stress reactions are most often associated with excitation of the constitution, for example, anxiety or fright, phobia or neurotic anxiety, characterized by nervousness and insomnia. Cholerics have a typical stress reaction - anger, fear of failure and loss of control, fear of making a mistake. In phlegmatic people, under the influence of stress, the activity of the thyroid gland decreases, the metabolism slows down, and the blood sugar level may increase. In stressful situations, they “click” on food, as a result of which they can become obese. There is a state of "mental heaviness", lethargy, oversleeping. The strong nervous system of sanguine people makes it easier for them to cope with stress.
• Hormonal features. People with low levels of cortisol in the blood are less susceptible to stressors. This feature is also observed in animals. Experiments conducted in the wild have shown that in a herd of monkeys, the top of the hierarchy is headed by the male with the lowest level of cortisol in the blood, which makes him capable of quick responses to threat and promotes increased survival. It is known that high cortisol not only predisposes to cardiovascular disease or cancer (depending on genetic predisposition and environmental influences), but also increases the likelihood of a depressive, melancholic mood.
Some personality traits that cause increased resistance to stress:
- Level of self-esteem. The higher the self-esteem, the sense of the importance of one's existence, the greater the resistance to stress.
- The level of subjective control (characteristic of the degree of independence, autonomy and activity of a person in achieving his goals, his personal responsibility for his actions and deeds). Internals believe that they are able to influence the situation, they take the position “I am not a victim” and take responsibility for what is happening into their own hands. Thus, they are less susceptible to stressful influences than externals, who perceive the situation as a result of external circumstances and, accordingly, are more vulnerable.
- The level of personal anxiety (a stable tendency to perceive a wide range of situations as threatening and respond to them with a state of anxiety). Anxiety is not inherently a negative trait. A certain level of anxiety is a natural and obligatory feature of an active personality that supports the instinct of self-preservation. At the same time, high personal anxiety is closely associated with the presence of a neurotic conflict, with emotional breakdowns and psychosomatic diseases. Therefore, openness, interest in changes and attitude towards them not as a threat, but as an opportunity for development against the background of an adequate level of personal anxiety leads to an increase in stress resistance.
- Balance of achievement and avoidance motivation. People who are motivated to achieve something are more likely to endure a stressful situation than people who are motivated to avoid failure.
In the 60s of the XX century, it was believed that workaholics with a strong grip, tenacious and aggressive natures were more prone to heart disease. This group came to be called "type A personalities". They are characterized by impatience, mobility, irritability, competitive spirit, ambition. People of this type are usually attributed to the risk zone for the occurrence of negative effects of stress.
Type A behavior:
Hoping to get the most out of their day, Type A tends to get things done quickly to save time. People of this type eat, walk, drive and talk at an accelerated pace.
Type A is "polyphasic", that is, doing two or more things at the same time. For example, some Type A men shave and bath at the same time, or use two electric shavers to save time. And some Type A women dry their hair with two blow dryers for the same reason. These are type A people signing papers and at the same time talking on the phone on completely abstract topics.
Type A people behave in a peculiar way in situations of choice. For example, in a supermarket, a Type A customer will hesitate as they approach the checkout before choosing a line. He will pay attention to the number of people waiting, evaluate the number of items in each cart and the effectiveness of the cashiers. And based on all these facts, type A will prefer the "fastest" queue. Do you think he will calm down after that? Instead of quietly waiting, Type A individuals will carefully watch the movement of other queues to make sure they have not made the wrong choice. Their stress hormone levels rise when they see other lines moving faster. They get furious if their turn is delayed by someone checking prices against a receipt, and they literally "explode" when their turn finally comes and the cash register runs out of tape.
Type A personalities are prone to workaholism. If they strive for success and work harder and harder to achieve their goals, then they may have problems in the family and in communication with others. They absolutely do not know how to relax, disconnect from work.
According to a number of scientists, not all enthusiasts and workaholics are in danger, but only those who are hostile to the world. Thus, type A is subdivided into type
A Hostile and type A Zealous. Unlike people of the first type, who are quite aggressive towards the world, people of the second type consider any unfamiliar situation as a challenge, and not as a threat. They use this opportunity to develop, expect changes for the better, do a lot for this, believe that they are able to manage their own lives, and, as a rule, are less prone to stress.
When type A people claim that they feel great when stressed, this indicates that they are accustomed to a state of elation and confidence, which creates the release of one of the stress hormones - norepinephrine.
Symptoms of the action of norepinephrine:
- active mental work;
- bad dream;
- increased activity.
Type B people are calm and not irritable. They are not as reactive as type A, but this does not mean at all that type B is less ambitious and does not strive for success. They just have different methods to achieve their goals. Even in a significant situation, Type B people do not panic, lose their temper, or act in a state of heightened anxiety. They do not create unnecessary stress for themselves, calmly realize their potential, and, as a result, their health is out of danger.
Stress researchers have identified another type of personality - "always risky", or "adventurers" (people of type T). They are easily recognizable as they are constantly on the lookout for adventures that others don't even think about. For example, such as skydiving or hang-gliding. They always believe that “the glass is half full” and do not give in to stress.
Taking into account personal characteristics, people can be divided into 3 categories according to the ways of responding to stress, conventionally called “rabbit stress”, “lion stress” and “ox stress”.
The first category, “rabbit stress,” includes those who are characterized by a passive reaction to stress. At the same time, a person is only able to activate his few forces for a short time. The second category - “lion stress” - includes people who react violently and energetically to stress. Finally, category 3 - "ox stress" - this type of people can work long and methodically at the limit of their capabilities, performing a heavy load.
Who is better to be - "rabbit", "lion" or "ox"? There is no single answer. There are situations when it is more correct to simply “go with the flow ". For example, a boss chastises his subordinate in anger. It is impossible to explain or prove anything to a person who is in such a state. Therefore, it is better to save your strength and do nothing for a while. On the other hand, there are situations when a "lion's" reaction can save a person's life. For example, there are cases when, after making a fatal diagnosis, people mobilized all their resources and managed to survive.
Psychologists advise to analyze the situation in each specific case. Think about what depends on you, what external circumstances you can influence, and which ones you can’t. And depending on this, choose a strategy of behavior characteristic of a particular role. In an extreme situation, the influence of temperament on the method and efficiency of activity is enhanced: a person falls under the control of innate programs of his temperament, which require a minimum energy level and regulation time.
How do people with different temperaments differ from each other? First of all, they have a different emotional organization, manifested in sensual mobility and in the tendency of people of different temperaments to respond to a situation mainly with one of the innate emotions, which differ only in power. The choleric person is especially prone to the manifestation of negative emotions of anger and rage, the sanguine person is predisposed to positive emotions; the phlegmatic is generally not prone to a violent emotional response, although potentially, like a sanguine person, he gravitates toward positive emotions, and a melancholic quickly succumbs to negative emotions of fear and anxiety.
These types of temperament are vividly characterized by generalized everyday definitions: they say about choleric people that they are emotionally explosive, about sanguine people that they are distinguished by emotional liveliness, about phlegmatic people they are emotionally inexpressive, and melancholic people are considered emotionally sensitive and vulnerable.
Choleric and sanguine people cope better with tasks in which there is a place for creativity, phlegmatic and melancholic people with tasks that require strictly regulated performance.
In general, people with a strong type of higher nervous activity tolerate the impact of a stressful situation more easily, more often use active methods of overcoming, coping, while people with a weak type of nervous system tend to avoid, avoid stressful effects, shift responsibility to other people or external circumstances. The most violent, sthenic (irritation, anger, rage) emotional reaction to stress is characteristic of people with a choleric temperament, they react especially sharply to the emergence of a sudden obstacle on the way to achieving their goal. However, they do well with urgent unexpected tasks, as the presence of strong emotions “spurs” them to be active. Sanguine people have a slightly calmer emotional background: their emotions arise quickly, have medium strength and short duration. The source of stress for both types is more likely to be monotony, monotony, boredom than events that require active action and cause strong emotions. Phlegmatic feelings take possession slowly. He even slowed down in emotions. He does not need to make an effort on himself to maintain composure, so it is easy for him to resist a hasty decision. In a situation of stress, a phlegmatic person will cope well with practiced, stereotypical actions, while at the same time one should not expect effective solutions from him in a rapidly changing environment. The melancholic suffers the most from stress. They are initially prone to emotions of fear and anxiety, their feelings are lingering, suffering seems unbearable and beyond all consolation. When necessary to act in a stressful situation, melancholics will show a lack of energy and perseverance, but high self-control can be their advantage. As already noted, it should be borne in mind that the indicated typology of temperament is a simplified scheme, far from exhausting the possible features of the temperament of each individual person.
The main thing to remember is that the events that excited us today may not be so significant tomorrow.
Resource methods of overcoming stress
All existing methods of overcoming stress can be divided into the following groups of activities:
1. Physical rest, which includes all methods of recovery and accumulation of energy that occur at the level of the body. First of all, these include sleep, physical rest and wellness procedures (exercise, sauna), food intake, sexual activity, and sports. Maintaining a healthy physical condition and giving the body regular loads keep us in good shape and make it easier to cope with emerging overloads. It is important to choose a sport that will be pleasant and interesting, otherwise sports loads can become another source of stress. Moreover, it is not so much the quantity that is important, but the quality of the functions listed above;
2. Communication with nature. An important source of stress that we experience every day is living conditions in an urban environment, where we are affected by factors of environmental pollution, an accelerated pace and rhythm of life, the need to perform many tasks at the same time, information overload arising from the development of modern means of communication, etc. d. Therefore, one of the ways to relieve accumulated stress and overload is outdoor recreation, or the presence of any connection with a piece of nature, for example, growing domestic plants or keeping pets. Communication with nature also includes walks in the forest, fishing and hunting, observing natural phenomena, etc.
3. Social interaction. Close relationships with people, the opportunity to share your emotions, problems, experiences with them, or just spend time together - all this is another effective way to get rid of overload. The main thing is that this communication brings joy. You can get together with friends, you can spend your free time with your family, play with your children.
4. Cognitive activity. One of the most important human needs is the need for new knowledge, development, and information. Therefore, any activities that allow us to immerse ourselves in a new world for us, to gain new knowledge can be useful. This may include reading books, watching movies, traveling to different places, studying, etc.
5. Creativity and favorite hobbies. The creative process is always a release of accumulated energy and negative emotions, experiences, but in addition to this, the very creation of some kind of creative result is a resource.
6. Spiritual sphere. By “spiritual” it is not necessary to understand precisely the religious aspects of our lives. These are any actions and beliefs that allow us to feel our existence in a special way, to reveal the depths of our inner life, to know ourselves and the world around us from the point of view of a certain worldview, self-accepted or developed values.
Methods for self-regulation of stress
1. Calming breath "Ujjayi" taken from yoga.
Performed in a comfortable seated position. The back is straight, the whole body is relaxed, the eyes are closed. This type of breathing can also be practiced while lying on your back. Exercise is also recommended to be performed before going to bed to get rid of insomnia and so that sleep is more calm and sound. Focus on slow, deep, natural breathing. Then, you need to slightly squeeze the glottis of the larynx, while breathing will be accompanied by a low hissing and whistling sound coming from the larynx (whistling "sss" during inhalation and "xxx" during exhalation). You will also feel a slight squeezing sensation in your abdomen. The sound coming from a slightly compressed larynx arises from the air passing through it. This sound resembles a soft, barely perceptible sound that we hear when a person is sleeping. It is important that breathing through the covered glottis remains deep and stretched - for this, the stomach expands, taking in air during inhalation and retracts completely by the end of exhalation. What to look for deep breaths and exhalations should be approximately equal, with each breath flowing into the next exhalation, and vice versa. The movement of air through the compressed glottis creates a gentle vibration that has a calming effect on the nervous system and pacifies the mind. Try not to pinch the larynx - the compression of the larynx should remain light during the entire respiratory cycle. The muscles of the face should be as relaxed as possible. Ujjayi breathing should be done for three to five minutes, and then move on to normal breathing. Ujjayi can be performed even while walking, while adjusting the length of the breath to the pace of movement. A small cycle of Ujjayi will quickly normalize your condition, increase concentration while waiting in line or in transport. Positive Effects of Ujjayi has a calming effect on the nervous system and mind, relieves insomnia; normalizes high blood pressure; helps to cope with heart disease; relieves stress during menstruation. Contraindications - Not recommended for people with low blood pressure.
2. Exercise: Good morning. According to experts, a yawn allows you to almost instantly enrich the blood with oxygen and get rid of excess carbon dioxide. The muscles of the neck, face, and mouth that tighten during yawning accelerate blood flow in the vessels of the brain. A yawn, improving the blood supply to the lungs, pushing blood out of the liver, increases the tone of the body, creates an impulse of positive emotions. It is said that in Japan, workers in the electrical industry yawn in an organized manner every 30 minutes. For the exercise, you need to close your eyes, open your mouth as wide as possible, strain your mouth, as if saying a low “oooo”. At this time, it is necessary to imagine as clearly as possible that a cavity is formed in the mouth, the bottom of which falls down. A yawn is performed with simultaneous stretching of the whole body. The increase in the effectiveness of the pharynx is facilitated by a smile, which enhances the relaxation of the muscles of the face and forms a positive emotional impulse. After a yawn, the muscles of the face, pharynx, and larynx relax, and a feeling of peace appears.
Psychology of stress: theory and practice
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