Did and bpd

Borderline Personality Disorder | DID-Research.org

Image: "BPD Focus" by CMEarnest

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Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is frequently comorbid with dissociative identity disorder (DID). It's been found that between 48.5-70% of those with DID also meet the criteria for BPD, that 26-76% of those with BPD meet the criteria for a dissociative disorder, and that 2.5-27% of those with BPD meet the criteria for DID. However, care must be taken to distinguish between BPD and DID.

The DSM-5 gives the following criteria for a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder: 

A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts,

as indicated by five (or more) of the following:

1. Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment. (Note: Do not include suicidal or self-mutilating behavior covered in Criterion 5. )

2. A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation.

3. Identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self.

4. Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e.g., spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating). (Note: Do not include suicidal or self mutilating behavior covered in Criterion 5.)

5. Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior.

6. Affective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood (e.g., intense episodic dysphoria, irritability, or anxiety usually lasting a few hours and only rarely more than a few days).

7. Chronic feelings of emptiness.

8. Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger (e.g., frequent displays of temper, constant anger, recurrent physical fights).

9. Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). 1

Criterion 1 refers to intense fears regarding rejection, separation, or abandonment by friends, family, lovers, or even near strangers. Perceived impending separation can lead to changes in self-image, affect, cognition, and behavior. Individuals with borderline personality disorder are highly sensitive to these perceptions and may react to even temporary and necessary separation or changes in plans with intense fear or anger. Perceived abandonment may be taken as a sign of their own low worth. Individuals with borderline personality disorder often cannot tolerate being alone. This is often seen as the defining or main symptom of borderline personality disorder.

Criterion 2 refers to idealizing potential caregivers or lovers at the first or second meeting, believing that their relationship will be perfect and eternal before the other individual has come to view them as more than an acquaintance. The individual with BPD may share intimate details early in the relationship and want to spend as much time as possible with the other person. However, seemingly without warning, idealization can change into devaluation, and the individual with BPD will be left feeling that the other person does not care enough, give enough, or spend enough time with them. Individuals with BPD can be highly caring, sensitive, and nurturing, but they are often easily hurt when they feel that others are not extending the same consideration to them. Their views of others are often extreme and black or white, and they may switch to devaluation of individuals that fail to live up to their standards of caregiving or who they perceive as likely to soon abandon them.

Criterion 3 refers to sudden and dramatic shifts in self image. These shifts may be associated with changing goals, values, opinions, sexualities, and types of desired friends. The entire personality of the individual may seem to suddenly change. Self-image for those with BPD is usually negative, but in unstructured environments or when without meaningful relationships, individuals with BPD may feel as if they do not exist at all.

Criterion 4 refers to engagement in impulsive and damaging behaviors such as shopping, gambling, unprotected or promiscuous sex, substance use, driving far over the speed limit or while distracted, or binge eating.

Criterion 5 refers to acts of self harm (cutting, burning, picking at scabs, picking at skin or hair, starvation, etc.) and suicidal threats, gestures, or attempts. 8-10% of individuals with borderline personality disorder successfully complete suicide attempts, and threats or unsuccessful attempts are very common. These threats or attempts are often responses to real or perceived rejection or to expectations of increased responsibility. Self harm may be used as a form of self punishment or to ward off dissociation.

Criterion 6 refers to intense mood swings that interrupt periods of dysphoria with episodes of anger, panic, or despair or episodes of satisfaction, energy, and childish joy and wonder. Negative episodes are often reactions to relationship-related stressors.

Criterion 7 refers to frequently feeling empty, bored, and unfulfilled. This might be connected to risk-seeking behaviors and result from feelings of not having meaningful relationships.

Criterion 8 refers to outbursts of temper that are intense and may be perceived as uncontrollable. This may manifest as strong sarcasm, bitterness, or verbal or physical outbursts. Anger is often directed at caregivers who are currently being devalued by the individual with BPD. However, once the outbursts are over, the individual often reacts with strong and unproportionate shame, guilt, and a sense of being evil.

Criterion 9 refers to dissociative symptoms such as derealization that are often not severe or frequent enough to warrant a dissociative disorder diagnosis. These symptoms are most often a response to abandonment. Hallucinations, body-image distortions, or paranoia are also possible reactions to extreme stress.

Individuals with BPD often self sabotage, especially once a goal is directly in reach or has been acknowledged by others.   They may be more comfortable with animals or objects than with other people. They may struggle to retain a job, complete their education, or enter into and remain in a stable relationship or marriage (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).1

Borderline personality disorder is associated with childhood abuse, neglect, hostile households, or parental abandonment. Co-morbid depressive and bipolar disorders, substance use disorders, feeding and eating disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are common, as are other personality disorders. BPD is 5 times more common in first-degree relatives of others with the disorder and is also more likely in families with individuals with substance use disorders, anti-social personality disorder, and depressive or bipolar disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).1

BPD is estimated to affect between 1.6-5.9% of the population. According to the DSM-5, "[t]he prevalence of borderline personality disorder is about 6% in primary care settings, about 10% among individuals seen in outpatient mental health clinics, and about 20% among psychiatric inpatients" (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). 1 It may be more common among younger individuals and is often most severe during early adulthood.  75% of individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder are female (American Psychiatric Association, 2013),1 though some speculate that males with the disorder are under-diagnosed or instead diagnosed with other personality disorders.

Treatment for BPD is possible. Improvements are often visible within the first year of therapy, and after 10 years in therapy, about half of individuals who were diagnosed with BPD no longer meet the full criteria for the disorder. Increased stability often comes naturally with advancing age (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).1

Borderline personality disorder should be distinguished from depressive and bipolar disorders, other personality disorders, personality changes due to another medical condition, substance use disorders, and identity problems associated with adolescence (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). 1

1 American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Personality Disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). http://dsm.psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm18 

Rethinking the comparison of borderline personality disorder and multiple personality disorder


. 1994 Dec;17(4):743-71.

S S Marmer  1 , D Fink



  • 1 University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine.
  • PMID: 7877901


S S Marmer et al. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1994 Dec.

. 1994 Dec;17(4):743-71.


S S Marmer  1 , D Fink


  • 1 University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine.
  • PMID: 7877901


This article has made a number of points that assert what is today a minority position within the fields of MPD/DID and BPD. We hope our views will stimulate attempts by others to rethink their positions and test our assertions, so that issues surrounding these two disorders can be sharpened. For the sake of the clarity of future work, we summarize in outline form the essence of our viewpoint. 1. BPD and MPD/DID have similar appearing symptoms, such as identity problems, unstable affect modulation, self-destructive behaviors, chaotic impulse control, and troubled interpersonal relationships, but they have decisive differences in underlying dynamics, process, and structure. 2. DSM tends to blur these two disorders by its emphasis on phenomenology over inner structure, thus fostering misleading conclusions when DSM criteria are used to test for comorbidity or overlap between BPD and MPD/DID. 3. BPD and MPD/DID are both described dynamically as using the defense of splitting, but we contend that the splitting in each disorder is fundamentally different from the splitting in the other. BPD uses a polarization form of splitting, whereas MPD/DID uses ego splitting or identity division. 4. Both disorders partake in the process of dissociation, but the quality of dissociation in BPD is a "low-tech" spaced out type, whereas that of MPD/DID is a "high-tech" waking dream. 5. BPD structure is also "low tech," with polarization of self, object, and relationship. MPD/DID structure is "high tech," with heavily symbolic, highly nuanced variations of self, object, and relationship. 6. Although both conditions have etiologic elements of trauma, BPD has a larger degree of developmental deficiency, with a failure to complete the task of entering a repression hierarchy of defenses. MPD/DID, by use of primary process-linked symbolic dissociation, is able to continue development to the repression hierarchy, although at a profound cost of simultaneous suspension of reality testing. BPD patients suffer from the rigid use of too few defenses; MPD/DID patients suffer from the obsolete use of too many defenses. 7. BPD patients grow up in homes in which overtly expressed aggression is more tolerated, or at least more openly experienced. MPD/DID patients grow up in homes in which the fact of aggression is kept a secret. This has consequences for the formation of psychic structure in each disorder.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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Chapter 4 in Good Pizza, Great Pizza

Hello folks! Chapter 4 appeared in the game Good Pizza, Excellent Pizza, in this article I will describe its passage.

It was day 267 in my pizzeria (chapter 3), after I passed it, chapter 4 immediately opened for me.

My pizzeria received the Platinum Pie award, now there are queues in the pizzeria, but it didn’t affect the gameplay much, just the customers who were queuing come up with an 80% waiting scale (I don’t know how to call it correctly).

In the news, you can find out that a land has been bought in front of our pizzeria.

There is also a new character in the news, Dr. Price. He will advertise different things that we can buy for our pizzeria.

Price's items will appear in the store, in the Gadgets tab. On the screen above, the products that I have opened at the moment: miracle water for plants, cleaner for MAIPADA, bug spray and glue for the oven. Thanks to the spray and glue, I no longer have to bug the bugs and fix the oven. Until I figured out what water and purifier do.

Next, Angelique Bechamel, the director of a new pizzeria (will be in the news) with a strange name: Big Pizza Data (hereinafter referred to as BPD), will come to us. She is familiar with our former rival Dr. Keh from PizzaCon, who also annoyed her with something, in general, we will just chat with her about our pizzeria.

Big Pizza Data, right? OH HOW I'M EXCITED!!!

BPD has become very popular and some customers will confuse us with it.

I told one of the clients that it was not a BPD and got the True Eyes of the Collet achievement. Deny 1 BPD to the client.

We can also agree that our pizzeria is BPD, then we will get the achievement: Caught in a lie. Accept 1 BPD order.

Oh, great! I'd like to order Tofu Mapo pizza!

For BPD, I got an order to make Tofu Mapo pizza, but of course I don’t know its recipe, and the client had to be refused, but the achievement is given anyway

Alicante has also returned to the game, he will say that we need to get garlic! Garlic is the main ingredient in BPD pizzas.

After the visit to Alicante, there will be customers who need garlic until they have to refuse

We will get seeds with garlic from a girl with pink hair who once gave us eggplants.

The garden reappears in the game, in which we will grow ingredients. Now he stays in the game permanently. How to use the garden, you can look in this article.

Price will come to the pizzeria, he not only makes all sorts of gadgets, but also does advertising.

You will need to buy advertising from Price. For the first time we will advertise garlic, advertising will attract customers to this ingredient, something like that! The problem is that at the very beginning we will have very little garlic, and there will be a lot of customers who need it! Personally, I spent all the crystals to grow it!

After advertising, new customers appeared ...

  • Good pizza, Great pizza recipes

I will not add the recipes from Chapter 4 to this article, but will add them to the main recipe article (under the heading Chapter 4), link above.

Even Angelica smelled the smell of garlic from our pizzeria! She stopped by to chat again and also hinted that their pizzeria would have a new ingredient - sliced ​​tomatoes.

Next comes a strange man with glasses, order:

Pizza. Any will do.

You can make cheese.

He will leave a note saying:

Don't give pizza to the robot!

Sasha will also come in, she has a pizzeria on the other side of the city, and she wants to know how we are doing. Everyone is nervous because many pizzerias have started to close because of BPD

Here comes the robot! He will ask for pizza:

Any pizza will do just fine. Give Magabyte the best pizza you can make!

As you remember, the strange man asked you not to cook pizza for the robot, but…

If you give or not give pizza to the robot, the answer will be the same, it is on the screen above. That is, your choice does not affect the plot

The girl with pink hair will come in again, we will tell her that we need tomatoes. She will say that she will get ready and will come later.

A strange customer with glasses will return and ask if we gave pizza to the robot. The fact is that the robot was created by BPD and steals recipes in pizzerias, and he is investigating this case ...


Chapter 4 has 3 endings, they will depend on your answers to Agent, Angelica and Elliot. Below is how to get each of the endings.

1 ending. Exposing BPD.

  • When the Agent asks to check BPD or Angelica. Answer: BPD.
  • When the Agent asks whether to tell about the results of the investigation in the news. Answer: Yes.

As a reward, you will receive the UAP Board of Honor.

2 end. Fire Angelica.

  • When the Agent asks to check BPD or Angelica. Answer: Angelica.
  • When the Agent asks whether to tell about the results of the investigation in the news. Answer: Yes.
  • In order for Elliot to become the new director of BPD, advise him to buy BPD shares.

As a reward, you will receive the UAP Board of Honor.

3 ending. Do not expose BPD and Angelica.

  • When the Agent ask to check whether BPD and Angelica. Answer: any.
  • When the Agent asks whether to tell about the results of the investigation in the news. Answer: No.

You will receive a music player as a reward.

I myself have only played through the first ending, so there may be inaccuracies in the description!

He'll also ask:

Also, since you've met Miss Bechamel before, I should check on BPD or Angelique.

I answered - Angelica.

Angelica will come in again, she will say that BPD does not steal recipes with the help of Megabyte! She will also hint that they will soon need more space for their pizzerias!

The next day Megabyte will appear again. It can be seen that he is in trouble, apparently due to hacking by Angelica

Next, a new character Elliot St. Clair will appear with the order:

I would like three pizzas, please! One for me and two for my car.

I just made him three flatbreads and got a 50 tip! This character is the director of the Peel company, which invented the Mozza car, which seems to be related to pizza delivery. Elliot will offer us to invest in this business, as was the case with the homeless earlier.

Sasha will come in again, but again nothing concrete...

Next, finally, a girl with tomato seeds will appear! It's the same with garlic.

Elliot will return with an offer:

So, what do you say? Again, all you need is 200 Pizza Bucks and you will be the main investor in the amazing Mozza cars!

I agreed and got the achievement: Investor 1. Give Elliot St. Clair money for a startup.

Everyone on the news is wondering what happened to Angelica…

Pierce will appear and offer an advertisement for tomatoes… grew up! Perhaps by this time you will already have a lot of tomatoes!

Then Angelica, dissatisfied with tomatoes, will appear, she did not expect that someone could grow them in the garden

Next, the robot will come in again with her emotional problems . .. you just need to talk to him, all answers lead to one end.

Elliot will drop by again to ask us:

I heard that Big Data Pizza is really trending right now. Do you think now is the right time to buy some of their shares?

He will approve both answers! I ended up saying it was a bad idea! Still, Angelica is some kind of muddy lady.

In the meantime, BPD bought all the farms, and a farmer will come to us and offer jalapeno seeds. To get jalapenos, you will need to collect 12 plants from our garden.

The bespectacled man will come in again, he will say that he belongs to the intelligence department of the WAP and is working undercover in the BPD to try to stop their monopolization. He will ask us for advice:

The plant should have all the information related to MegaByte and the R&D department, but the headquarters across the street might contain valuable information. Both seem to be important...

I forgot what I chose...

For talking to the agent, we will get the achievement: Who Would Have Thought?! Identify the secret agent.

At the moment no one else came to my pizzeria, I think this is due to the fact that you need to get jalapenos first!

After you collect 12 plants, the farmer will return the next game day and give you jalapeno seeds.

After the farmer, Price will immediately come in with an offer to advertise a new ingredient.

The next day Angelica shows up with an offer to sell your pizzeria:

Let me tell you what's going on now: I'm about to make a very big offer for this pathetic pizzeria. You can take this money and leave this city.

If you choose the first option, then you will continue the conversation, and if the second one, then the day will end immediately, but I did not continue like this, and restarted the game If someone chose the second option, then write in the comments what happened next! I think the next day will just start…

Sasha will come in again and tell about the sick child…

Then Alicante will appear with another suggestion to improve the pizzeria! This time, he will offer to make a Signature Dish.

We will have to collect the signature dish, but there is nothing complicated about it. First you will need to choose how the sauce and cheese will be located, then the ingredients on the first half and on the second. Make pizza in such a way that it is easy for you to remember its recipe.

Pierce will appear right away, this time I took the maximum advertisement for branded pizza, since I have all the ingredients ready!

The next day Elliot will return, he will give interest on our investments, and also offer a new business:

Excellent! I am thinking about investing this money in a cryptocurrency called PizzaToken. But I also want to launch a rocket into space… like, VERY hard. Are you savvy?

  1. PizzaToken
  2. Rocket

For any option, you will receive an achievement - Investor 2. I chose - PizzaToken.

Sasha finally has something concrete:

Please… If my pizzeria closes, I won't be able to afford medication for my son. I just need 50 Pizza Bucks to make a difference this week, but if you could allocate more than that, I'd really appreciate it!

I gave Sasha 150 bucks (by pressing the Take button, 50 pizza bucks will be withdrawn).

Things are getting better, and even the robot has recovered! You can make him any pizza, I made the Signature one, but I think a tortilla would do

This is your last chance. Sell ​​the pizzeria and you'll walk away with cash in your pocket. But one way or another, this place will be mine!

I refused again!

Price was standing outside the door, who heard our conversation with Angelica! He'll chat for a bit in his own way, and promise to come back with an amazing commercial!

As far as I understand, amazing advertising works like this: the news will broadcast which ingredients are now worth using or not. For example, on the screen above, in the news it is recommended not to use meat yet.

Next comes Price with three ads to choose from, the first ad is called Sous-N-Pep, that is, with such an ad, all orders will consist of sausages and pepperoni, the middle ad is called Meat Lover, that is, a meat lover, with all orders will be with meat like this, the third Go Veggie ad, with it all orders will be with plants, we need it!

Another ad says that all green ingredients have skyrocketed in price...

...in the screenshot above, with the Saga Advice ad campaign, all orders will only be with green ingredients! There will be a couple more such news, but I think you understand the meaning and will figure it out for yourself, otherwise the article about Chapter 4 turned out to be very large!

Next, the VAP secret agent will enter again, this time he will say that the VAP completely exposed BPD and Angelica!

You can find out all the details in the news, so read carefully if you want to be aware of the storyline!

Angelica will come in with an order:

You. Give me your signature dish right now.

  • Eh?
  • No

Whether you make her pizza or not, Angelica's last phrase will be like on the skin above. I did, I felt sorry for the aunt

After all the events, an agent will appear who will give us an award for helping him expose the BPD. The reward will be the VAP Honor Board, which can be placed in the right corner of the screen.

The next day after the agent, with the recognition that all his goods are fake, Price will come in! Well, personally, his gadgets helped me not to repair the stove and not to poison insects! In general, Price found his business, this is advertising, which he will continue to do!

Following Price, Sasha will appear, everything is fine with her, and in gratitude for the help, she will give us a pizza box and seeds.

I think the most significant moment for Chapter 4 will be a gift from MegaByt, more precisely, this is not a gift, but a service that he will now provide to our pizzeria! Now, under each order, his face will glow, if you click on it, the order will be executed automatically (there will be delivery). It is very convenient when you do not want to get a grasp of a tricky order! Several orders can be made for free, and then for 1 crystal.

Elliot will return, who launched the PizzaToken rocket into space, we will get only 500 pizza bucks, somehow not much

The girl with pink hair will notify us that various decorations have appeared in the garden! The decorations were supposed to open after completing chapter 4, so we're done, hooray!

And finally, our oldest friend and competitor, Alicante, will come! Everything is as usual with him

After the visit to Alicante, I have already played for several days, there have been no new news or special guests yet! It took me about 3 pm to complete Chapter 4. Most likely, some moments will be different for you, write in the comments how everything went for you! Satisfied customers and big tips!

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Kaspersky: Russia needs a separate law for "big user data" /TASS/.

The president of the InfoWatch group of companies, Natalia Kasperskaya, believes that a separate law in the Russian Federation is needed for the category "big user data", which is one of the components of the larger concept of "big data" (big data). Kaspersky, who also heads the Internet + Society subgroup under the working group of Russian presidential aide Igor Shchegolev, told TASS about this.

According to her, "big user data" (BPD) is "big data collected about individuals." These include all the information of ordinary users that is collected by search engines, applications, mobile devices and other means. Thus, BPD includes, in particular, search queries, location information, contacts, user correspondence, photo and video materials, posts on social networks, comments, video from surveillance cameras, financial and economic data, information about financial transactions and purchases in electronic stores.

"Probably, we need a law on BPD and law enforcement practice. The law, in particular, should define the boundaries of the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation in the field of "big user data", categories of players in the BPD turnover market, the status of user agreements, user rights with the ability to allow and not allow collection of their BPOs and so on,” she said, emphasizing that this is her personal opinion, since the subgroup has not yet developed a unified position. Kaspersky noted that the ideal option would be to create a specific license agreement template for all BPD operators.

"Now foreign players are not actually subject to Russian laws. From a legislative point of view, equal conditions should be provided for all BPD operators," Kasperskaya is sure.

However, the first step towards creating a level playing field and a BPD regulation model should be research, the head of InfoWatch believes. So, you need to develop a common terminology, determine what data is collected and which are arbitrary, designate the categories of data collected and build a threat model, she said. At the same time, it is also important to study the world experience in this matter, Kaspersky added.

"Next, I would suggest that it would be a good idea to develop a code of ethics for the use of BPD and stimulate the Internet industry to discuss and adopt it," the expert noted. She clarified that incentive measures in this case should be developed with the participation of development institutions and educational institutions.

Data "at risk"

"Unfortunately, many users still do not understand that a lot of information is collected about them every second on the Internet," said Kaspersky. “You checked into a cafe - the search engine already sees your approximate travel plan, you marked your friends in the photo - and your connections are no longer a secret,” she gave an example.

Kaspersky emphasized that any information that users transmit over the Internet "is stored there forever," and there is no way to influence this. "A company that has collected your data, having analyzed some of their volume, can obtain almost complete information about you, including personal data and the most intimate information," the head of InfoWatch explained the situation.

At the same time, "big user data" cannot be equated with personal data and regulated by the federal law N152 in force against personal data, Kaspersky believes. According to the law on personal data, the owner of personal data is the person who provided this data. “However, in the case of BPD, this is impossible, since the user does not provide this data of his own free will. For example, he walked down the street, got on a video camera - his face was recorded, but he did not give permission to fix his face,” she said. "As soon as a user has done something on the Internet, the actions and their consequences no longer belong to the user, since he cannot control their further distribution, does not affect their continued existence, cannot revoke or prohibit their use in an undesirable way," she concluded. Kaspersky.

Under state protection

Today, "big user data" of Russians (including their use and resale) is absolutely not controlled, the head of InfoWatch noted. "Moreover, there is arbitrariness of producers," she said. Kaspersky explained that "arbitrariness" occurs when mobile applications require permission to access information on the user's smartphone, although such information is not needed at all for the application to work. "If the user refuses to accept these permissions, then he cannot install the application, even if he paid money for it. This is a rather strange situation," she concluded.

This problem, according to Kaspersky, should be dealt with by the state. "Users themselves cannot do this, and services are not interested in doing this," she explained.

Kaspersky recalled that Russian President Vladimir Putin instructed to prepare proposals for legislative regulation of the processing of data of citizens of the Russian Federation on the Internet. This instruction is being implemented by the Internet + Society subgroup headed by Kaspersky under the working group under the presidential administration under the leadership of Igor Shchegolev. "In our subgroup, we are discussing what needs to be done in order to protect the privacy of our citizens from the arbitrariness of IT tool manufacturers," she said.

Problematic aspects

According to Kaspersky, there are several problems in regulating the processing of citizens' data on the Internet. So, the majority of Russian users, in principle, do not understand that their data is being collected, and that there is no personal life on the network, she clarified. “Many sincerely think that social media posts for friends are available only to friends. Or the idea that their favorite smartphone is constantly transmitting their data to someone seems wild to them,” said the head of InfoWatch.

Another problem is not understanding the extent of the problem. “Most people mindlessly check the box to agree to onerous user agreements without even reading them, professing the philosophy of “who needs me,” Kaspersky explained. However, in addition to the “distant US National Security Agency,” a person on the Internet can be interesting, to

Internet services that collect user data, in turn, consider this information to be their property, she said.

Learn more