Depression causing weight gain
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SAMHSA’s National Helpline is a free, confidential, 24/7, 365-day-a-year treatment referral and information service (in English and Spanish) for individuals and families facing mental and/or substance use disorders.
Also visit the online treatment locator.
SAMHSA’s National Helpline, 1-800-662-HELP (4357) (also known as the Treatment Referral Routing Service), or TTY: 1-800-487-4889 is a confidential, free, 24-hour-a-day, 365-day-a-year, information service, in English and Spanish, for individuals and family members facing mental and/or substance use disorders. This service provides referrals to local treatment facilities, support groups, and community-based organizations.
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What Is Substance Abuse Treatment? A Booklet for Families
Created for family members of people with alcohol abuse or drug abuse problems. Answers questions about substance abuse, its symptoms, different types of treatment, and recovery. Addresses concerns of children of parents with substance use/abuse problems.
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Assures teens with parents who abuse alcohol or drugs that, "It's not your fault!" and that they are not alone. Encourages teens to seek emotional support from other adults, school counselors, and youth support groups such as Alateen, and provides a resource list.
After an Attempt: A Guide for Taking Care of Your Family Member After Treatment in the Emergency Department
Aids family members in coping with the aftermath of a relative's suicide attempt. Describes the emergency department treatment process, lists questions to ask about follow-up treatment, and describes how to reduce risk and ensure safety at home.
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Explores the role of family therapy in recovery from mental illness or substance abuse. Explains how family therapy sessions are run and who conducts them, describes a typical session, and provides information on its effectiveness in recovery.
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Last Updated: 08/30/2022
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Overweight in terms of psychology
Overweight in terms of psychology
Today, the problem of excess weight is of interest to many people. And this number is growing day by day. There is a lot of information about the possible causes of excess weight, on the one hand it can be good, on the other hand, it is confusing. As a rule, people use all kinds of methods and diets to lose weight. Some are lucky, but in most cases the weight is gained back. The point is that often ways to get rid of excess weight do not eliminate the reasons for its gain . This is the explanation for the temporary results.
First, let's understand what is overweight. In medical sources, this problem is called obesity. So, overweight is a "chronic, progressive metabolic disease, with an increase in body weight (due to adipose tissue), prone to relapse and having a psychosomatic character."
The word chronic means that a person who has lost weight still needs to be monitored and sometimes corrected. Prone to relapse (breakdowns) - says that having formed even the most persistent new eating habits, people who are overweight neglect them (overeat in other words). nine0005
The word psychosomatic reveals cause and effect relationships. The first root psycho means soul. Soma is the body. We get the disease of the body from the "head". This does not mean that it is invented, it is rather the result of long emotional experiences.
Causes of excess weight:
- Physiological causes of excess weight.
From a physiological point of view, being overweight is a store of energy. The reserve can be formed only when there is a surplus. If your body gets more energy from food and drink than it needs , you gain weight. Accordingly, when you consume less, the body is forced to compensate for the lack by taking energy from fat - now you are losing weight.
Secondary obesity, which develops against the background of other complex diseases.
- Psychological reasons for excess weight.
Connection between food and mood.
Often in overweight people the connection between food and mood is quite strong.
Why is this happening? Everything is simple. The abundance of delicious food evokes associations of a holiday, a cheerful company, meeting with friends, etc. Food is just a stimulus, a trigger for these memories and impressions. Stimulus leading to excess weight. After all, no one bothers you to replace it with another. You can create other incentives for joy for yourself.
Evening, night food and excess weight.
Numerous studies have shown that overweight people suffer from plentiful night and evening meals . These same studies find the only reason for this behavior - stress relief. Excess food acts as a way to postpone household chores, thoughts about work, conflict situations, etc. This is a kind of rest, on the one hand, avoiding problems, on the other. As a result, rest with food is an inferior rest, and avoiding problems is not their solution. Plus the extra weight.
Trying to get love, care and security through food. nine0004
This complex mental mechanism is revealed through understanding the development of the human psyche. In early childhood (before 1 year), feeding for a child is not just an act of eating food. For a child, this is also an emotional experience of mother's care and love. After all, not always when a mother breastfeeds a child drinks milk. Her presence is important. This gives the child a sense of security and care. The tension that has arisen is gone. If subsequently more mature defense mechanisms are not formed that will help relieve or experience stress, the child returns to this again and again. In adulthood, situations that cause discomfort only change, but the reaction remains the same - to eat. nine0005
Depressive mood and overweight.
According to recent studies, about 70% of overweight people have latent forms of mild depression. This is of course a double-edged sword. First: a lowered mood background leads to overeating - excess weight. Second: with a set of kilograms and a decrease in activity, mild depression appears. Both options are unfavorable, as food begins to replace the usual pleasures, and excess weight grows faster.
Escape from reality and excess weight. nine0004
For many, excess food acts as a barrier from the outside world. If you need to calm yourself, give yourself a rest, cheer up - a person who is overweight, as a rule, goes to have a bite.
- Social prerequisites for excess weight.
The habit of extinguishing one's tension and desires with food.
Overweight people often develop this habit from childhood. When stingy in manifestations of love and overprotective parents (more often mother) praise and convey love to the child through food. They can also offer "yummy" as an alternative to various activities. A child who has learned this way of expressing sympathy for himself and replacing real needs with food continues to use it in adulthood. This behavior inevitably leads to excess weight. nine0005
Advice: Set your own time, 1 hour a day, when you are only concerned with yourself. Every morning plan what you will do today in your free time. It should be something that will bring you pleasure. You can also plan weekends. This should be done for at least 2-3 months.
Evaluation of others and overweight.
For most overweight people, the evaluation of others is very important. The tendency to think about the opinions of others before about yourself is a consequence of education. How does this relate to being overweight? Directly. Focusing on, more often invented, the opinion of others, one has to deny oneself in many ways. This increases the internal tension, which finds a discharge near the refrigerator. nine0005
Psychologist of Unix CDP E.A. Goncharova
Depression - Articles for the population - Khislavichskaya District Hospital
World Health Day is celebrated annually on April 7 in honor of the founding of WHO.
2017 is dedicated to the fight against depression. Depression affects people of all ages, from all walks of life, in all countries. It causes mental anguish and affects people's ability to perform daily tasks. At its worst, depression can lead to suicide, the second leading cause of death for people aged 15–29years, according to the WHO. “Beginning October 10, 2016, the overall goal of World Mental Health Day is that all people suffering from depression in all countries can seek and receive help. More specifically, we want to educate the general public about depression, its causes and possible consequences, including suicide, and the types of help available to prevent and treat depression. We want people with depression not to be afraid to seek help, so that their family members, friends and colleagues can support them,” the WHO website says. nine0005
WHO has decided to focus on three groups that are at particular risk: adolescents and young adults, women of childbearing age (especially after childbirth) and the elderly (over 60 years of age).
According to a World Health Organization (WHO) report, depression and anxiety disorders cost the world $1 trillion annually. At the same time, every dollar invested in the fight against these diseases will bring to any economy $ 4 due to improved health and working capacity of the population, according to a WHO study. nine0119 Depression is an illness characterized by a persistent state of despondency and loss of interest in activities that would normally bring satisfaction, as well as an inability to do daily activities for at least two weeks. In addition, people with depression usually have some of the following symptoms: lack of energy, decreased appetite, drowsiness or insomnia, anxiety, decreased concentration, indecision, restlessness, feelings of worthlessness, guilt or despair, and thoughts of hurting themselves or suicide. nine0119 Depression (from lat. deprimo - “crush”, “suppress”) - a mental disorder characterized by a “depressive triad”: a decrease in mood and a loss of the ability to experience joy (anhedonia), impaired thinking (negative judgments, a pessimistic view of what is happening, and so on ), motor retardation. With depression, self-esteem is reduced, there is a loss of interest in life and habitual activities. In some cases, a person suffering from it may begin to abuse alcohol or other psychotropic substances. nine0119 It is a type of affective disorders (mood disorders). Depression is treatable, but depression is currently the most common mental disorder. It affects one in ten over the age of 40, two-thirds of them are women. Depression is three times more common among people over 65 years of age. Also, about 5% of children and adolescents aged 10-16 years are affected by depression and depressive states. According to the World Health Organization, depression is the leading cause of adolescent illness and disability. The overall prevalence of depression (of all varieties) in adolescence ranges from 15 to 40%. Many studies emphasize that the greater prevalence of affective disorders at this age corresponds to a higher frequency of suicides. nine0119 Many people believe that depression is a disease that has spread and acquired such great social significance only in our time and was not known before. But this is not so: depression has been known to doctors since antiquity. Even the famous ancient Greek physician Hippocrates described in detail under the name "melancholy" conditions that are very reminiscent of our current definition of depression, and even recommended treatment within the capabilities of ancient medicine.
Treatment of depression according to Hippocrates consisted of prescribing tincture of opium, warm cleansing enemas (Hippocrates drew attention to the fact that severe depressions are often accompanied by constipation, and attached great importance to this), psychological support (it was recommended to “encourage and amuse” the patient), long-term warm baths, massages and drinking mineral water from one of the well-known sources in Crete (as it turned out later, this water contained a large amount of bromine, magnesium and lithium ions - that is, it really could help with depression)
Hippocrates also drew attention to the dependence of the condition of many depressive patients on the weather and season, to the seasonal frequency of depression in many patients, to the improvement in the condition of some patients after a sleepless night. Thus, he was close to discovering the therapeutic effect of sleep deprivation and sunlight (phototherapy), although he did not make this discovery.
The Ebers Papyrus, one of the most important medical treatises of ancient Egypt, also contains a short description of depression. Although the information on the papyrus is full of ritual rites and intricate recipes for expelling disease-causing demons and other evil spirits, it also testifies to long empirical practice and observation. nine0119 Causes of depression
Depression can be the result of dramatic experiences, such as the loss of a loved one, job, social status. In such cases, we are talking about reactive depression. It develops as a reaction to some external event, situation. According to some theories, depression sometimes occurs when the brain is overworked as a result of stress, which can be based on both physiological and psychosocial factors.
A risk factor for depression in adults may also be severe experiences in childhood: for example, child abuse may be a prerequisite for their future depression. nine0119 But if the psychological, iatrogenic or somatic causes of depression are absent or not obvious, such depression is called endogenous, that is, as it were, “occurring from within” (of the body, psyche). Approximately in one third (about 35%) of cases, overt depression occurs autochthonously, that is, without any external influences. Structurally, such depressions are endogenous from the very beginning.
The monoamine theory associates the development of depression with a deficiency of biogenic amines, namely serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. Some researchers conclude that this theory is not broad enough, as it does not explain the limitations in the effectiveness of antidepressants and the slow development of their therapeutic effect. nine0119 Many people in sunless weather or in those who are in darkened rooms, depression can occur due to the lack of bright light. This variety is called seasonal depression or seasonal affective disorder, because it is most often observed in patients in autumn and winter. Treat seasonal depression with sunny walks or light therapy. However, in a study conducted on a large sample (34,294 people), it was not possible to find relationships between depression and the season. Depression was not related to the latitude at which a person lives, nor to the amount of sunlight. But this study has important shortcomings - in particular, the survey of these 34 294 people were conducted by phone, which does not make it possible to diagnose the presence or absence of clinical depression in respondents.
Depression can result from the side effects of many drugs (eg, levodopa, corticosteroids, benzodiazepines)—so-called iatrogenic or pharmacogenic depression.
Most often, this depression resolves quickly on its own or resolves when the drug is discontinued.
(due to the use of antipsychotics) can last from several months to 1.5 years and often have a vital character. nine0119 The cause of depression in some cases is the abuse of sedatives or hypnotics, alcohol, cocaine and other opiate psychostimulants.
Depressions can also be somatic or, more precisely, somatogenic,
manifest as a consequence of somatic diseases (for example, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis of the arteries of the brain, traumatic brain injury, or even ordinary influenza).
The main types of depression
There are unipolar depressions, in which the mood remains within one, reduced, "pole", and bipolar depressions, which are an integral part of bipolar affective disorder, which are interspersed with manic, hypomanic or mixed affective episodes. Also, depressive episodes of mild severity can occur with cyclothymia. The following forms of unipolar depressions can be distinguished (according to DSM-IV):
• Major depressive disorder, often referred to as clinical depression.
• A form of major depression is resistant depression, in which two consecutive courses (3-4 weeks each) of antidepressant treatment show no or insufficient clinical effect.
• Minor depression that does not meet all the criteria for clinical depression, but in which at least two of the main diagnostic symptoms have been present for at least two weeks. nine0119 • Atypical depression is a form of depressive disorder in which, along with the typical symptoms of depression, there are specific signs such as increased appetite, weight gain, increased sleepiness and so-called "emotional reactivity".
• Postnatal depression is a form of depressive disorder that develops immediately after childbirth.
• Recurrent brief depression (RBD), differs from major depressive disorder primarily because of the difference in duration. People with RBD experience depressive episodes about once a month, with individual episodes lasting less than two weeks and usually less than 2–3 days. For RBD to be diagnosed, episodes must have been present for at least one year and, if the patient is female, regardless of the menstrual cycle. People with clinical depression can develop RBD, as well as vice versa]. nine0119 • Dysthymia is a mild chronic mood disorder in which a person complains of being in a low mood almost daily for at least two years. Symptoms are not as severe as in clinical depression, although people with dysthymia are also subject to periodic episodes of clinical depression (sometimes called "double depression")].
Other depressive disorders (DD-NOS) under the DSM code 311 include depressive disorders that cause detriment but do not qualify for officially defined diagnoses, that is, "do not meet the criteria for any specified disorder. " nine0119 In Russian-speaking medicine, the expression vital depression is often used. It means, first of all, the “vital” (“vital”) character of depression, with pronounced melancholy and anxiety, which patients feel on the physical level, for example, melancholy can be felt in the form of pain in the solar plexus. It was believed that "vital" depression is caused by a violation of "life processes", develops cyclically, being inaccessible to external influences, and arises for no reason, inexplicable for the patient himself]. This character is often characteristic, in particular, of "bipolar" depression in MDP and endogenous depression in general. nine0119 In a narrower sense, vital is primarily called "dreary depression", in which the manifestations of longing and despair are most pronounced, as well as depression with disorders in the "vital sphere" - with impaired need for food, sleep, etc.] Vital depressions are classified as a major depressive episode without psychotic symptoms.
Despite the severity of the condition, such depressions are prognostically favorable, as they respond well to treatment with antidepressants.
In addition, "vital depressions" are sometimes called depressive states in cyclothymia (according to the classification of Schneider, 1959), with blurred manifestations of melancholy, pessimism, despondency, depression, and with a strong dependence of symptoms on the circadian rhythm . This terminology is not widely used.
The course of the disease
At first, mild signals are felt in the form of sleep problems, irritability, refusal to perform normal duties. If these symptoms increase within two weeks, then this usually indicates the onset of the disease or its relapse, although it will fully manifest itself after two months] or even later. There are occasional seizures. Left untreated, depression can lead to suicide attempts, alienation from others, failure to perform most life functions, and family breakdown. nine0119 Depression can be caused and accompanied by other mental disorders, in particular neurosis.
It has been established that depression is associated with a decrease in the length of telomeres, which is also associated with the aging process.
Also, according to a recent study by scientists, it turned out that depression affects wound healing. In patients with depression, wounds heal more difficult, they are more likely to be rehospitalized. Moreover, the more severe the form of the disorder, the worse the result. Leading researcher Philip Britteon, believes that before the operation, special attention should be paid to the psychological state of the patient, so that the patient recovers as soon as possible. nine0119 The average duration of the disease is from 6 to 8 months, but in some patients depression acquires a chronic course. Chronic depression is a depression that lasts more than two years.
Resistant depression is considered such depression, in which, during two consecutive courses of adequate and long-term monotherapy with pharmacologically different drugs, there is an absence or insufficiency of the clinical effect (reduction of symptoms according to the Hamilton scale or Montgomery scale - less than 50%). nine0119 Not every patient requires hospitalization, treatment is often carried out on an outpatient basis. The main areas of depression therapy are pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and social therapy. The most important criterion for successful antidepressant therapy is the correct clinical diagnosis: the approach to treating depression should depend on its cause. So, with somatogenic depression, it is necessary first of all to treat a somatic disease and only in the second place - symptomatic psychopharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. With endogenous depression, psychopharmacotherapy is the main method, and psychotherapy is used in addition to it; in psychogenic (neurotic and reactive) depression, psychotherapy is no less important than psychopharmacotherapy. nine0119 It should be noted that even in cases where somatic pathology is not the cause of a depressive disorder, the presence of some somatic diseases (for example, subclinical hypothyroidism, Cushing's disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, coronary heart disease, oncological pathology, chronic infections, vitamin or elemental deficiency etc.