Dealing with flashbacks abuse

About the National Sexual Assault Telephone Hotline

Need help?

Call 800.656.HOPE (4673) to be connected with a trained staff member from a sexual assault service provider in your area.


How does it work?

When you call 800.656.HOPE (4673), you’ll be routed to a local RAINN affiliate organization based on the first six digits of your phone number. Cell phone callers have the option to enter the ZIP code of their current location to more accurately locate the nearest sexual assault service provider.

Telephone Hotline Terms of Service



How can the hotline help me?

Calling the National Sexual Assault Hotline gives you access to a range of free services including:

  • Confidential support from a trained staff member
  • Support finding a local health facility that is trained to care for survivors of sexual assault and offers services like sexual assault forensic exams
  • Someone to help you talk through what happened
  • Local resources that can assist with your next steps toward healing and recovery
  • Referrals for long term support in your area
  • Information about the laws in your community
  • Basic information about medical concerns

Is it confidential?

The National Sexual Assault Hotline is a safe, confidential service. When you call the hotline, only the first six numbers of the phone number are used to route the call, and your complete phone number is never stored in our system. Most states do have laws that require local staff to contact authorities in certain situations, like if there is a child or vulnerable adult who is in danger.

While almost all callers are connected directly to a staff member or volunteer at a local sexual assault service provider, a handful of providers use an answering service after daytime business hours. This service helps manage the flow of calls. If all staff members are busy, you may choose to leave a phone number with the answering service. In this case, the number will be confidential and will be given directly to the organization’s staff member for a callback. If you reach an answering service, you can try calling back after some time has passed, or you can choose to call during regular business hours when more staff members are available. You can also access 24/7 help online by visiting online.

Who are the sexual assault service providers?

Sexual assault service providers are organizations or agencies dedicated to supporting survivors of sexual assault. The providers who answer calls placed to the hotline are known as RAINN affiliates. To be part of the National Sexual Assault Hotline, affiliates must agree to uphold RAINN’s confidentiality standards. That means:

  • Never releasing records or information about the call without the consent of the caller, except when obligated by law
  • Only making reports to the police or other agencies when the caller consents, unless obligated by law
  • Agreeing to RAINN’s non-discrimination policy

To learn more about how a provider can become an affiliate of the National Sexual Assault Hotline, visit the Sexual Assault Service Provider information page. Volunteer opportunities for the National Sexual Assault Hotline are coordinated through these local providers. Search for volunteer opportunities near you.

How was the National Sexual Assault Hotline created?

The National Sexual Assault Hotline was the nation’s first decentralized hotline, connecting those in need with help in their local communities. It’s made up of a network of independent sexual assault service providers, vetted by RAINN, who answer calls to a single, nationwide hotline number. Since it was first created in 1994, the National Sexual Assault Hotline (800.656.HOPE and has helped more than 3 million people affected by sexual violence.

Before the telephone hotline was created, there was no central place where survivors could get help. Local sexual assault services providers were well equipped to handle support services, but the lack of a national hotline meant the issue did not receive as much attention as it should. In response, RAINN developed a unique national hotline system to combine all the advantages of a national organization with all the abilities and expertise of local programs. One nationwide hotline number makes it easier for survivors to be connected with the help they deserve.

Anyone affected by sexual assault, whether it happened to you or someone you care about, can find support on the National Sexual Assault Hotline. You can also visit to receive support via confidential online chat.


Types of Sexual Violence | RAINN

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Sexual assault can take many different forms and be defined in different ways, but one thing remains the same: it’s never the victim’s fault.

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When a perpetrator intentionally harms a minor physically, psychologically, sexually, or by acts of neglect, the crime is known as child abuse.

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Men and boys who have been sexually assaulted or abused may also face some additional challenges because of social attitudes and stereotypes about men and masculinity.

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A perpetrator can have any relationship to a victim, and that includes the role of an intimate partner. 

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Regardless of how the law defines incest, unwanted sexual contact from a family member can have a lasting effect on the survivor.

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In cases of drug-facilitated sexual assault, survivors often blame themselves. Remember—you are not to blame. You are the only one allowed to make choices for your body. Using drugs or alcohol is never an excuse for assault and does not mean that it was your fault.

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  • Sexual Harassment - You should be able to feel comfortable in your place of work or learning. If you are being sexually harassed, you can report it to the authorities at your job, school, or local law enforcement.
  • Stalking - Learn more about stalking behaviors to help you notice them before they escalate—and take steps to protect yourself.
  • Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse - Many perpetrators of sexual abuse are in a position of trust or responsible for the child’s care, such as a family member, teacher, clergy member, coach, or other children such as older siblings.  
  • Using Technology to Hurt Others - Some people use technology, such as digital photos, videos, apps, and social media, to engage in harassing, unsolicited, or non-consensual sexual interactions. 
  • Sexual Abuse by Medical Professionals - When you go to the doctor, dentist, hospital or physical therapist, or see other medical professionals, you trust them to treat you with respect as they care for your health.
  • Sexual Exploitation by Helping Professionals - Sexual exploitation by a helping professional is a serious violation of your trust and, in many cases, the law.

  • Multiple-Perpetrator Sexual Assault - Multiple-perpetrator sexual assault, sometimes called gang rape, occurs when two or more perpetrators act together to sexually assault the same victim.
  • Elder Abuse - As the number of older adults in America increases, it will become all the more important to be aware of the warning signs of elder abuse.
  • Sexual Abuse of People with Disabilities - Consent is crucial when any person engages in sexual activity, but it plays an even bigger, and more complicated role when someone has a disability.  
  • Prisoner Rape - If you’re an inmate, a former inmate, or know an inmate who survived sexual assault while in prison, there are resources available to you.
  • Military Sexual Trauma - Military Sexual Trauma, or MST, is the term used by the Department of Veteran Affairs to describe the effects of sexual violence experienced by a military Service member.
  • Legal Role of Consent - The legal definitions for terms like rape, sexual assault, and sexual abuse vary from state to state. Consent often plays an important role in determining whether an act is legally considered a crime.

    RAINN has given me the courage and strength to stand up for what is right. Julianna, survivor


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    Abuse of rights in labor relations

    In what cases can we speak of abuse of rights in labor relations? This article analyzes the judicial practice on the issue of abuse of the right, both on the part of the employer and the employee.

    Judicial practice in labor cases shows that both the employee and the employer can abuse their rights in labor relations, using the norms of labor legislation in bad faith.

    If the fact of abuse of the right by the employee or employer is established, the court may refuse to satisfy the claim.

    As noted in the Decree of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation dated March 17, 2004 No. 2, when establishing the fact of abuse by an employee of the right, the court may refuse to satisfy his claim for reinstatement, since in this case the employer should not be responsible for the adverse consequences that occurred due to dishonest actions on the part of the employee.

    On the one hand, Article 81 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation contains a ban on the dismissal of an employee at the initiative of the employer during his temporary disability. On the other hand, the employee's concealment and failure to provide documents about a good reason for absence may indicate an abuse of the employee's right.

    EXAMPLE #1. An employee of the company did not come to work after her sick leave. In her opinion, the employer must pay her a certain amount of wages, which consisted of an official and unofficial part.

    Written notice of suspension of work was not sent to the employer.
    The employer did not agree with the specified debt and fired the employee for absenteeism.

    The employee applied to the court with a claim for reinstatement at work.

    The court denied the worker's claim on the following grounds.

    From the meaning of Article 142 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation, as well as due to the clarifications set out in paragraph 57 of the Decree of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of March 17, 2004 No. 2, it follows that the employee has the right to suspend work, provided that the delay in payment of wages was more than 15 days and the employee notified the employer in writing of the suspension of work.

    The right of workers to refuse to perform work is a forced measure. And this right presupposes the elimination by the employer of the violation committed and the payment of the delayed amount. During the court session, the employee was unable to prove the payment of the unofficial part of the salary. The court did not take into account the testimony of the worker's husband, since the witness is a person interested in the outcome of the case.

    And the employer submitted to the court the directed demands to the employee, in which he asked her
    come to the office and explain why she is absent from work. The employer also sent a notice to the employee that he had no wage arrears.

    This correspondence indicates that the company did not stop its activities, showed persistent interest in establishing the reasons for the employee's absence from the workplace, offering to come to the office, send written explanations to the postal address.

    The employee did not contact the company in any way, she did not write a letter of resignation.

    The court regarded such behavior of the plaintiff as an abuse of the employee's right, which is an independent basis for refusing to satisfy the claims, since in this case the employer should not be liable for the adverse consequences that occurred as a result of dishonest actions on the part of the employee.

    In refusing to satisfy the claim of the employee, the court proceeded from the fact that the plaintiff committed a violation of labor discipline, because without good reason she did not begin to perform her duties (Decision of the Kalininsky District Court of Novosibirsk dated June 16, 2016 No. 2-1369/2016).

    Judicial practice shows that the failure to submit documents confirming the temporary disability of the employee on the date of dismissal indicates an abuse of the right by the employee (Decision of the Maykop City Court dated March 17, 2016 No. 2-1197 / 2016, the Soviet District Court of Makhachkala dated August 02 . 2016 No. 2-5081 / 2016, Appeal ruling of the Saratov Regional Court dated July 28, 2016 No. 33-4807 / 2016 of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Tyva dated July 13, 2016 No. 33-1375 / 2016).

    When considering dismissal cases under paragraph 2 of Article 278 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation, the courts subject to verification are: the circumstances of compliance with the dismissal procedure (but not the reasons for dismissal), as well as the circumstances of the inadmissibility of discrimination and abuse of the right.

    To conclude that an employee abused the right for the period of being on sick leave, it is necessary to prove the fact that temporary disability was hidden from the employer at the time of his dismissal from work, and not the fact that the employer did not know about the temporary disability of the employee.

    EXAMPLE #2.

    The employee was presented with a certificate of incapacity for work after presenting him with an order to dismiss him at 08-48 hours on February 24, 2016.

    -00 to 13-00 hours.

    Based on these circumstances, the judicial board regarded the actions of the employee upon receipt of a certificate of incapacity for work after familiarization with the dismissal order, in relation to the employer as an abuse of the right, expressed in his obviously dishonest behavior in order to artificially create conditions for further challenging the dismissal (Appeal ruling of the Tyumen Regional Court dated July 27, 2016 No. 33-4855/2016).

    The court also regards the following actions of an employee as an abuse of the right (Determination of the Chelyabinsk Regional Court of July 14, 2016 No. 11-9903/2016):

  • before going on sick leave, the employee knew that an internal audit was being carried out in relation to him and explanations were taken from him on the fact of his absence from work;
  • the employee presented sick leave certificates only in court.

When terminating an employment contract at the initiative of an employee, the employer must comply with the general legal principle of the inadmissibility of abuse of the right.

The employee has the right to terminate the employment contract by notifying the employer in writing no later than two weeks in advance, unless another period is established by the Labor Code of the Russian Federation or other federal law. The specified period begins the next day after the employer receives the employee's application for dismissal (Article 80 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation).

Prior to the expiration of the termination notice, the employee has the right to withdraw his/her application at any time.


The head of the Department, in connection with the onset of the age limit for being in the civil service - 60 years, notified the employee on 01/12/2016 that on 01/25/2016, the service contract concluded with him would be terminated, he would be relieved of his position and dismissed from the state civil service in connection with reaching the age limit for being in the civil service (clause 4, part 2, article 39Federal Law of July 27, 2004 No. 79-FZ “On the State Civil Service of the Russian Federation”).

The employee has the right to resign from the civil service in connection with the state pension with the provision of social guarantees on the basis of a personal application, which must be submitted to the head of the Department no later than January 20, 2016.

The employee wrote a statement on January 21, 2016 in the name of the head of the Department, according to which he asks to be dismissed from the civil service in connection with the state pension on January 25, 2016.

Subsequently, the employee tried to withdraw his application for dismissal. The employee sent the withdrawal of the application by mail and a copy of the application by fax.

However, the employee received a letter from the head of the Department refusing to satisfy the application, the employee was familiarized with the order of the Department to dismiss him from the civil service. The employee was forced to apply to the court with a request to recognize the order to dismiss him from the state civil service in connection with his retirement as illegal.

As the judges noted, when terminating the employment contract at the initiative of the employee, the employer did not comply with the general legal principle of the inadmissibility of abuse of the right, namely, the employer concealed the fact of issuing the order “On the cancellation of the order “On the payment of a one-time incentive”, which allowed the abuse of the right. But the procedure for dismissal of an employee was not violated.

An employee on January 21, 2016, having personally written a letter of resignation, in connection with retirement, expressed his will to be dismissed, in connection with retirement. Subsequently, on 01/25/2016, the application written by him to withdraw the said application was received by the representative of the employer only on 02/01/2016, that is, after the employee was dismissed from the service and cannot be regarded as the right of the employee before the expiration of the notice period for terminating the service contract and dismissal from the civil service at any time to withdraw his application. Since the specified application was received not before the expiration of the warning period, but after the dismissal, the claims of the employee were not satisfied (Appeal ruling of the Irkutsk Regional Court dated July 7, 2016 No. 33-9434/2016).


The employee held the position of the chief physician, an employment contract was concluded with her to fill this position for an indefinite period. By order of the Ministry of Health in accordance with clause 4.3 of the Regulations on the Ministry of Health, the employment contract with the plaintiff was terminated on the basis of clause 2 of Article 278 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation.

The employee was dismissed while on sick leave.

The employee applied to the court with a claim for reinstatement at work.

Resolving the dispute in favor of the employee, the court found that her dismissal from work was carried out during the period of incapacity for work and admissible evidence of her concealment of these circumstances by the employer was not presented.

In addition, as found out by the court, upon receiving the order to dismiss the employee, the hospital secretary made a note on the order itself that she was forced to register the order at the request of employees of the Ministry of Health, since the head physician was on sick leave.

Thus, the employer's arguments about the employee's abuse of her right due to the concealment of her certificate of incapacity for work were rejected by the court as untenable.

The court, recognizing the procedure for dismissing the plaintiff as illegal, proceeded from the legal meaning of the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 278 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation, according to which the employment contract with the head of the organization cannot be terminated during his temporary disability or vacation (Appeal ruling of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Tuva dated 04.05.2016 No. 33-140/2016).

A similar decision (in favor of the employee) was made in the appeal ruling of the Orenburg Regional Court dated March 23, 2016 No. 33-2163/2016. The employer did not prove the abuse of the right by the employee, and the arguments that the employee was at her workplace and was familiar with the dismissal order are not grounds for canceling the appealed decision, since they do not refute the fact of incapacity for work on the day of her dismissal.

Also, the employer’s references to the fact that the employee abused his right are not accepted by the court if the following documents and circumstances are available (Appeal ruling of the Rostov Regional Court dated 08/04/2016 No. 2016 No. 33-2348/2016):

  • on the act of refusal to give explanations about the reasons for absenteeism, the employee indicated that he had been issued a document on temporary disability;
  • details of calls to the number of the head of the personnel department (indicates that the employee did not hide the fact that he was on sick leave).

In accordance with the Procedure for issuing certificates of incapacity for work (approved by the Order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation dated August 01, 2007 No. 624n), a document certifying the temporary disability of citizens and confirming their temporary release from work is a certificate of incapacity for work.
However, its receipt and provision to the employer in the event of a temporary loss of working capacity by citizens is not mandatory. So, in one of the controversial cases, the court came to the conclusion that a certificate issued by a dental clinic on the release of an employee from work during the period of treatment testifies to the respectful absence from the workplace and is not the basis for the employer to apply a disciplinary sanction to him in the form of dismissal for absenteeism.

As the judges noted, the mere submission of a certificate to the employer, in which there is information about the release of the employee from work issued by the medical organization, cannot unconditionally testify to the abuse of the right on the part of the employee (Decision of the Miass City Court dated August 12, 2016 No. 2- 3219/2016).

The employer must provide the employee with the guarantees and compensations that are provided for work in hazardous working conditions (Article 219 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation).

Failure to fulfill the obligation to conduct workplace certification may also indicate an abuse of the employer's right (when the employer does not conduct such certification in order to not provide employees with guarantees and compensation for work in hazardous working conditions).


The employee received an additional payment (in % of the salary), he was granted additional paid leave annually for working in hazardous working conditions. Subsequently, the employer issued an order that canceled additional leave and compensation payments for work in harmful working conditions. The employee filed a lawsuit to restore benefits.

When considering a labor dispute, the panel of judges came to the conclusion that the relevant working conditions at the workplace were maintained, which served as the basis for the appointment of compensatory measures, since the employer did not declare any changes in the working conditions of the employee that improved such conditions.

Therefore, the contested order (to reduce the level of compensation payments) in relation to the employee should not be applied, given the employee’s right to maintain the previous level of guarantees under paragraph 3 of article 15 of the Federal Law of December 28, 2013 No. amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation in connection with the adoption of the Federal Law "On the special assessment of working conditions" (Appeal ruling of the Sverdlovsk Regional Court dated July 27, 2016 No. 33-12819/2016).

In a number of cases, the courts refuse to pay a severance pay to an employee due to abuse by the parties of the right, when a disproportionately high severance pay is prescribed in an additional agreement to an employment contract. So, in one of these cases, the court noted that the additional severance pay does not apply to guarantees and compensations due upon dismissal, its amount does not correspond to the remuneration system in the company, but is arbitrary (Appeal ruling of the Moscow City Court dated 10. 03.2016 No. 33-4820/2016).

Thus, the fact of abuse of the right can be both on the part of the employer and on the part of the employee. Proving the fact of abuse of the right, it is necessary to focus on paragraph 27 of the Decree of the Plenum of the RF Armed Forces dated March 17, 2004 No. 2.

Confabulation: what is it, symptoms and types of false memories


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Understanding why the brain creates incorrect memories and whether it can be dealt with


  • What is
  • Species
  • Features
  • Causes
  • Diagnostics
  • Treatment

What is confabulation

Confabulation is a cognitive error in which gaps in a person's memory are unconsciously filled with fictitious, misinterpreted or distorted information. When a person undergoes confabulation, he confuses imaginary things with real memories. It is important to note that at the same time, people do not lie when they stubbornly talk about what did not happen. They are simply confident in the veracity of their memory, even if the evidence is not in their favor.

Types of confabulation and in whom it occurs

Through confabulation, consciousness tries to hide the fact that some part of the information has disappeared from memory, and generates a false memory instead. Confabulation is of two types.

  • Provoked confabulation occurs when a person makes up a false story in response to a specific question. This type of confabulation is most common in people with dementia or amnesia.
  • Spontaneous confabulation is less common. It occurs when a person tells a false story just like that, without any motivation or request from outside.

Confabulation is often associated with memory impairment, traumatic brain injury or disease, and mental disorders. In addition, its occurrence may be influenced by drug abuse. However, it is also observed in healthy mentally and physically people.

There are several general characteristics of confabulation.

  • Lack of awareness that the memory is distorted . When errors are pointed out to a person, he is not disturbed by the apparent unreality of his story.
  • No attempt to deceive . A person has no hidden motivation for incorrectly remembering information.
  • False history taken from memory . The basis for incorrectly remembered information is usually the experience and thoughts of a person.
  • False history can be any . The story caused by confabulation can be both absolutely consistent and plausible, and extremely strange, unrealistic.

Causes of confabulation

Confabulation can form just like that. There is no specific area of ​​the brain that is responsible for it, but damage to the frontal lobe (which plays an important role in the formation of memories) and the corpus callosum (a key role in visual and auditory memory) has been associated with it. Confabulation can also lead to:

  • Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome , a neurological disorder associated with acute vitamin B1 deficiency, usually caused by chronic alcoholism;
  • Alzheimer's disease , a form of dementia that is associated with memory loss, cognitive impairment, language and other neurological problems;
  • traumatic brain injury damage to certain areas of the brain;
  • schizophrenia , a mental disorder that affects a person's ability to recognize and understand reality, causing abnormal experiences and behavior.

How to identify confabulation

Confabulation can be difficult to recognize. This can complicate the diagnosis of mental health and memory conditions. To determine it, experts use several methods.

  • Ask questions . During the interview, the doctor asks questions about the person's experience, symptoms, or medical history. If inconsistencies or other obvious examples of confabulation are noted, the person may be referred to a neurologist for further evaluation.
  • Ask relatives . Family and friends can also provide information about confabulation, as it can be very difficult for professionals to recognize it. In many cases, only loved ones who live with a person or spend a lot of time with him can notice that something is wrong.
  • Check with multiple sources . If confabulation is suspected, the doctor may ask additional questions and then verify the information received with the help of other sources.

Treatment of confabulation

Studies show that confabulation is difficult to treat. The recommended approach depends on the underlying cause (if possible). For example, arguing about the validity of memories in people with dementia does not make sense. Where acceptance and support work best. In some cases, confabulation can be managed with psychotherapeutic and cognitive behavioral therapies.

Learn more