Common types of mental disorders

Personality Disorders: MedlinePlus

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Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that are unhealthy and inflexible. The behaviors cause serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. They often have stormy relationships with other people.

The cause of personality disorders is unknown. However, genes and childhood experiences may play a role.

The symptoms of each personality disorder are different. They can mild or severe. People with personality disorders may have trouble realizing that they have a problem. To them, their thoughts are normal, and they often blame others for their problems. They may try to get help because of their problems with relationships and work. Treatment usually includes talk therapy and sometimes medicine.

  • Personality Disorders (Mental Health America)
  • Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy (Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center)
  • Mental Health Medications (National Institute of Mental Health)
  • Psychotherapies (National Institute of Mental Health)
  • Borderline Personality Disorder (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
  • Borderline Personality Disorder (National Institute of Mental Health)
  • Narcissistic Personality Disorder (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
  • Paranoia and Delusional Disorders (Mental Health America)
  • Schizoid Personality Disorder (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
  • Schizotypal Personality Disorder (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
  • Personality Disorders (National Institute of Mental Health)
  • ClinicalTrials. gov: Antisocial Personality Disorder (National Institutes of Health)
  • Borderline Personality Disorder (National Institutes of Health)
  • ClinicalTrials. gov: Personality Disorders (National Institutes of Health)
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  • Article: The Relationship between Nightmare Experience and Athletes' Personality Traits and Anxiety.
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  • National Institute of Mental Health Also in Spanish

Psychotic Disorders: MedlinePlus

Also called: Psychoses

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Psychotic disorders are severe mental disorders that cause abnormal thinking and perceptions. People with psychoses lose touch with reality. Two of the main symptoms are delusions and hallucinations. Delusions are false beliefs, such as thinking that someone is plotting against you or that the TV is sending you secret messages. Hallucinations are false perceptions, such as hearing, seeing, or feeling something that is not there.

Schizophrenia is one type of psychotic disorder. People with bipolar disorder may also have psychotic symptoms. Other problems that can cause psychosis include alcohol and some drugs, brain tumors, brain infections, and stroke.

Treatment depends on the cause of the psychosis. It might involve drugs to control symptoms and talk therapy. Hospitalization is an option for serious cases where a person might be dangerous to himself or others.

  • Psychosis (NAMI)
  • Understanding Psychosis (National Institute of Mental Health) Also in Spanish
  • Brain Stimulation Therapies (National Institute of Mental Health)
  • Mental Health Medications (National Institute of Mental Health)
  • Psychotherapies (National Institute of Mental Health)
  • What Is Psychiatry? (American Psychiatric Association)
  • Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke)
  • Postpartum Psychosis (Postpartum Support International)
  • Schizoaffective Disorder (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
  • Schizophrenia: MedlinePlus Health Topic (National Library of Medicine) Also in Spanish
  • ClinicalTrials. gov: Psychotic Disorders (National Institutes of Health)
  • Article: Sublingual Dexmedetomidine for the Treatment of Acute Agitation in Adults With. ..
  • Article: Barriers and facilitators when implementing family involvement for persons with psychotic...
  • Article: A randomized controlled trial of Goal Management Training for executive functioning. ..
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  • American Psychiatric Association
  • Behavioral Health Treatment Services Locator (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration)
  • NAMI
  • National Institute of Mental Health Also in Spanish
  • Hearing Voices and Seeing Things (American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)

Not OK: 8 Common Mental Disorders

Taking care of your mental health is just as important as taking care of your physical health.

Immunology specialist Jenna Macciochi in her book Immunity. The science of how to be healthy” has repeatedly noted that immunity and psychology are closely related. Experiences and stress weaken our body, making it vulnerable to various viruses. Sometimes states of anxiety, discomfort, stress become so habitual that a person does not even notice how he develops various mental illnesses. We talk about the most common of them and the signs that are inherent in them - but solely for educational purposes. To accurately determine a particular disorder, the help of a specialist is required, and self-diagnosis can be harmful.

According to the WHO, this condition affects approximately 264 million people worldwide. Moreover, women suffer from depression more often than men (in men, the risk of getting sick is 7-12%, in women - 20-25%). More often, depression occurs in urban residents due to information overload, violation of the regime, continuous stress, abuse of various types of simulators. Also, this disease can be a response to dramatic experiences, such as the loss of a loved one. In such cases, we are talking about reactive depression. There is also depression endogenous : it occurs from within, that is, without any external influences. The causes of the disease are neurobiological.

Common signs of depression are depressed mood, loss of interest in life, lack of emotions such as joy, surprise, decreased activity for at least two weeks. Many people also suffer from anxiety, sleep and appetite disorders, and concentration problems.

This type of mental disorder affects 45 million people worldwide. It is characterized by alternating manic and depressive episodes with periods of normal life. Manic episodes involve agitated or irritable mood, activity, and a fast pace of speech and action. Patients with manic episodes but no depressive episodes may also be diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorders can result from head trauma, hormonal imbalances, traumatic life events, or genetic predisposition.

The prevalence of asthenia, according to various researchers, ranges from 10 to 45%. More often, this disorder is described as increased fatigue. However, it is characterized by a number of other signs: irritability, quickly depleted attention, sleep disturbances, vegetative symptoms (lack of air, sweating, etc.). Asthenia occurs as a result of debilitating diseases of the internal organs, emotional, mental and physical overstrain. The latter occurs due to improper organization of work, rest, and nutrition. Asthenia can occur in the initial period of diseases of the internal organs, occur as a consequence of an acute illness (pneumonia) that has ended.

This severe mental disorder affects 20 million people worldwide. This type of psychosis is characterized by distorted thinking, emotions, speech and behavior, perception of the world and one's own personality. Common psychotic symptoms include hallucinations (for example, a person begins to hear, see or feel something that is not really there) and delusions (false beliefs arise even when there are facts that indicate the opposite). People with these disorders experience difficulties in work and learning.

Obsessions - obsessive thoughts that occur contrary to common sense and feelings. Their appearance, due to their incomprehensibility, often gives rise to a feeling of fear. Compulsions are compulsive actions that a person repeats over and over again. They are a way to prevent the possibility of an unpleasant event. Accompanied by depressive reactions, anxiety. Compulsions can manifest themselves as visible actions (jumping over cracks in the sidewalk, constantly arranging objects) and internal acts (calculating in the mind, repeating "protective" words, etc.).

Dementia affects 50 million people worldwide. Due to this disease, cognitive function is degraded: memory, thinking, understanding, speech, the ability to count, learn and reason. Cognitive dysfunction is often accompanied by a loss of control over the emotional state. The likelihood of developing this disease increases with age: among people in the age group from 65 to 74 years, about 5% of people have dementia, and among people aged 85 years and older, about 30%. Dementia is caused by various diseases and injuries that cause brain damage, such as Alzheimer's disease and stroke.

Eating disorders come in two forms: reduced appetite (extreme anorexia) and increased appetite (bulimia). Anorexia suggests a critical weight loss (body mass index becomes less than 17). At the same time, the person wants to lose more weight. Important functions of the body gradually begin to turn off, the body weakens. Bulimia is a pathologically increased appetite. This disease is characterized by the appearance of a compulsive and uncontrollable desire to eat, while there is no mental saturation with food.

Factors that predispose to bulimia are similar to those that cause anorexia. The occurrence of the disease is influenced by the position of the family, social attitudes, traumatic past experiences (for example, school bullying).

Lyubov Karas




11 The most common mental disorders

Komsomolskaya Pravda

Health of medicine


According to the World Health Organization. Check your cockroaches in your head

Photo: Ekaterina MARTINOVICH

Just be careful, let's not be like Jay from the cult story "Three Men in a Boat, not counting the dogs" at the first more or less similar symptoms. He, we recall, undertook to somehow study the medical reference book and unexpectedly came to the conclusion that "the only disease that I did not find in myself was puerperal fever ".

Only a doctor makes a diagnosis. And only after a series of analyzes and studies. So no self-diagnosis.

Now let's find out what it actually is, a mental disorder. In a nutshell, this is a violation of brain function, which can be caused by both external and internal causes. Often these reasons are interrelated. The causes of such disorders can be not only hereditary factors, but also head injuries, birth injuries, drug and drug poisoning, brain damage by infections, and even such unexpected moments as, for example, starvation, radiation, conflicts, and so on. Here are the 11 most common mental disorders in the world.


Its main symptom is fear of specific situations or objects that usually do not cause excessive fear in themselves, for example, a spider or a height.

Phobia (in other words, fear) is often accompanied by sweating, tachycardia, depression, as well as panic attacks, darkening of the eyes, a state of horror. A test for anxiety and phobias, the so-called "Zang Self-Rating Anxiety Scale", is often used to identify a phobic disorder. Read: Our seven main fears.

We cope with the fear of heights in a wind tunnel - a transparent cylinder, inside which the air is driven away with the help of a powerful fanPhoto: Ekaterina SEREDAVINA

Such people may take out their anger on others, have problems with work and in relationships, they often have mood swings and anxiety. At the same time, people are not critical enough to their behavior.

The development of these disorders begins in early youth and continues throughout life. Such patients often have a high level of intelligence. And the cause of a personality disorder can be not only genetics, but also improper upbringing or environment. This category includes paranoid personality disorder, affective disorders, schizoid personality disorder, emotionally unstable personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, and so on.



May be the result of both immediate exposure (often acute intoxication), and the result of prolonged exposure to alcohol. An alcoholic can drink himself into psychosis or dementia. The same goes for drug addiction.

It must be admitted that both such addictions are chronic diseases and can only go into remission. Therefore, treatment should be long and diverse. There are drugs that relieve cravings for alcohol, even cause disgust, but it seems to many alcoholics that if they got off the binge, then they were cured. This is not true.


In other words, unwanted thoughts and obsessive actions. Such people are often unsure whether they have locked the doors, turned off the lights, constantly checking something, knocking on wood, succumbing to superstitions, afraid to step on the manhole cover. Often there are exaggerated fears of contamination from contact with people or household items. Such thoughts (physicians call them obsessional) cause anxiety, are repeated and begin to be perceived as reality.

A person's life becomes a nightmare. An example can be given when a patient washed his hands 60 times before lunch so as not to become infected, and was still afraid. Another patient could not get to work, because he constantly returned home to check if the gas was turned on.


This term refers to the decline of intelligence for various reasons. The course of the disease is usually gradual, and extremely rarely - sudden. It is characterized by fatigue, weakness, decreased performance, absent-mindedness, memory impairment. The most common diseases in this group are Alzheimer's, Pick's, Parkinson's, and Wilson's diseases.

The treatment of such brain diseases is currently faced with a number of complications. And first of all, not because it is difficult to treat, but because it is difficult to diagnose. Read: The likelihood of dementia and early aging depends on your blood type

The "Iron Lady" died at the age of 88 from Alzheimer's disease. See photo gallery: Margaret Thatcher: Remembering the Iron Lady of World Politics


This group of disorders is the result of tragic experiences and abrupt changes in life. There is a response to a mental trauma associated with a risk to life. It can occur after a natural disaster, the loss of a loved one, a serious crime, a social upheaval, such as a terrorist attack.

The patient again and again returns memories of the experienced event, he is haunted by anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, sometimes aggressive tendencies or suicidal thoughts appear.

The same group includes phenomena that doctors have given the name "Vietnamese", "Afghan" or "Stockholm" syndromes. Read: 10 causes of stress in urban residents


7. Neurasthenia

It is often confused with hysteria, which is a gross mistake. Neurasthenia is essentially an asthenic neurosis, it occurs as a result of exhaustion of the nervous system during prolonged mental or physical overload. And unlike hysteria, it occurs more often in men than in women. It develops with prolonged physical overstrain (when there is a lot of work, insufficient sleep, lack of rest), frequent stressful situations, personal tragedies, prolonged conflicts. Somatic diseases and chronic intoxication can contribute to the occurrence of neurasthenia.

Neurasthenia is accompanied by headache, feeling of weakness, fatigue, tension, insecurity, irritability, sleep disturbances, dizziness, indigestion.



Belongs to the category of psychoses. The disease affects several components of the psyche: mental, emotional, behavioral and the entire set of mental functions. There are different forms of schizophrenia (catatonic, simple, paranoid). Accordingly, the symptoms may vary, however, the most common are hallucinations, negativism, isolation, apathy. Read: Scientists have counted eight types of schizophrenia

At the same time, schizophrenia, although it has some hereditary relationship, cannot be called a purely genetic disease. Sometimes perfectly healthy parents without any mental family history give birth to children who, already in adolescence, fall ill with pubertal schizophrenia.

Photo: Andrey GREBNEV


The disease is also known as manic-depressive psychosis. A fairly common disease with alternating depressive and manic phases. Some well-known actors and singers suffered from this disease P read: Catherine Zeta-Jones again treats bipolar disorder

You can recognize the disease by first elevated mood, increased motor and speech activity of the patient, people of this type talk a lot, joke, laugh, take on a lot of things ... And then like this but sharply "fall off". They cannot concentrate. And as a result, many of their undertakings end in nothing.


The most frequent sexual deviations are exhibitionism, voyeurism, frotterism, pathological sexual aggressiveness, transvestism, masochism, sadism, telephone hooliganism for sexual gratification.


The disease is common among girls, and today even in boys at a young age. Varieties of this disease are anorexia and bulimia. H Itite: 5 stars suffering from anorexia

Dying from anorexia model Isabelle Karo in social advertising "No anorexia"

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