Are you born with psychopathy
What Causes Psychopathy | Psychopathy Is
This information should not be used to diagnose or treat. It is not meant to take the place of consultation with a healthcare professional. If you have concerns, you should contact your healthcare provider for a screening.
A common question is: “What causes psychopathy?” As is true for other developmental disorders, there is no single cause of psychopathy. Research indicates that psychopathy results from a complex combination of genetic and environmental (non-genetic) factors.
Increased risk is not the same as a cause: It is important to keep in mind that increased risk is not the same as a cause. For example, some genetic changes associated with psychopathy can also be seen in people who don’t have psychopathy. Similarly, many children exposed to a particular environmental risk factor for psychopathy will not develop the disorder.
Genetic Risk Factors
There is no “psychopathy gene,” but research tells us that psychopathy tends to run in families. Even if a parent does not have psychopathy, they may carry one or more genetic variants that increase their child’s chance of developing psychopathy.
Most psychological outcomes are caused by the combined effects of many hundreds or thousands of genes. The combined effects of many genes account for about half of the variation in psychopathic traits. This means that some children are born at higher risk for developing psychopathy.
Is psychopathy something people are born with? It’s Complicated. No one is born with psychopathy (or any other psychological disorder). However, some children are born at high risk for developing psychopathy due to inherited (genetic) factors.
Environmental Risk Factors
Environmental influences can increase—or reduce—the odds of developing psychopathy in people who are at risk due to inherited factors. There are many environmental risk and protective factors for psychopathy, most of which have not yet been identified. Each of these factors likely has only a small impact. In other words, each of these factors might only affect the severity of psychopathic symptoms a little bit. Factors that increase risk for psychopathy include:
- Perinatal factors, such as smoking during pregnancy, high-stress levels during pregnancy, or birth complications
- Not experiencing highly warm and responsive parenting in early childhood (Read more about what is meant by ‘warm and responsive parenting’ and its relationship to psychopathy)
Again, it is important to remember that a risk factor is not the same as a cause. Many children with psychopathy have none of these risk factors and did experience warm and responsive parenting. Similarly, most children with these risk factors will not develop psychopathy.
Other risk factors for psychopathy include:
- Low resting heart rate, which may reflect low physiological arousal
- A fearless temperament
The origins of these risk factors are not clear. They probably reflect a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It is also not clear if low resting heart rate or a fearless temperament cause psychopathic traits to emerge, or whether they are simply correlated with psychopathic traits.
Differences in Brain Biology
Genetic and environmental influences do not cause psychopathy directly. Instead, they influence the way certain brain structures and circuits develop in a way that increases the risk a person will develop psychopathy.
For example, one brain region that seems to be particularly important is the amygdala. This structure is involved in social responsiveness, empathy, and outcomes related to fear. Children with psychopathy may have amygdalas that develop differently from other children. In children who are psychopathic, this region may be smaller or less active than in other children. This may be why they are relatively fearless and less socially responsive. The amygdala also sends and receives information from other brain regions that may also be affected in psychopathy. These include parts of the cortex, or surface, of the brain, as well as other brain systems that regulate emotion and decision-making. Research continues to explore these differences with the aim of developing treatments that can improve behavior and quality of life.
Some children are born at higher risk for psychopathy—but what parents do still matters
Some children are born at higher risk for psychopathy due to genetic variables that affect brain development. But parents still play an important role. Learning to use specific therapeutic techniques with high-risk children can reduce their chances of developing psychopathy.
Parents often feel guilty about their child’s mental disorders. And it is common for parents–particularly mothers–to be blamed by others, including mental health providers, for their child’s difficulties. For decades, psychiatrists and psychologists blamed disorders like autism and schizophrenia on “refrigerator mothers” and “schizophrenogenic mothers!” But as scientific research on autism and schizophrenia accumulated, it became clear that these complex developmental disorders are not caused by specific parenting practices.
Similarly, research on psychopathy has made clear it is also not caused by specific parenting practices. Most families in which a child has psychopathy also have other children without psychopathy. This makes it clear that the parents are not causing their child’s psychopathy. Although scientific research shows that warm and responsive parenting can reduce the risk of psychopathy, many children and adults with psychopathy have parents who are warm and responsive.
What does it mean for a parent to be “warm and responsive?” Warm parenting means showing your child positive emotion using your face, voice, and body. Warm parenting behaviors include smiling, speaking in a warm tone of voice, and using positive touch (for example, a gentle touch on the arm, a hug, or a high-five). Responsive parenting means responding appropriately to your child’s needs and emotions. Responsive parenting behaviors include, for example, expressing concern through your face and voice, asking questions, or offering a hug if your child is upset.
Some research suggests that children with psychopathy are less sensitive than other children to positive social and emotional cues. As a result, these children may benefit from unusually strong displays of positive emotion from their parents–beyond what parents would naturally use.
Parents can be trained to use specific behavioral techniques to improve their child’s symptoms. This is also the case for autism: we know parenting does not cause autism, but parents can be trained to use specific techniques (such as ABA) to improve an autistic child’s symptoms.
It is important for parents of children with psychopathy to learn effective techniques in part because a child’s psychopathy can change parents’ behavior toward their child over time in maladaptive ways. For example, some children with psychopathy resist affection. So parents may be less verbally or physically affectionate because they believe that is what their child prefers. But children at risk for psychopathy may actually need more verbal and physical warmth than other children.
What to Read Next
The birth of a psychopath
Psychopaths have a distinct lack of remorse for their own bad actions and a failure to accept responsibility
For the violent psychopath, an early sign might be cruelty to animals or complete lack of caring for other children
After every horrific crime that shocks us, the next question we often ask is, “How could anyone do such a thing?”
If the criminal is a psychopath, the answer is very simple. They don’t feel empathy or guilt. So instead of asking, “How could they do this horrible thing?” the more pertinent question might be, “When did they start doing horrible things?”
Psychopaths are pathological liars, manipulators, and charmers. They have a distinct lack of remorse for their own bad actions, a failure to accept responsibility for the same, and an overall lack of empathy. They are impulsive and irresponsible, seeking constant stimulation. Many are horribly violent and their motives “more commonly will involve sadistic gratification,” according to an FBI bulletin devoted to the disorder. “The psychopath is an intraspecies predator,” it reads.
Psychopaths are found in every country, belong to every race, and the majority are men. According to several studies, roughly 1% of the men in the United States are probably psychopaths, and they most likely exhibited signs at a very young age. Those signs are key – there is no known cure for full-blown psychopathy.
Researchers continue to search for a successful treatment plan, but “we don’t have a therapy for it, and there’s no known pill for psychopathy,” said Mary Ellen O’Toole, a former FBI profiler who has written extensively about psychopaths.
Any attempt at therapy has to be carefully structured and monitored, particularly in the case of a criminal psychopath, as they are equipped with the skill and motivation to act more as a predator than a patient. They can easily identify weaknesses in their therapists and feign progress to shorten treatment.
Psychopaths don’t seek out treatment on their own, said Robert Hare, who has studied psychopathy for more than 40 years and developed the scale used to measure it. He explained that psychopaths, not suffering any psychological or physical pain, don’t believe there’s anything about themselves that needs fixing.
What kind of treatment might a psychopath even receive? “You can try to train them to feel emotions,” said Hare, “but that is like trying to train a cat to be a mouse. None of the programs seem to work except those that change behavioral problems. You might get them to look out for themselves in a different way, to develop an enlightened self-interest. ” And in order to do that, early detection is paramount.
“If you look back in the childhood of any offender you can find a long, long history,” said Hare, who authored “Without Conscience: The Disturbing World of the Psychopaths Among Us.” For the violent psychopath, an early sign might be cruelty to animals or complete lack of caring for other children, including teasing or even hurting them.
It goes beyond the typical arguments at school or scuffles between siblings. “The behavior has to be well outside the norm,” Hare said. While children are not labeled psychopaths, the markers that predict a high probability a child will develop a psychopathic personality include many of the same characteristics: lack of guilt; lack of empathy; lack of concern about performance; and shallow or insincere emotions.
Over time, the behavior proves to be much more severe than typical childhood selfishness. Even compared with children with other behavior disorders or psychological issues, a child who has these traits and might be clinically labeled “callous-unemotional” will stand out to parents, teachers and peers.
Identifying a psychopath, or a child at risk for developing psychopathy, relies on examining his or her behavior and interacting with the child over lengthy interviews based on the checklists and scales developed by Hare. There is no quick medical test that can give a definitive verdict on whether someone is a psychopath, or to what degree.
However, functional magnetic resonance imaging scans have shown some functional differences in psychopaths’ brains, particularly in the frontal cortex and limbic system.
Psychopathy is also an inherited condition, according to J. Reid Meloy, forensic psychologist and author of “The Psychopathic Mind.” “The more severe the psychopathy, the greater the inheritance for the disorder,” he said.
Hare agreed, adding, “There are genetic factors involved. There is enormous evidence indicating psychopathy is an interaction between genetics and the environment.”
In the search for a treatment or management plan for psychopathy, “early intervention is really the only thing that’s been shown to be effective,” said Matt Logan, another leading researcher in the field and a former prison psychologist.
Intensive, regular, long-term intervention from both parents and teachers is key. Programs may use cognitive behavioral therapy, group therapy, or other methods. Because children showing high levels of the callous-unemotional traits also typically have very low levels of fear and anxiety, they usually don’t have a positive behavior change from programs emphasizing discipline. They are more likely to respond well to positive reinforcement and reward-oriented programs.
Though there is some debate, many researchers believe it’s important to recognize the children who need this specific, tailored help, even at the risk of a stigmatizing label like callous-unemotional, or later, psychopath. The goal, Hare said, “is to get these children to act more in line with what society expects.”
And as Hare points out, “Not all psychopaths are criminals. They are in business, government, academia and media. You’ll find lots of these people, but they’re not committing criminal acts. They will take advantage of people. ”
Perhaps if potential psychopaths are given, at a very young age, the tools to get what they want within the laws and expectations of society, a greater number could live extraordinarily productive lives.
Does being a psychopath make you more successful?
10 Signs You're Dating a Psychopath
November 15, 2018 A life
If you recognized your soulmate in this article, we have bad news for you.
One percent of the world's population are psychopaths. A psychopath is not the person who is waiting for you with a sharpening in a dark entrance. This is not a serial killer and not an inmate of a hospital for the mentally ill. It could be your colleague who gets away with any frills at work. Someone's "perfect" ex who suddenly ran away with someone else. Or a completely ordinary guy who made you coffee in the morning. nine0003
The only difference between a normal person and a psychopath is that psychopaths have no conscience. They hurt and feel no remorse or guilt. They are able to imitate normal human emotions, but do not actually experience them. Compassion, love, trust, forgiveness - these emotions make you vulnerable, and psychopaths only use them to influence you.
Any outside observer will not be able to figure out a psychopath. Often they are likeable, friendly and charming people. But if you get close to such a person, then life turns into a nightmare. Fairy tale relationships mutate into a mess of violent mind games. Does this look familiar to you? Here are 10 warning signs that you are dating a psychopath. The data is based on real stories and surveys on the Psychopath Free website. nine0003
1.He surrounds you with declarations of love and compliments. You think that this is the perfect partner for you
When you first meet a psychopath, things move quickly. He inspires you that you have a lot in common, that you are perfect for each other. Like a chameleon, it reflects your hopes, dreams, fears to form trusting and exciting relationships. He constantly wants to communicate with you and seems to be completely fascinated by you. Your wall on Facebook* or VKontakte will be littered with songs, compliments, poems and cute jokes that only the two of you can understand. nine0003
2. He hunts for your emotions by telling compassionate stories
You will quickly find a place in your heart to pity him. Because he's so sweet and innocent. Completely different from the cinematic images of psychopaths - cruel men with a contemptuous smile in an expensive car. Surely he will mention his ex, who is still in love with him. But all he wants is peace and quiet, he hates drama. However, you will soon notice that dramatic stories constantly surround him and people close to him. nine0003
3. He gets you into a love triangle
Once you're hooked, you'll end up in a love triangle and even a polygon. A psychopath will surround himself with former and potential lovers and anyone who pays attention to him. There will be former ones that he told you about before and assured you that you are superior to them in everything. You will feel embarrassed, and you will get the impression that he is always in demand from the opposite sex.
4. He constantly distorts reality and behaves abnormally
The psychopath always denies that he is manipulating you and ignores even the actual evidence of this. He reacts critically and dismissively if you try to disprove his tales with facts. He will shift the blame for the situation on you: you are too impressionable and inadequately perceive the situation. He will convince you that the problem is not with him, but with your incorrect reaction to normal events.
5. He accuses you of emotions that he himself provokes
The psychopath will say that you are too jealous, although he openly flirted with his ex, often even on social networks, for everyone to see. He will say that you are too clingy, although he deliberately ignored you for several days. He provokes your reaction in order to show his other targets how hysterical you are and to evoke sympathy for himself. Do you think you are a calm person? Meeting a psychopath will change you beyond recognition. Fortunately, temporarily. nine0003
6. You notice pathological lies and excuses
He always has an excuse, even in situations where it is not needed. He comes up with another lie faster than you can ask a question. He constantly blames others, but he himself is always at fault. He spends time inventing explanations for his behavior rather than improving it. Even when caught in outright lies, he does not express remorse or embarrassment. Sometimes it seems like he wanted you to catch him.
7. He provokes jealousy and rivalry while maintaining a mask of innocence
At first, the psychopath's attention is on you. And you don't understand what happens when he suddenly switches to another person. He constantly does things that make you doubt that you mean anything to him. If he is active in social networks, then he lures the former with songs, photos, jokes that were significant for their couple. He seems to be actively looking for a partner and at the same time ignores you.
8. He holds your attention and undermines your self-esteem
First, he showers you with a debilitating stream of admiration, and then you become uninteresting to him. It hurts you, because you are already on fire with this passionate relationship. And now you feel like a housekeeper with him and nothing more. nine0003
9. The psychopath is selfish and demands constant attention.
He sucked all the energy out of you and filled your whole life with himself. He demands constant worship of himself. You thought that you were the only person capable of making him happy, but now you understand that anyone with a beating pulse is suitable for this role. But the truth is that no one can fill the void in the soul of a psychopath.
10. You don't recognize yourself
Your love and compassion have turned into overwhelming panic and anxiety. You apologize and cry more than you ever have in your life. You sleep poorly and wake up in a bad and anxious mood. You cannot understand what happened to you, where is this cheerful, laid-back, calm person now? After communicating with a psychopath, you feel exhausted, devastated and deprived of an adequate perception of the world. Life rolls upside down: you spend money, break ties with friends and loved ones, and constantly look for the reason for these actions. nine0003
A relationship with a psychopath is a black hole. No matter how much it hurts, you will always be to blame for everything. He ignores your best qualities, and self-doubt grows in you, you change beyond recognition. You will heal the traumas of these relationships for a long time, it will seem to you that everything will never be fine with you.
But you can get your nerves in order. First of all, exclude all contacts with a psychopath: correspondence, letters, and even “spying” on him in social networks. At first, it will be unbearably difficult for you, but relief will come with time. You will feel that sanity is returning to you and chaos is leaving your life. This experience may even be useful in the end. You will learn to value yourself and set boundaries for psychopaths so that they never disturb your peace again. nine0003
Read also 🧐
- 5 types of people to stay away from
- How brain changes turn people into dangerous psychopaths
- How to identify a sociopath and not get hooked
*Activity of Meta Platforms Inc. and its social networks Facebook and Instagram are prohibited in the territory of the Russian Federation.
Who are psychopaths? | Behavior Hunters
From century to century, people constantly create an enemy for themselves in the face of someone who is different from them. This is someone they don't understand and fear. Previously, these were residents of African countries, Indians, highlanders and other communities and peoples isolated from our civilized society. In their place gradually came unconventional orientations, individual sciences and professions, the achievements of technological progress. But the fact remains that we are afraid of what we do not know or do not understand. And today I would like to touch on the topic of psychopathy, and tell you what a “psychopath” is, how such people live, and what is really behind this concept. nine0003
To be honest, I thought for a long time about how to start my story, and in the end ... Let everything be in the best traditions of anonymous communities: Hello everyone, my name is Alex, I'm 24 ( at the request of the author, his name and age have been changed ) and I'm a psychopath…
First of all…
I decided to write this article for the sole purpose of making people aware of what is really behind psychopathy and showing that most people's view is fundamentally wrong. I will try to touch on just a few common points of view about psychopaths, expanding them, perhaps in more detail. nine0003
First of all, I want to say right away: I am the same as any other inhabitant of our planet, the same as you yourself, I am a human being. A person with the same needs as you. I eat, sleep, breathe, work and get tired just like anyone else. And I never wanted to become a psychopath, this is not my whim and not my choice. I was just born and raised that way.
Sometimes I hear really strange phrases from people like “psychopaths have a good life”, “it's great to be a psychopath, they don't feel anything” or even: “I wish I were a psychopath”. My life is not something to envy. Yes, I practically do not experience emotions, but the truth is that emotions are not ballast, emotions are what fills the world around you with colors and colors. I live in a gray and dull world, while you are able to enjoy the little things. If there was an opportunity to live a normal life, I would jump at it without hesitation. Life without emotions is torture. I don’t feel joy when something good happens, I don’t feel positive emotions when I am in a cheerful company, I don’t feel joy, not because I don’t want to, but because I can’t. My body simply does not feel it, no matter how much I would like to. nine0003
The same is true of sadness. However, I am able to experience emotions such as anger or fear, and I am able to accumulate irritation. And this does not make me a violent brawler, by no means, but if provoked, I can show aggression, like any other person.
Imitation of normal human emotions
Ever since childhood, I have learned to play emotions, created for myself various behavioral patterns that allow me not to stand out among people. It was a forced step, because otherwise, I simply could not survive in society. Yes, when communicating with me, the interlocutor will not see anything unusual or strange. I can put on a mask and look like an average person. The only problem is that it requires strength and slowly exhausts. Sometimes, I just don’t have the patience to wear this mask and questions start around me: “Are you all right?”, “Are you offended?” and everything in this spirit. No, I was not offended, and yes, everything is fine with me, I just don’t have the strength anymore, and you saw the unemotionality that is hidden behind my mask. nine0003
I often encounter misunderstandings from people close to me, relatives who do not understand or do not want to understand these emotional problems. And I have to put on this mask again, even being in the family, otherwise I will hear: “Are you all right?”, “Are you offended by something?” etc. I’ll be honest, it’s very exhausting to be yourself even in the circle of people with whom you have lived almost all your life.
Manipulation and use of people
There is an opinion that psychopaths constantly manipulate and use people for their own selfish purposes. This is only partly true. I manipulate people quite often and understand how to push a person to do what I need. nine0003
The truth is that there is nothing wrong with these manipulations! I don't force people to give me all their savings or go rob a bank. Most of the manipulations are aimed at the location of a person. Without any evil or illegal intentions. Sometimes I manipulate people just out of curiosity, putting a person in an awkward state or taking them out of their comfort zone. It doesn't harm anyone. Sometimes, although extremely rarely, conscious manipulations stretch out for weeks or months, but not once have I caused people any serious harm or discomfort. nine0003
Why am I doing this? Firstly, I get bored, and secondly, it helps me understand people and become more human myself. Thirdly, I wonder what will happen to a person if he is put in an unusual situation, or how much he can withstand psychological stress from the outside. No, I don’t drive needles under people’s nails and don’t chain them to chairs, rather, on the contrary, I do everything in an environmentally friendly and harmless way.
I understand people, how they work, what drives them, I see strengths and weaknesses, and I know what to say or do to make a person behave in a certain way. Often I use this knowledge for good purposes, thanks to which I can relax, calm or fill with confidence a person who is initially deprived of this. nine0003
In the end, all people manipulate each other in one way or another. All without exception. It's just that not everyone is aware of this, and it is important to understand the motives for these manipulations. Someone manipulates a lover to get a new dress or a fur coat, someone manipulates a child to eat food, because "mom tried so hard and cooked, and now all this will be lost." You can continue these examples endlessly!
Manipulation is not always bad. As I said, manipulation can both encourage a self-confident person to doubt, and help a doubting person become self-confident. Manipulation is a part of our life, it’s just that some people master it better than others, someone uses it for personal gain, and someone doesn’t pursue clear motives at all…
Artistry, charm and affection
Charm and affection is a separate topic for discussion. If you ask any person who is only superficially acquainted with me and directly communicated for at least a few hours, he will say that I am an intelligent, cultured and interesting interlocutor. After talking with people of little importance to me, everyone as one repeats what a miracle gold I am. I'm not saying that in reality everything is very different, no, the point is precisely in the ability to win over people if I need it. And I do it automatically, without even thinking - a slightly softer tone of voice, slightly raised eyebrows, smoother and softer gestures, a slight smile on my face, a conversation about what is interesting to a person, and the interlocutor himself reveals himself to me. nine0003
Speaking of automatism, it plays a big role in my life, and sometimes even more than I wanted. Over many years of training and living under the guise of feigned behavior, this very mask has become part of the personality and now, communicating with people with whom I can be myself, I, as I once had to learn to play emotions, have to learn to be myself again, filtering out and holding back this superficial falseness. Another element included in automatism is manipulation. Yes, sometimes I catch myself thinking that I unconsciously begin to manipulate a person, even if this person is important to me, and I was not going to manipulate him. Small, insignificant manipulations that I instantly stop, but the fact remains that this does not always depend on my conscious behavior. nine0003
It is a common misconception that psychopaths do not have attachments. This is not entirely true, it's just that our attachment is different from the attachment that is characteristic of normal people. It is rather logical and is formed differently and longer.
There are many people around me who consider themselves my close friends. We often spend time together and talk on various topics. But if I need to, I can safely refuse to associate with each of these people, and this will not disturb me for a moment. It is more difficult with those people to whom I really feel affection. Due to the fact that this attachment is more logical than psycho-emotional, it is more complex and dynamic. If we draw an analogy, this is something like a scale, on the scales of which are all the pros and cons of a good attitude towards a person. For example, if I don’t see a reciprocal attitude on the part of a person, not emotional, but logical, then the scales begin to weigh a little more towards the minuses, and I distance myself a little more from this person. And vice versa, the more pluses on the scales, the closer I am to the person, and the more I can afford to open up. Of course, this is a simplified analogy, and in reality everything is much more complicated. nine0003
In general, logic plays a big role in my life - it is through it that the perception of the surrounding world and, in particular, emotions occurs.
Another problem, along with emotions, which causes misunderstanding on the part of people around is the lack of some generally accepted norms and concepts. To give a specific example: I don't know what respect is. I do not respect anyone, due to the fact that I do not understand the very concept of "respect". There is a personal attitude towards a person, which is largely formed from a logical assessment. Even with a very good attitude towards a person, I still will not respect him. Simply because I don’t know how, I don’t know what it is and how it happens. nine0003
The situation is similar with beauty. When people ask me which of two outfits or two people is prettier, I find it difficult to answer, for the same reasons. I do not understand this criterion and can only say - who has fewer defects or deformities - this is something that can be seen and understood, while beauty is relative and does not have a clear basis.
Also, I do not understand some social manifestations, for example, morality or morality, which, however, does not make me immoral at all. I know what is good and what is bad. I won't lie and say that I fully understand them, but they are in my mindset and built on social good and bad, so they are no different from your personal criteria for good and evil. Causing pain to living beings is bad, breaking the law is also, I live by the same concepts as you, I just don’t see the meaning in all these concepts and follow them based on logical motives. nine0003
I live according to my own laws, which I myself have deduced and raised to an unshakable absolute: do not manipulate loved ones, take care of them and help everything in my power, show kindness to people who sincerely show it to me, and so on . It helps to live by introducing personal boundaries and limitations, a kind of principles.
It is possible to describe my life for a long time, but its meaning is simple – I am the same person as you. Yes, with a problem called "psychopathy," but that doesn't make me a monster, a serial killer, or a maniac. I don't bury bodies on the weekends, and I don't eat Spaghetti Con Salsa Da Umano for dinner, like Hannibal does. I am a man, it's just harder for me to live, and it's harder to be myself than others. nine0003
Psychopathy is a curse that deprives a normal life, but does not make a person inhuman. Just as there are many criminals without psychopathy, so there are many psychopaths without harm. There is no need to be afraid of us or, moreover, to oppress us, considering them dangerous. We want to live normally, like everyone else, to feel like everyone else, to enjoy the full beauty of life. If a person has humanity, then he remains a person even with psychopathy. If the parents competently raised a psychopath, giving him that very humanity, he will become a full-fledged unit of society, as well as an ordinary child who, if not properly brought up, can become a criminal and an antisocial link. Education and socialization play an important role in everything. As my close friend noted, “many people live with psychopathy and do not suspect how much worse asociality and sociopathy are,” for which many thanks to him! nine0003
On this I, perhaps, will complete my story. I sincerely hope that I managed to change someone's false opinion about psychopaths for the better, or at least debunk the formed prejudices. Don't forget, we are all human.
The article was written specifically for ANO NITsKB.
We remind you that the name and age of the author have been changed.