All types of mental illnesses

Mental Health: Types of Mental Illness

Written by WebMD Editorial Contributors

There are many different conditions that are recognized as mental illnesses. The more common types include:

  • Anxiety disorders: People with anxiety disorders respond to certain objects or situations with fear and dread, as well as with physical signs of anxiety or panic, such as a rapid heartbeat and sweating. An anxiety disorder is diagnosed if the person's response is not appropriate for the situation, if the person cannot control the response, or if the anxiety interferes with normal functioning. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobias.
  • Mood disorders: These disorders, also called affective disorders, involve persistent feelings of sadness or periods of feeling overly happy, or fluctuations from extreme happiness to extreme sadness. The most common mood disorders are depression, bipolar disorder, and cyclothymic disorder.
  • Psychotic disorders: Psychotic disorders involve distorted awareness and thinking. Two of the most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations -- the experience of images or sounds that are not real, such as hearing voices -- and delusions, which are false fixed beliefs that the ill person accepts as true, despite evidence to the contrary. Schizophrenia is an example of a psychotic disorder.
  • Eating disorders:Eating disorders involve extreme emotions, attitudes, and behaviors involving weight and food. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder are the most common eating disorders.
  • Impulse control and addiction disorders: People with impulse control disorders are unable to resist urges, or impulses, to perform acts that could be harmful to themselves or others. Pyromania (starting fires), kleptomania (stealing), and compulsive gambling are examples of impulse control disorders. Alcohol and drugs are common objects of addictions. Often, people with these disorders become so involved with the objects of their addiction that they begin to ignore responsibilities and relationships.
  • Personality disorders: People with personality disorders have extreme and inflexible personality traits that are distressing to the person and/or cause problems in work, school, or social relationships. In addition, the person's patterns of thinking and behavior significantly differ from the expectations of society and are so rigid that they interfere with the person's normal functioning. Examples include antisocial personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, and paranoid personality disorder.
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): People with OCD are plagued by constant thoughts or fears that cause them to perform certain rituals or routines. The disturbing thoughts are called obsessions, and the rituals are called compulsions. An example is a person with an unreasonable fear of germs who constantly washes their hands.
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): PTSD is a condition that can develop following a traumatic and/or terrifying event, such as a sexual or physical assault, the unexpected death of a loved one, or a natural disaster. People with PTSD often have lasting and frightening thoughts and memories of the event, and tend to be emotionally numb.

Other, less common types of mental illnesses include:

  • Stress response syndromes (formerly called adjustment disorders): Stress response syndromes occur when a person develops emotional or behavioral symptoms in response to a stressful event or situation. The stressors may include natural disasters, such as an earthquake or tornado; events or crises, such as a car accident or the diagnosis of a major illness; or interpersonal problems, such as a divorce, death of a loved one, loss of a job, or a problem with substance abuse. Stress response syndromes usually begin within three months of the event or situation and ends within six months after the stressor stops or is eliminated.
  • Dissociative disorders: People with these disorders suffer severe disturbances or changes in memory, consciousness, identity, and general awareness of themselves and their surroundings. These disorders usually are associated with overwhelming stress, which may be the result of traumatic events, accidents, or disasters that may be experienced or witnessed by the individual. Dissociative identity disorder, formerly called multiple personality disorder, or "split personality," and depersonalization disorder are examples of dissociative disorders.
  • Factitious disorders: Factitious disorders are conditions in which a person knowingly and intentionally creates or complains of physical and/or emotional symptoms in order to place the individual in the role of a patient or a person in need of help.
  • Sexual and gender disorders: These include disorders that affect sexual desire, performance, and behavior. Sexual dysfunction, gender identity disorder, and the paraphilias are examples of sexual and gender disorders.
  • Somatic symptom disorders: A person with a somatic symptom disorder, formerly known as a psychosomatic disorder or somatoform disorder, experiences physical symptoms of an illness or of pain with an excessive and disproportionate level of distress, regardless of whether or not a doctor can find a medical cause for the symptoms.
  • Tic disorders: People with tic disorders make sounds or display nonpurposeful body movements that are repeated, quick, sudden, and/or uncontrollable. (Sounds that are made involuntarily are called vocal tics.) Tourette's syndrome is an example of a tic disorder.

Other diseases or conditions, including various sleep-related problems and many forms of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, are sometimes classified as mental illnesses, because they involve the brain.

Mental Health Screening: MedlinePlus Medical Test

What is a mental health screening?

A mental health screening is a standard set of questions that a person answers to help a health care provider check for signs of a mental disorder. The questions help the provider learn about a person's mood, thinking, behavior, and memory.

A mental health screening is a way to catch mental health conditions early. If the screening shows signs of a disorder, more testing is usually needed to diagnose a specific mental disorder. Mental disorders are also called mental illnesses, and a mental health screening may be called a "mental illness test" or a "psychology test."

More than half of all Americans will have a mental disorder at some point in their lives. Their symptoms may range from mild to severe. Common mental disorders include:

  • Mood disorders, which include depression, bipolar disorder, seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and self-harm.
  • Anxiety disorders, which include panic disorder, phobias, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Anxiety is a common disorder in children.
  • Eating disorders, which include anorexia and bulimia.
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is one of the most common mental health disorders in children. It can also continue into adulthood.
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
  • Personality disorders.
  • Substance use disorders, which include alcohol use disorder and drug use and addiction.
  • Psychotic disorders, which include schizophrenia.

These and other mental disorders affect people of all ages, including children. So, there are special mental health screening tests designed for children, teenagers, and older adults. Some screening tests look for general signs of the most common mental disorders. Other screening tests look for signs related to specific types of disorders.

Mental health screening can be an important part of your total health at every stage of life. Mental health symptoms can be a sign of certain physical conditions. And certain mental disorders can increase the risk of developing physical health problems. With proper mental health screening, diagnosis, and treatment, people with mental health disorders can get better and many recover completely.

Other names: mental health assessment, mental illness test, psychological evaluation, psychology test, psychiatric evaluation

What is it used for?

A mental health screening is usually used as the first step to find out if a person has signs of a mental disorder. It may be part of a routine checkup. A screening test is used to see whether a person:

  • Has a risk for developing a mental disorder
  • Needs more testing to diagnose or rule out a mental health disorder
  • Needs mental health care right away, before diagnostic testing can be finished

Mental health screening may also be used to see if treatment for a mental disorder is working.

A primary care provider may use mental health screening to help decide if a person needs to see a mental health provider for testing and/or treatment. A mental health provider is a health care professional who specializes in diagnosing and treating mental health problems. A mental health provider may use the results of a screening test to choose which other tests are needed to diagnose or rule out a specific mental disorder.

Why do I need a mental health screening?

You or your child may need a mental health screening if you have symptoms of a mental disorder. Different disorders have specific symptoms.

General symptoms of mental disorders may include:

  • Eating or sleeping too much or too little
  • Pulling away from people and usual activities
  • Fatigue and lack of energy
  • Feeling helpless, hopeless, or numb like nothing matters
  • Smoking, drinking, or using drugs more than usual
  • Feeling unusually confused, forgetful, nervous, angry, worried, or scared
  • Severe mood swings that cause problems in relationships
  • Thoughts and memories that you can't get out of your head
  • Hearing voices or believing things that aren't true
  • Thinking about death, suicide or harming yourself or others

Signs of mental disorders in children may also include:

  • Frequent tantrums and other behavior problems
  • Frequent stomachaches or headaches without a known medical cause
  • Difficulty in school
  • Repeating actions or constantly checking things out of fear that something bad will happen
  • Talking a lot about fears, worries, death, or suicide

If you or someone you know needs immediate help for a mental health disorder:

  • Call 911 or go to your local emergency room
  • Contact a crisis hotline. In the United States, you can reach the National Suicide and Crisis Lifeline at any time:
    • Call or text 988
    • Chat online with Lifeline Chat
    • TTY users: Use your preferred relay service or dial 711 then 988
  • Veterans can contact the Veterans Crisis Line:
    • Call 988 then press 1
    • Text 838255
    • Chat online
  • Call your mental health provider or other provider
  • Reach out to a loved one or close friend

What happens during a mental health screening?

If you are having a mental health screening, you'll answer a set of questions about your symptoms. The questions will be about your feelings, mood, sleep, appetite, and other parts of your life. A provider may ask you the questions or you may fill out a questionnaire and discuss your answers afterwards. It's important that your answers are honest and complete.

If your primary care provider is doing the screening, you may also have a physical exam and blood tests. There are no medical tests that can diagnose mental health disorders. But certain blood tests can show if a physical condition, such as thyroid disease or an electrolyte imbalance, is causing mental health symptoms.

During a blood test, a health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes.

If your provider thinks your symptoms could be caused by physical problems with your brain or nerves, you may have a neurological exam or imaging tests of your brain.

If your child is having a mental health screening, the test will be geared to your child's age and abilities. You may be asked to fill out a questionnaire about your child's behavior.

The screening may be done by your child's primary care provider or a mental health provider who works with children and teenagers. Your child's provider may also order medical tests to look for physical causes of mental disorders. Some schools provide mental health screening services.

Will I need to do anything to prepare for a mental health screening?

You usually don't need any special preparations for a mental health screening. If your child is having a screening, you may be asked to keep notes on your child's behavior for a few days before the test.

Are there any risks to screening?

There is no risk to having a physical exam or taking a questionnaire.

There is very little risk to having a blood test. You may have slight pain or bruising at the spot where the needle was put in, but most symptoms go away quickly.

What do the results mean?

Usually, the provider who did the screening will explain the results. If the results show signs of a mental health disorder, the next steps depend on the type of disorder and how serious it may be. If a primary care provider did the screening, the provider may:

  • Talk with you about treatments
  • Order tests to check for other health problems that may be causing symptoms
  • Refer you or your child to a mental health provider

A mental health provider may do more tests to confirm a diagnosis and help develop a treatment plan. Starting treatment as soon as possible may improve the chance of recovery.

Learn more about laboratory tests, reference ranges, and understanding results.

Is there anything else I need to know about a mental health screening?

There are many types of mental health providers who treat mental disorders. Your or your child's primary health care provider or school can help you find the right support.

These are some of the providers who have training to treat mental health disorders:

  • Psychiatrists are medical doctors who specialize in mental health. Psychiatrists can prescribe medicine.
  • Psychologists generally have doctoral degrees, but they do not have medical degrees. They can't prescribe medicine unless they have a special license. Some psychologists work with providers who can prescribe medicine. Psychologists may use one-on-one counseling and/or group therapy sessions.
  • Psychiatric-mental health nurses are nurses with special training in mental health problems. Nurses who may have a master's or doctoral degree in psychiatric-mental health nursing include, advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs), certified nurse practitioners (CNPs), and clinical nurse specialists (CNSs). In some states, certain nurses can prescribe medicines.
  • Licensed clinical social workers have at least a master's degree in social work with special training in mental health. They can't prescribe medicine, but may work with providers who can prescribe medicine. Providers who are licensed clinical social workers usually have LCSW or LICSW after their names.
  • Licensed professional counselors (LPC) may also be called clinicians or therapists. States have different names of these licenses, such as LMFT (licensed marriage and family therapist). These professionals usually have a master's degree in a field related to mental health. They can't prescribe medicine but may work with providers who can prescribe.


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  2. American Psychiatric Nurses Association [Internet]. Falls Church (VA): American Psychiatric Nurses Association; Psychiatric Mental Health Nurses; [cited 2022 Oct 12]; [about 1 screen]. Available from:
  3. American Psychological Association [Internet]. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Services Inc.; c2022. Distinguishing Between Screening and Assessment for Mental and Behavioral Health Problems; [2014 Dec; cited 2022 Oct 18]; [about 3 screens]. Available from:
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Children's Mental Health [updated 2022 Jun 3; cited 2022 Oct 12]; [about 3 screens]. Available from:
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Learn About Mental Health [updated 2021 Jun 28; cited 2022 Oct 12]; [about 2 screens]. Available from:
  6. Giardino A. Pediatric Depression Workup. [Update 2017 Nov 15; cited 2022 Oct 18]. In Medscape eMedicine:Drugs & Disease [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): WebMD LLC; c. 1994-2022. Available from:
  7. [Internet]. Washington D.C.: Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Get Your Teen Screened for Depression; [updated 2022 Jul 15; cited 2022 Oct 18]; [about 5 screens]. Available from:
  8. Johns Hopkins Medicine [Internet]. The Johns Hopkins University, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, and Johns Hopkins Health System; c2022. Health: Blood Test; [cited 2022 Oct 18]; [about 3 screens]. Available from:
  9. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998–2022. Mental health providers: Tips on finding one; [cited 2022 Oct 12]; [about 5 screens]. Available from: https://www.
  10. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998–2022. Mental illness: Diagnosis and treatment; [cited 2022 Oct 12]; [about 11 screens]. Available from:
  11. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998–2022. Mental illness in Children: Know the Signs; [cited 2022 Oct 18]; [about 7 screens]. Available from:
  12. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998–2022. Mental illness: Symptoms and causes; [cited 2022 Oct 12]; [about 7 screens]. Available from:
  13. Michigan Medicine: University of Michigan [Internet]. Ann Arbor (MI): Regents of the University of Michigan; c1995–2022. Mental Health Assessment; [updated 2022 Feb 9; cited 2022 Oct 12]; [about 6 screens]. Available from:
  14. [Internet]. Washington (DC): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; What to Look For; [updated 2022, Mar 10; cited 2022 Oct 10]; [about 2 screens]. Available from:
  15. National Alliance on Mental Illness [Internet]. Arlington (VA): NAMI; c2022. Warning Signs and Symptoms; [cited 2022 Oct 12]; [about 2 screens]. Available from:
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  17. National Institute of Mental Health [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Child and Adolescent Mental Health; [reviewed 2021 May; cited 2022 Oct 18]; [about 5 screens]. Available from:
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Types of mental disorders

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  2. Psychiatry
  3. Types of mental disorders
  4. Types of mental disorders

Aggressive behavior

accompanies many mental illnesses. Manifested in hostility, threats and attacks. If these symptoms arose in a person for the first time and are generally not characteristic of him, most likely, he needs to immediately consult a psychiatrist. In other cases of aggressive behavior (especially - unreasonable) consultation with a psychiatrist is also desirable.

Apathy of the mentally ill

a state of indifference, detachment, loss of interest and desire to do something. It is often a manifestation of depression, while it is painfully experienced. If apathy does not burden the patient, then this may be a manifestation of another mental or neurological disease.


Autism is a condition in which a person lives in an internal or unreal (virtual) world, and not in real events. Close such a person is seen as closed, uninterested in what is happening around, closed. The world of fantasy overlaps reality, and therefore a person with autism is cold and indifferent to the people around him, including those close to him. An autistic person is often not burdened by the difficulties of social interaction and communication disorders. Autism occurs both in childhood and in adulthood, and in adults it can be not only a “continuation” of childhood autism, but also a consequence of a developed mental disorder. nine0003

Delirium tremens (delirium)

occurs mainly in patients with alcoholism, at the second or third stage of the disease. It is important to note that delirium occurs more often not in intoxication, but on the 2nd-3rd day of abstinence from alcohol after drinking (at the peak of the withdrawal syndrome). It is characterized by confusion, increased body temperature, disorientation, agitation, vision of various hallucinatory images. For patients with delirium tremens, hallucinatory images of moving animals (running rats, cockroaches, gnomes, etc.) are characteristic. Patients attract attention to themselves by their behavior: they are agitated, excited, try to catch hallucinatory images or brush them off, shake them off themselves, often talk to them. nine0007 Delirium tremens is also possible in non-drinkers, especially in children and the elderly with diseases that occur with a high temperature. Thus, delirium tremens is a sign of intoxication of the body.


in chronically current mental disorders is an indicator of deterioration in mental well-being, since it often appears before all other symptoms.

Crazy ideas (strange judgments, delirium)

are most often perceived by close and surrounding people as strange judgments that do not correspond to reality. At the same time, a person with delusions cannot be persuaded, even if he does not know what to object to attempts to persuade him. Crazy ideas don't need proof. It is rather "knowledge", conviction. Because of this, the behavior of a person with delusional ideas is determined by the content of these ideas. According to the content, the main forms of delusions can be divided into delusions of persecution (what is popularly called “persecution mania”: the patient is pursued by special services or other organizations, they try to poison or rob relatives or neighbors; people on the street somehow in a special way, look unfriendly and whisper about him), delusions of grandeur (the patient is the heir to the royal family, the inventor of the time machine or the law of immortality, the ruler of the world, sometimes the messenger of God or God himself, or the devil, etc. ) and delusions of self-abasement (accusing oneself of sins, numerous errors, delirium of a physical defect). A patient with delusional judgments needs to be treated by a psychiatrist. nine0003

Excitement or agitation

frequent and rather dangerous signs of mental disorders. Accompany anxiety, depression, psychotic states. With motor arousal in depressed patients, one should be on the alert: suicidal actions are possible. You should also be especially attentive to patients with psychotic arousal: impulsive (unpredictable), including aggressive actions are frequent, which can be dangerous both for the patient and for his environment. nine0003


perception of something that is not really there. Hallucinations are:
- visual (a person "sees" something that is not there: animals running around the house, people, paintings, sometimes whole panoramas: landscapes, battles),
- auditory (a person "hears" extraneous sounds - music, rustles , voices; at the same time, sounds can be localized both in external space: from the corner of the room, behind the wall, from the street, and inside the head, less often - another part of the body),
- olfactory (perception of foreign odors, more often - unpleasant)
- gustatory (strange, often unpleasant taste sensations)
- tactile (for example, sensation on the skin of "crawling" insects; accompanied by scratching, is a sign of serious intoxication)

Dementia (dementia)

, deterioration in the ability to judge and infer. It usually occurs in old age. It can begin imperceptibly: with difficulty remembering words, narrowing the scope of attention, a slight change in mood (quick transitions from tearfulness to joy and back). The character gradually changes: the person becomes more stubborn, but at the same time more suggestible. The vocabulary is depleted, the stock of knowledge is depleted. The most common cause of dementia is damage to the cerebral vessels by an atherosclerotic process, as a result of which the vessels become narrower and blood flow to the brain tissues worsens. Having noticed in time, such changes can be stopped by properly selected therapy (which will also be the prevention of strokes). However, you should be careful if someone close to you has such changes in adulthood and unfolds very quickly: this may be a more complex disease (for example, Alzheimer's disease). nine0003

Dysmorphophobia / dysmorphomania

experiences, the content of which is the belief in one's own physical inferiority: a cosmetic defect, overweight, bad smell, in a word, a repulsive appearance. If a defect in appearance really does take place, and in a person’s life this circumstance is predominant, then we are talking about dysmorphophobia (a neurotic level of disorder). If there is actually no defect in appearance, or it is, but not so significant, and at the same time the person is downright convinced of his own ugliness, is seized by ideas of a physical defect, goes to doctors and even undergoes surgery with plastic surgeons, or falls into anorexia ( when convinced of excessive fullness), then here we are talking about dysmorphomania (delusional level of disorders). nine0003


state of increased concern about one's health. In this case, the disease of the body may or may not be present. A person suffering from hypochondria, as a rule, is afraid of a specific disease, but can also "generally" feel sick and "find" various diseases in himself (Moliere's "imaginary patient"). He constantly listens to his inner feelings and cannot experience pleasure simply from the process of life. In general, hypochondria can be described as "the experience of Illness." nine0003

Treatment of anorexia

stubborn desire to limit oneself in food intake in order to lose weight. Often accompanied by the induction of artificial vomiting after eating, overly active physical exercises, taking large doses of laxatives. It occurs both with increased and with normal body weight. It is observed more often in girls. It is important to note that at first, anorexic behavior is carefully hidden from others, and is recognized by loved ones already at the stage of severe exhaustion. nine0003

Treatment of bulimia

How do you know if a person has bulimia? Often a person does not admit to the last that he overeats, tries to keep his addiction a secret. He is sure that he can solve the problem of nutrition on his own, by an effort of will. Signs of bulimia. Wolf hunger is a condition in which there is an uncontrolled intake of a huge amount of food. The lack of selectivity in food is characteristic, while saturation is not felt. As a rule, it occurs after a period of strict food abstinence, and, in fact, is the “back side” of anorexia. nine0003

Treatment of chronic depression

Not all depression can be cured by psychotherapy alone. Sometimes a temporary intake of specially selected drugs is required. Signs of the severity of depression are: suicidal tendencies, a feeling of despair, self-accusatory statements, anxious arousal, a feeling of general bodily change, physically experienced longing, as well as a painful loss of emotions (love, joy, compassion).

Persecution mania

without good reason are signs of a mental disorder. Such patients often hide their experiences, and then these disorders can be suspected by their behavior: a wary look, anxiety, fearfulness, absent-mindedness, window coverings, listening to something. nine0003

Unexplained somatic complaints

it happens (and more often lately) that a person feels physically ill, but no doctor finds a pathology in him. In this case, consultation with a psychiatrist is necessary: ​​depression, neurosis, and an unresolved internal conflict may be hidden behind inexplicable somatic complaints.

Sloppiness (neglect of hygiene)

occurs in patients with depression, psychoses, as well as in chronically current mental illnesses (schizophrenia, progressive dementia). nine0003


Fatigue can be a sign of both physical illness and mental illness. It is often noted in disorders of the depressive circle, while the patient may not feel a noticeable decrease in mood, but feels increasing lethargy, fatigue, inability to cope with the usual stress.

Memory loss

is typical for the elderly, as well as those who have suffered severe traumatic brain injury, patients with alcoholism. It is a sign of a brain disease (vascular damage by atherosclerosis, atrophic processes in the cerebral cortex, past brain injuries, alcohol intoxication). nine0007 In vascular diseases in the elderly, forgetfulness of current and recent events and facts is characteristic, inability to learn new things. At the same time, the memory of long-standing events can remain intact for a very long time.
With atrophic processes in the brain, memory loss can be very rapid and abrupt. In this case, the onset of the disease in adulthood (45-55 years) is possible. In such cases, you should not delay contacting a specialist.


is a fairly severe disorder of mental activity, the treatment of which is carried out mainly by medication. Family members of the affected person may seek help for unexplained behavioral changes, including bizarre or threatening behavior (withdrawal, suspicion, threats). Signs that should alert in terms of the development of a psychotic state: hallucinations (false or imagined sensations, for example, perceiving voices when no one is around), delusions (uncorrectable deliberately false beliefs, for example, the patient may be sure that he is being poisoned neighbors, that he receives messages from television or that he is being watched in a special way), agitation or unusual behavior, strange statements, sudden changes or instability of the emotional state. It should be noted that upon leaving the psychotic state, patients need psychotherapeutic assistance aimed at forming a critical attitude towards their disorders, improving socialization, and learning to recognize the first signs of a deterioration in mental well-being (prevention of recurrent psychoses). nine0003

Latent depression

acts not as a clear depression of mood and other mental functions, but as an internal bodily ill-being affecting various organs, functions, systems. Thus, depression can disguise itself as diseases of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and nervous systems. The well-known “pain of unclear etiology” (a diagnosis often encountered in the practice of therapists) often has the same nature.


an oppressive painful feeling, which is often experienced as a "tightness", heaviness in the chest. Longing is much more intense than such worldly emotions as sadness or sadness. It often happens with depression and can occur without a significant reason. nine0003

Anxiety in psychiatry

Uncertainty, suspense, feeling that something is about to happen. In other words, it is an emotional experience characterized by discomfort from the uncertainty of perspective. This is the most important human emotion, closely related to the need for security. Anxiety is sometimes felt bodily, like itching, excitement in the chest, internal trembling, and is often combined with motor excitement.

Epileptic seizure

in its most typical form is characterized by an abrupt onset: a person screams, loses consciousness, falls, then sharply strains, sometimes turns blue, followed by convulsions. After a seizure, a person is usually lethargic, lethargic and drowsy. This is the so-called convulsive seizure. However, often epileptic seizures are non-convulsive in nature, occur without a fall and may escape the attention of the patient's relatives. Signals indicating the need to see a doctor are:
- any sharp falls with loss of consciousness (even without convulsions),
- a tendency to suddenly "freeze" and "turn off" (sometimes for seconds, while stereotypical movements of the arms, head, facial muscles of the face are possible; this feature can be observed during a conversation , performing daily activities),
- loss of memory of some events, facts when a person was not drunk, could walk, perform some actions, which he later cannot remember anything about.

It should be noted that the presence of epileptic seizures does not always indicate epilepsy as a disease. Convulsive and non-convulsive seizures can be a consequence of brain damage (traumatic brain injury, consequences of alcohol intoxication, and in young children, convulsions are the only non-specific response of the body to many stimuli, in particular, an increase in body temperature). nine0007

  • About psychiatry
  • Types of psychiatric disorders
  • Severe mental disorders
  • Symptoms of disorders
  • Psychiatric diseases
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  • Treatment for paranoia

11 most common mental disorders

Komsomolskaya Pravda

HEALTH medical news


August 23, 2021 23:23

According to the World Health Organization. Check your cockroaches in your head

Photo: Ekaterina MARTINOVICH

Only mind you, let's not be like Jay from the cult story "Three men in a boat, not counting the dogs" at the first more or less similar symptoms. Let us recall that he undertook to somehow study the medical reference book and unexpectedly came to the conclusion that "the only disease I did not find in myself was puerperal fever ".

The diagnosis is made only by a doctor. And only after a series of analyzes and studies. So no self-diagnosis.

And now let's find out what it actually is, a mental disorder. In a nutshell, this is a violation of brain function, which can be caused by both external and internal causes. Often these reasons are interrelated. The causes of such disorders can be not only hereditary factors, but also head injuries, birth injuries, drug and drug poisoning, brain damage by infections, and even such unexpected moments as, for example, starvation, radiation, conflicts, and so on. Here are the 11 most common mental disorders in the world. nine0003


Its main symptom is fear of specific situations or objects that usually do not cause excessive fear in themselves, for example, a spider or a height.

Phobia (in other words, fear) is often accompanied by sweating, tachycardia, depression, as well as panic attacks, darkening of the eyes, a state of horror. A test for anxiety and phobias, the so-called "Zang Self-Rating Anxiety Scale", is often used to identify a phobic disorder. nine0174 Read: Our seven main fears.

We cope with the fear of heights in a wind tunnel - a transparent cylinder, inside which air is driven away with the help of a powerful fanPhoto: Ekaterina SEREDAVINA

Such people may take out their anger on others, have problems with work and in relationships, they often have mood swings and anxiety. At the same time, people are not critical enough to their behavior. nine0003

The development of these disorders begins in early youth and continues throughout life. Such patients often have a high level of intelligence. And the cause of a personality disorder can be not only genetics, but also improper upbringing or environment. This category includes paranoid personality disorder, affective disorders, schizoid personality disorder, emotionally unstable personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, and so on. nine0003



May be the result of both immediate exposure (often acute intoxication) and the result of prolonged exposure to alcohol. An alcoholic can drink himself into psychosis or dementia. The same goes for drug addiction.

It must be admitted that both such addictions are chronic diseases and can only go into remission. Therefore, treatment should be long and diverse. There are drugs that relieve cravings for alcohol, even cause disgust, but it seems to many alcoholics that if they got off the binge, then they were cured. This is not true. nine0003


In other words, unwanted thoughts and obsessive actions. Such people are often unsure whether they have locked the doors, turned off the lights, constantly checking something, knocking on wood, succumbing to superstitions, afraid to step on the manhole cover. Often there are exaggerated fears of contamination from contact with people or household items. Such thoughts (physicians call them obsessional) cause anxiety, are repeated and begin to be perceived as reality. nine0003

A person's life becomes a nightmare. An example can be given when a patient washed his hands 60 times before lunch so as not to become infected, and was still afraid. Another patient could not get to work, because he constantly returned home to check if the gas was turned on.


This term refers to a decrease in intelligence for various reasons. The course of the disease is usually gradual, and extremely rarely - sudden. It is characterized by fatigue, weakness, decreased performance, absent-mindedness, memory impairment. The most common diseases in this group are Alzheimer's, Pick's, Parkinson's, and Wilson's diseases. nine0003

The treatment of such brain diseases is currently faced with a number of complications. And first of all, not because it is difficult to treat, but because it is difficult to diagnose. Read: The likelihood of dementia and early aging depends on your blood type

The "Iron Lady" died at the age of 88 from Alzheimer's disease. See photo gallery: Margaret Thatcher: Remembering the Iron Lady of World Politics


This group of disorders is the result of tragic experiences and abrupt changes in life. There is a response to a mental trauma associated with a risk to life. It can occur after a natural disaster, the loss of a loved one, a serious crime, a social upheaval, such as a terrorist attack.

The patient again and again returns memories of the event experienced, he is haunted by anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, sometimes aggressive tendencies or suicidal thoughts appear. nine0003

The same group includes phenomena that doctors have given the names "Vietnamese", "Afghan" or "Stockholm" syndromes. Read: 10 causes of stress in urban residents


7. Neurasthenia

It is often confused with hysteria, which is a gross mistake. Neurasthenia is essentially an asthenic neurosis, it occurs as a result of exhaustion of the nervous system during prolonged mental or physical overload. And unlike hysteria, it occurs more often in men than in women. It develops with prolonged physical overstrain (when there is a lot of work, insufficient sleep, lack of rest), frequent stressful situations, personal tragedies, prolonged conflicts. Somatic diseases and chronic intoxication can contribute to the occurrence of neurasthenia. nine0003

Neurasthenia is accompanied by headache, feeling of weakness, fatigue, tension, insecurity, irritability, sleep disturbances, dizziness, indigestion.



Belongs to the category of psychoses. The disease affects several components of the psyche: mental, emotional, behavioral and the entire set of mental functions. There are different forms of schizophrenia (catatonic, simple, paranoid). Accordingly, the symptoms may vary, however, the most common are hallucinations, negativism, isolation, apathy. nine0174 Read: Scientists have counted eight types of schizophrenia

At the same time, schizophrenia, although it has some hereditary relationship, cannot be called a purely genetic disease. Sometimes perfectly healthy parents without any mental family history give birth to children who, already in adolescence, fall ill with pubertal schizophrenia.

Photo: Andrey GREBNEV


The disease is also known as manic-depressive psychosis. A fairly common disease with alternating depressive and manic phases. Some well-known actors and singers suffered from this disease P read: Catherine Zeta-Jones again treats bipolar disorder

You can recognize the disease by first elevated mood, increased motor and speech activity of the patient, people of this type talk a lot, joke, laugh, take on a lot of things . .. And then like this but sharply "fall off". They cannot concentrate. And as a result, many of their undertakings end in nothing.


The most frequent sexual deviations are exhibitionism, voyeurism, frotterism, pathological sexual aggressiveness, transvestism, masochism, sadism, telephone hooliganism for sexual gratification. nine0003


The disease is common among girls, and today even in boys at a young age. Varieties of this disease are anorexia and bulimia. H Itite: 5 stars suffering from anorexia

Model Isabelle Karo in social advertising "No anorexia"

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March 15, 2021




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