Why was vincent van gogh depressed

Bipolar, Schizophrenia, or Something Else?

More than a century after his passing, researchers are still trying to unravel the mystery of the legendary painter’s mental health.

Share on PinterestA visitor looks the painting ‘Self Portrait with Bandaged Ear (Autoportrait a l’oreille bandee)’ (1889) by Dutch painter Vincent Van Gogh during the press visit of the exhibition ‘The Courtauld Collection: A Vision for Impressionism’ at the Fondation Louis Vuitton in Paris on February 15, 2019. – The exhibition, running from February 20 to June 17, 2019, presents the collection of the British industrialist and art patron Samuel Courtauld. The collection, one of the most significative of Impressionist painters, is shown in Paris for the first time in 60 years. (Photo by FRANCOIS GUILLOT / AFP) / RESTRICTED TO EDITORIAL USE – MANDATORY MENTION OF THE ARTIST UPON PUBLICATION – TO ILLUSTRATE THE EVENT AS SPECIFIED IN THE CAPTION (Photo credit should read FRANCOIS GUILLOT/AFP via Getty Images)

Post-Impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh is one of the most influential and celebrated artists of all time. But among mental health experts, his life and legacy hold a different significance.

Arguably one of the most famous examples of an artist who experienced public challenges with mental illness, most experts agree that van Gogh lived with psychosis in some form.

But psychosis is a symptom of other disorders, not a diagnosis in itself.

The question of what condition the artist may have had has been the subject of speculation for decades. Doctors, psychologists, and historians alike have tried — and largely failed — to come to a consensus.

In 2016, Amsterdam’s Van Gogh Museum hosted a symposium of 35 psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, doctors, and art historians to debate van Gogh’s possible diagnoses. Experts examined van Gogh’s life and mental health using evidence from his:

  • paintings and artwork
  • writings
  • personal documents

Though the discussion of van Gogh’s mental health may never be settled, researchers believe they’re closer than ever to pinpointing mental health conditions the artistic genius may have lived with.

Born to a poor family in the Netherlands in 1853, van Gogh became seriously interested in art at the age of 15 when he began working at his uncle’s art dealership. By his 20s, van Gogh was painting regularly.

Despite his renown today, van Gogh did not see success as an artist in his lifetime, and largely lived in poverty.

Van Gogh experienced a breakdown at age 20 after the woman he loved rejected his marriage proposal. But it wasn’t until his 30s that his mental health took a dramatic downturn.

On December 23, 1888, van Gogh famously cut off his own ear after an argument with his friend and roommate, Paul Gauguin. Less than 2 years later on July 29, 1890, van Gogh died at age 37 as a result of injuries from a self-inflicted gunshot wound he sustained 2 days earlier.

Since then, many medical and psychological theories attempted to explain what van Gogh may have experienced.

Van Gogh chronicled many of his mental health symptoms in the letters he wrote. His symptoms were also described in the official register at the Saint-Rémy asylum where Van Gogh admitted himself in 1889.

Some of the psychiatric symptoms the artist likely experienced included:

  • hallucinations
  • nightmares
  • insomnia
  • anxiety
  • “absent-mindedness,” or memory loss

Van Gogh also experienced physical symptoms, including:

  • digestive problems
  • erectile dysfunction
  • seizures

Documents from the time also suggest that van Gogh periodically went into a “stupor,” described as unresponsiveness. Experts believe it’s possible that this could have been a form of catatonia.

For decades, experts and researchers have offered alternative theories about what conditions van Gogh may have lived with.


After van Gogh cut off his ear in December 1888, he was diagnosed by his physician with “acute mania with generalized delirium” and “mental epilepsy”. The artist himself reportedly also believed that he had this condition.

Epilepsy is a neurological condition causing abnormal brain activity that can result in seizures.

Epilepsy commonly occurs alongside other mental health conditions, including depression and anxiety, and can also sometimes cause psychosis.

Bipolar disorder

Because van Gogh reportedly experienced periods of high energy and productivity, often followed by episodes of depression and extreme fatigue, many experts have theorized that the artist lived with bipolar disorder.

In a 2020 analysis of van Gogh’s mental health, three art historians concluded that he most likely developed bipolar disorder as a young adult. In addition to extreme shifts in mood, bipolar disorder can also cause other symptoms van Gogh reportedly lived with, including:

  • psychosis
  • insomnia
  • memory problems

Borderline personality disorder (BPD)

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a personality disorder that affects a person’s mood and behavior.

In a 2000 analysis, the Dutch psychiatrist Erwin van Meekeren argued that van Gogh likely lived with this disorder. Van Meekeren, who wrote the book “Starry Starry Night: Life and Psychiatric History of Vincent van Gogh,” pointed out that most experts base their diagnoses on van Gogh’s most extreme symptoms.

But according to van Meekeren, van Gogh showed signs of BPD throughout most of his life, including:

  • impulsivity
  • intense fear of abandonment
  • unstable self-image

In a 2020 assessment, experts concluded that although BPD couldn’t necessarily explain van Gogh’s symptoms, it was most likely an underlying cause of another condition for van Gogh, such as bipolar disorder.

Alcohol withdrawal

Many historians and doctors have speculated that van Gogh may have experienced symptoms of alcohol withdrawal due to alcohol use disorder (AUD).

Van Gogh became increasingly dependent on alcohol in the late 1880s, and was forced to quit “cold turkey” during multiple hospital stays between 1888 and 1889. Findings from a 2020 study showed that van Gogh was diagnosed with “delirium” after one hospital admittance, likely caused in part by alcohol withdrawal.

Researchers argue that the symptoms van Gogh experienced during these years may be signs of alcohol withdrawal, such as:

  • hallucinations
  • anxiety
  • nightmares
  • seizures


Although van Gogh’s history of mental illness has frequently been associated with schizophrenia over the years, researchers and experts have largely ruled out a possible diagnosis.

Van Gogh’s episodes of psychosis were brief and punctuated by periods of complete recovery. However, people with schizophrenia don’t typically experience this type of periodic remission.

Van Gogh syndrome is an unofficial term for repetitive self-mutilation, inspired by van Gogh’s most infamous episode of self-harm when he cut off his ear in 1888.

However, van Gogh syndrome is not recognized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). Experts are wary of using the term, since the definition of van Gogh syndrome is vague and lacks clear diagnostic markers.

Non-suicidal self-injury disorder

The closest diagnosis to van Gogh syndrome in the DSM-5 is non-suicidal self-injury disorder.

The criteria for this diagnosis are engaging in self-injury for at least 5 days with the intention of bodily harm, but not suicide, and can involve:

  • cutting
  • hitting or punching oneself
  • extreme scratching
  • more rarely, self-mutilation

Getting help for a crisis

If you think you or someone you know might have van Gogh syndrome or non-suicidal self-injury disorder, it’s important to seek help from a doctor or therapist immediately.

If you feel like you’re having a mental health emergency, you can:

  • Call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-8255 for English and 888-628-9454 for Spanish
  • Chat with professionals at Lifeline Chat
  • Text “HOME” to the Crisis Text Line at 741741
  • Check out Befrienders Worldwide or Suicide Stop if you’re not in the United States and need to find your country’s crisis hotline

If you decide to call an emergency number like 911, ask the operator to send someone trained in mental health, like Crisis Intervention Training (CIT) officers.

Vincent van Gogh’s story is a tragic one. Though considered one of the most influential and important artists of all time, van Gogh endured a deeply challenging life without success, fame, or fortune.

Some connect van Gogh’s legacy of artistic genius with his history of mental health challenges. The various conditions and symptoms the artist may have experienced continues to inspire and mystify experts, researchers, and historians today.

Accurately diagnosing someone no longer living with any condition is impossible. But thanks to letters written by van Gogh himself, as well as documents from his hospital stays and his own artwork, experts are closer than ever to drawing conclusions about his mental health and life.

Though van Gogh was diagnosed with epilepsy in his lifetime, doctors and historians believe the artist may have also lived with:

  • bipolar disorder
  • borderline personality disorder (BPD)
  • substance use disorder (SUD)

It’s likely that van Gogh lived with more than one — or some combination of — these disorders, as many commonly co-occur with each other.

No matter what conditions van Gogh may have had, modern medicine offers far more tools to diagnose and treat mental health disorders. If you think you may be experiencing a mental health disorder, or even a crisis, consider reaching out to a physician or therapist.

Not sure where to begin? Check out Psych Central’s guide to finding mental health support.

Vincent's Illness and the Healing Power of Art

Vincent's Illness and the Healing Power of Art

Vincent van Gogh was 35 years old when he cut off his left ear just before Christmas, 1888. It was the beginning of a period of uncertainty. Several severe crises and attacks followed, but it remained unclear what exactly Vincent was suffering from. Yet, it had a serious impact on his life.

How did Vincent deal with the uncertainties of his during this difficult time?


Vincent’s dream was to have his own artists’ community in his Yellow House in Arles. When his painter friend Paul Gauguin arrived in October 1888, this dream seemed to come true. At first, the artists worked happily side by side, but soon the situation deteriorated.

Discussions about art became more frequent, and sometimes heated. Vincent found it important to work from reality. Gauguin painted from memory, from his imagination.

Vincent van Gogh, The Yellow House (The Street), 1888

Vincent van Gogh, Portrait of Gauguin, 1888

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Vincent van Gogh, Gauguin’s Chair, 1888 / Vincent van Gogh, Van Gogh's Chair, 1888, The National Gallery, London

Difference of Opinion

The difference of opinion between the two friends is clearly visible in these two works. You could see them as portraits of the artists.

In Vincent’s painting Gauguin’s Chair, the lamp, candlestick, and the book refer to the nocturnal dream world, and therefore to the imagination. In Van Gogh’s Chair, the onions represent nature, i.e. painting from reality.

Report of the ear incident on the front page of the Forum Républicain, 30 December 1888.


The situation came to a head on 23 December, 1888. After a heated argument, Vincent, in utter confusion, cut off his left ear.

He wrapped his ear in paper and took it to a prostitute in the village. The girl fainted and the entire brothel was in commotion. They called the police, who found the artist at his home the following morning. Vincent was hospitalised, and Gauguin returned to . The dream was shattered.

There was an article in the local newspaper about the incident.


Vincent had been in hospital for less than a day when he was visited by his brother Theo. The latter had left Paris in a hurry and travelled by train to be with his brother. Vincent’s friends , and the Protestant minister Fréderic Salles from Arles also came to see him. During the months that followed, these men were Vincent’s constant companions in Arles.

At the hospital, Vincent was treated by assistant physician Dr Félix Rey. Despite Dr Rey’s , however, Vincent’s situation deteriorated. He even had to spend several days in solitary confinement.

The hospital’s main physician sent a certificate and letter to the mayor, stating that ‘Mr Vincent is suffering from insanity’. He recommended that Vincent be committed to a psychiatric hospital, ‘for the care that this unfortunate person is receiving at our institution is not sufficient to bring him to reason’.

Vincent van Gogh, Portret van Félix Rey, 1889, Poesjkin Museum, Moskou

Letter from Félix Rey to Irving Stone with drawings of Vincent van Gogh’s mutilated ear, 18 August 1930, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley


The question whether Van Gogh cut off his whole ear or only part of it, remained unanswered for a long time. However, due to these drawings by Dr Rey that were discovered recently, we now know for certain that Vincent cut off his entire ear.

Rey made the sketches for author Irving Stone in 1930. Stone was working on a novel about Vincent’s life. Commenting on the top drawing, Rey wrote, ‘The ear was cut off with a razor along the dotted line.’

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Slow Recovery

Fortunately, there was no need to commit Vincent to a psychiatric hospital then. He slowly recovered and was allowed to go home after two weeks. There, he tried to pick up the pieces and began painting again. He wrote to Theo, ‘…I didn’t know that one could break one’s brain and that afterwards that got better too.’

Vincent van Gogh, Still Life with a Plate of Onions, 1889, Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo.

In addition to two self-portraits of him with his bandaged ear, Vincent created this still life with onions.

He included mostly personal objects, such as his pipe and tobacco. Placed beside these are the envelope of a letter by his brother Theo, an empty bottle of absinthe, and a popular handbook that he consulted for self-medication.

Ill in Arles

Unfortunately, Vincent’s situation soon deteriorated again. More crises and hospitalisations followed. During the attacks, Vincent was utterly confused and had no idea what he was saying or doing. This affected not only him, but also the people around him.

His friends and family were worried, his neighbours had even become afraid of him. They started a petition to ensure that Vincent was locked up in a psychiatric hospital. In the petition, they declared he was 'not of sound mind, and is the subject of fear of all the residents of the neighbourhood'.

Vincent was very sad about this: ‘At least I have not harmed anyone and I am not dangerous to anyone,’ he told the Reverend Fréderic Salles.

Voluntary Admission

Vincent recovered, eventually, making a compulsory admission unnecessary. But he knew things couldn’t go on like this. Vincent wanted to stay in Arles, but no longer dared to live on his own.

In May 1889, he voluntarily had himself admitted to the Saint-Paul-de-Mausole psychiatric hospital in Saint-Rémy.

Vincent van Gogh, Garden of the Asylum, 1889

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A Year in the Psychiatric Institution

Accompanied by the Reverend Fréderic Salles, Vincent arrived at the psychiatric hospital on 8 May 1889. He would eventually spend a year there. ‘Mr Vincent was perfectly calm and explained his illness to the director himself.’ Dr Peyron entered Vincent’s information and his in the admissions register.

Painting as a Remedy

Initially, the rhythm and structure of life at the psychiatric hospital calmed Vincent down. He used another cell as his studio, and when he felt well enough, he was allowed to work outside the hospital.

Vincent’s studio overlooked the garden of the institution. He often worked there, producing the most beautiful drawings and paintings. Sometimes, he painted the garden as a whole, sometimes he created close-ups of flowers, plants, and all kinds of small creatures he found there.

Painting was the best remedy for his psychiatric disorder, but he couldn’t work during attacks and indeed wasn’t allowed to. Doing nothing was unbearable for Vincent.

Vincent van Gogh, Saint-Paul Asylum in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, 1889, Musée d’Orsay, Paris

Vincent van Gogh, Window in the Studio, 1889

Vincent van Gogh, Garden of the Asylum, 1889

Vincent van Gogh, Giant Peacock Moth, 1889

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A Candid Letter

In one of his letters to his brother Theo written at the institution, Vincent was candid about his psychiatric disorder and how he looked back on his difficult time in Arles:

To Theo van Gogh, Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, c. Thursday, 23 May 1889

‘Now the shock had been such that it disgusted me even to move, and nothing would have been so agreeable to me as never to wake up again. At present this horror of life is already less pronounced, and the melancholy less acute. But I still have absolutely no will...’

He also wrote about other people in the hospital. At first, Vincent was afraid of them. They could sometimes be heard shouting in the corridors. But in the end, the sight of and contact with these fellow patients offered him comfort and reassurance.

‘I observe in others that, like me, they too have heard sounds and strange voices during their crises, that things also appeared to change before their eyes. And that softens the horror that I retained at first of the crisis I had... Had I not seen other mad people at close hand I wouldn’t have been able to rid myself of thinking about it all the time.’

New Crises

During the first few months, Vincent did not suffer any new crises, increasing his hopes for recovery. But in July, things went badly wrong again. He was painting a quarry when he felt a new attack coming on. More crises followed.

The return of his condition made Vincent fearful and insecure. His hopes for a full recovery were dashed. ‘For many days I’ve been absolutely distraught, and it’s to be presumed that these crises will recur in the future, it is ABOMINABLE.’

Vincent van Gogh, Entrance to a Quarry, 1889

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Longing to Paint

The months that followed were marked by alternating periods of crises, recovery and health. Vincent had ‘little or no hope’ of ever getting better, but still longed to paint.

Thus, whenever he felt well enough, he continued to work. One of the works he painted during this period is this Pietà after a print of a painting by Delacroix. Perhaps Vincent identified himself with the recently deceased Christ? ‘… [I]n the very suffering religious thoughts sometimes console me a great deal,’ he wrote to Theo.

Célestin François Nanteuil, Pietà (after Delacroix), 1848-1852 // Vincent van Gogh, Pietà (after Delacroix), 1889.

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Vincent van Gogh, Doctor Gachet, 1890, private collection.

Time to Leave

Vincent began to feel increasingly trapped at the psychiatric hospital and wanted to leave as soon as possible.

After a year, in May 1890, he left for Auvers in northern France. There, he was closer to Theo, who lived in Paris. Dr Gachet from Auvers was asked to take care of him.

The Final Months

Vincent found it difficult to deal with the uncertainty about his future and illness. He felt lonely and depressed. Nevertheless, he was exceptionally productive in Auvers. Within a period of seventy days, he produced some 75 paintings and over a hundred sketches and drawings of the picturesque village and vast cornfields and forests surrounding it.

Nature gave him comfort and strength. And despite the uncertainty about his future, Vincent continued to believe in the healing power of painting.

You can read more about Vincent’s final months in Auvers in the story ‘The End of a Difficult Road’.


In Paris, Gauguin told his artist friend Bernard about the incident. Gauguin said that after their argument, Vincent came after him.

In his autobiographical novel Avant et Après, which Gauguin wrote later, he says that Vincent threatened him with a razor. Perhaps Gauguin protected Vincent earlier by remaining silent about the threat.

Joseph Roulin

Vincent van Gogh and Joseph Roulin had been good friends since the summer. They often went for a drink together, and Vincent portrayed his entire family.

Good Care

As a treatment, Dr Rey prescribed bromide, a sedative that was widely used as a medicine in the 19th century. Also, he recommended quinquina, a medicinal wine with cinchona bark extract that was used to treat fever.

Registration of Vincent’s admission to the asylum, 1889–90


Dr Peyron determined that Van Gogh was suffering from a form of epilepsy, accompanied by acute insanity and hallucinations. He based this on the diagnosis of the doctors in Arles and Vincent’s own description of his attacks.

His illness

Vincent spoke of ‘his illness’, nowadays we prefer to speak of his psychiatric disorder.

Dutch psychiatrists diagnosed Van Gogh

Irina Ziganshina

In an article on the genius artist's mental health, published in the International Journal of Bipolar Disorders, psychiatrists list his past problems, such as bipolar disorder, withdrawal symptoms, depression and epilepsy, reports The Guardian. nine0003

Vincent van Gogh died on July 29, 1890, two days after he shot himself in the stomach with a revolver while working in the fields. Since then, many medical and psychological hypotheses have been put forward as to what led the artist to attempt suicide.

Dutch researchers, led by Professor of Psychiatry Willem Nolen from the University of Groningen, have provided a scientific overview of Van Gogh's mental problems and his most likely diagnoses. To do this, they carefully studied the correspondence of the artist - 902 letters, 820 of which were written to his brother Theo and other relatives, and interviewed by three art historians considered Van Gogh experts.

Van Gogh's self-portrait, kept in the National Museum in Oslo, is considered by the authors of a new study to be one of the few evidences of the artist's severe mental problems.

In his youth, scientists believe, the artist probably developed bipolar disorder with signs of borderline personality disorder. Alcohol use combined with malnutrition worsened his condition, then psychosocial problems were added to this. Together, this led to a crisis that resulted in the ear cutting incident. After that, from December 1888 to May 1889year, Van Gogh was hospitalized three times in Arles, after which he was transferred to the hospital of Saint-Remy-de-Provence. During his hospitalizations, Van Gogh wrote in letters of "unbearable hallucinations", anxiety, and nightmares. “Mental or nervous fever or madness,” he wrote of his condition, “I don’t know exactly how to say about it and what word to call it.”

Researchers suggest that these symptoms were related to the forced withdrawal from alcohol. Two episodes of delirium associated with withdrawal were accompanied by a severe depression from which Van Gogh never recovered, and this eventually led to his suicide. nine0003

“Those who consume large amounts of alcohol in combination with malnutrition are at risk of impaired brain function, including psychiatric problems,” the researchers wrote. “Furthermore, stopping abruptly when drinking excessively can lead to withdrawal symptoms, including delirium.

It is therefore likely that at least the first case of brief psychosis in Arles, which occurred immediately after the ear incident, in which he probably stopped drinking abruptly, was in fact an alcohol withdrawal delirium. Only later, in Saint-Remy, when he was forced to reduce alcohol to a minimum or even completely give up alcohol, did he manage to solve this problem, and then he no longer had withdrawal symptoms. nine0003

Dutch researchers have debunked several popular theories about Van Gogh's mental health, including that he was schizophrenic, saying he didn't show symptoms like an emotional breakdown. They also suggest that Van Gogh was unlikely to have syphilis, although he was treated for gonorrhea, and Theo, according to some sources, died six months after the death of his brother precisely from this infection. In the papers of Van Gogh's doctors, scientists did not find any hints of syphilis.

However, according to the researchers, in the last months of his life, the artist could suffer from another disease - temporal lobe epilepsy, which led to "a very precarious state of mind, when anxiety, delirium and hallucinations succeeded each other." nine0003

The scientists summarize their research as follows: “Despite all these problems that contributed to illness, we would like to emphasize that Van Gogh was not only a great and very influential artist, but also an intelligent person with great willpower, stamina and perseverance. He probably had a strong physique. He was able to arouse compassion, and he himself felt compassion for those who were less fortunate. And he was a passionate man with a strong temperament. For many years he continued to paint, including in the most difficult periods of his life. Only during the most severe episodes of psychosis did he temporarily stop working. nine0003

Only a few paintings can be traced to his state of mind, for example, in a self-portrait kept in the Oslo Museum, which he painted at the end of a depressive episode in July-August 1889. As for the unfinished "Roots of the Tree", the last work that Van Gogh painted on the morning of the day he shot himself, the question often arises whether he depicted in this picture his struggle for life. But art historians consider this unlikely, rather this is the story that provides food for biographers. nine0003

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9006 Vincent van Gogh

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Suicide attempts are more common among people with bipolar disorder than among people with other types of depression. 10-19% of people with bipolar disorder attempt suicide, 80% of them decide to do so during the depressive phase of the disease. Van Gogh committed suicide at the age of 37 precisely in the depressive phase that followed immediately after the manic. nine0003

The transition between the two phases of his illness can probably be traced in the painting "A Field of Wheat with Guts" - this is one of the last works completed by the artist before his death.

The stormy black sky and stormy field depicted in the picture indicate depression and mania. Ravens seem to symbolize danger or hopelessness. The paths, perhaps, reflect not only Van Gogh's past, but also alternative directions that he could have taken during a difficult period of his life. With such an unreliable position in life, it would be difficult to find the right foothold. nine0003

In a letter, dated about 10 days before his suicide, he wrote: “The doomed vast fields of wheat under stormy skies... and I didn't have to go my own way, try to express sadness and excessive loneliness... I'm pretty sure that these pictures tell you what I can't put into words, restoring and stimulating your strength."

In Auvers-sur-Oise he acutely felt the absence of his brother Theo. Later, Van Gogh actually died in Theo's arms with the words: "That's exactly how I wanted to leave." After Vincent's death, Theo wrote to his mother: "Life weighed so heavily on him." nine0003

Bipolar disorder also causes an inability to rationally distribute work time, which undermines social relationships. Van Gogh experienced failure in every attempt he made while working in an organized structure. He did not realize himself as a dealer in paintings, a teacher, a religious figure and a member of an association of artists. In addition, he was irritable, intolerant in relations with management. Despite his passion for art, he also failed as an artist in an artists' association. He ruined his relationship with his father and other family members. He rather brazenly asked for money, relying on the patience and understanding of Brother Theo. Back in 1884, the Van Gogh brothers agreed among themselves: Theo pays 220 francs a month for Vincent's paintings, plus supplies him with brushes, canvases and paints of the highest quality. By the way, it is precisely because of this that the paintings of Van Gogh, unlike the works of Toulouse-Lautrec and Gauguin, which, due to lack of money, were painted on anything, are very well preserved. 220 francs is a quarter of the monthly salary of a doctor or lawyer. Van Gogh could not dress properly. He did not care about his health at all and his appearance was very emaciated. He did not do his hair, went unshaven, used swear words in his speech. Despite his good intentions, his love for his cousin Kay Vos turned into tactless behavior. In response to a declaration of love, the girl simply stated: "Never, no, never." Subsequently, Van Gogh assumed financial responsibility for the prostitute Siena and her two sons, although he may not have supported them financially. The artist had troubles with neighbors, sellers and creditors in almost every city where he lived. Individuals with bipolar disorder are likely to be 15 times more likely to belong to low-income populations. So, brother Theo also paid rent for Van Gogh. nine0003

We will never know how effective the modern pharmacotherapy (antidepressants, lithium, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, olanzapine) and psychotherapy (psychoeducational, group and social therapy) available today would have been and how this would have affected Van Gogh's life and his work . The creative process is a mystery connected with personal experiences, so it must be recognized that Van Gogh's disease and creative manifestations coexisted together. In his work, the artist sought to convey the grandeur of the surrounding nature, which is personified not only in the mysterious sky and inaccessible stars, flowers, portraits, but also in ordinary buildings, chairs and rooms. The bright colors heightened the experience. Perhaps manic and depressive states deepened his understanding of nature. Painting pictures at a certain period of his life, Van Gogh gives vent to emotions and enjoys the creative process. nine0003

Starry Night, one of his most famous paintings, may be an example of the healing effect of his art.

"Starry Night" painting - Vincent's memories of a mental breakdown in the Saint-Remy asylum. It evokes a feeling of calm reconciliation with the unknown forces and laws of nature.

Periods of severe mania and episodes of depression are classified as bipolar syndrome I (BS I), while periods of hypomania and episodes of depression are classified as bipolar syndrome II (BS II). The division of bipolar disorders into BS I and BS II does not have a specific pathogenetic background, but is clinically significant, since it allows identifying a “mild” bipolar with a risk of severe complications. Severe and frequent manifestations of pronounced mania had a devastating effect on artistic abilities, prevented Van Gogh from realizing the aesthetic needs, which was reflected in his letters to his brother Theo. Van Gogh's life is fully reflected in his paintings. Van Gogh more often suffered not pronounced episodes of mania, but periods of hypomania. nine0003

Only 2 years before his death, episodes of depression and hypomania in Van Gogh, which were provoked by alcohol abuse, resulted in psychotic crises. The correct definition of hypomania for experts and biographers was the key to understanding the diagnostic search in Van Gogh's case. According to the criteria for classifying hypomania, it is separated from periods of exaltation - a time of rapidly stormy mood and behavior that lasts at least 4 days. Other authors note that such periods last not 4, but about 2 days. However, such hyperactivity is the main symptom of hypomania, which manifested itself in Van Gogh not only in his paintings, but also in letters to his brother Theo. Attention is drawn to periods of hyperactivity and hypomania, which result in an emotional, euphoric state. Van Gogh during this period is characterized by strange ideas, expressed in verbosity and impulsive conversations. It is interesting that Van Gogh painted actively in those seasons when there was a lot of light - in spring and summer; this combination of hypomania and activity under the influence of light is known to be one of the components of the phenomenon of bipolar disorders. nine0003

In the last 2 years of his life, Van Gogh suffered psychotic crises, which were accompanied by megalomania and mostly auditory hallucinations. The differential diagnosis is usually made primarily with schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders (including bipolar disorders and schizoid disorders of the bipolar type), as well as with other diseases that may be accompanied by similar symptoms (epilepsy, porphyria, etc.).

Given the content of Van Gogh's letters, the researchers suggest that the cause of psychotic crises, which were accompanied by affective states (depression and mania), was alcohol abuse. The main argument in support of the diagnosis of affective disorders, and not schizophrenia, was the content of Van Gogh's letters, written long before his late psychotic syndrome, in which depressive disorders and hypomania can be traced. According to today's classification, there may be a combination of symptoms of a mood disorder (mania or depression) or psychosis, known as schizoaffective syndrome. For example, a three-month crisis (February - April 1890) for this duration of the crisis (more than 2 weeks) may correspond to the category of schizoaffective disorders of the bipolar type. The diagnosis of bipolar schizoaffective disorders is characterized by the fact that during a crisis, psychotic symptoms (depression or hypomania) are not pronounced. There is not enough historical evidence to determine the nature of Van Gogh's psychotic crisis. However, the diagnosis of van Gogh's bipolar-type schizoaffective disorders is possible, since more evidence is in favor of bipolar episodes of a psychotic crisis (affective or schizoaffective) than in favor of pure schizophrenia. nine0003

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• Ornament in Russian folk clothes
• Arrangement of paintings on the wall
• Meaning and application of PVC compounds in painting
• Museum and auction ART4
• Unique interior thanks to modular paintings
• Unforgettable gifts: delightful watercolors and author's dolls
• Shakespeare studies
• These mysterious words
• Dead souls, Gogol
• Leonardo da Vinci, universal man
• Several paintings
• Socialist realism in Polish
• Wanderers. 19th Century Traveling Exhibition Fellowship
• Paintings by contemporary artists in contemporary interiors
• Steven Kasher Gallery to host an exhibition of over 25 vintage Andy Warhol photographs
• How to draw a human face

August 20,
In Moscow, the search for places of culture and recreation, as well as the cost of visiting them, increased by one and a half times

The 2GIS geoservice and the SberIndex laboratory recorded an increase in the interest of Russians in places of culture and recreation this summer. According to 2GIS, in June and July 2022, search requests for museums, parks, art galleries and exhibitions on the maps of major Russian cities increased by 38% compared to June-July 2021. nine0003

March 21
100 years since the birth of Irina Aleksandrovna Antonova

Pushkin Museum im. A. S. Pushkin celebrates 100 years since the birth of I.A. Antonova. On Sunday, March 20, 2022, in the center of Moscow, a memorial plaque was installed on the house where Irina Alexandrovna lived, and an updated exposition of the Director's Office hall opened in the Pushkin Museum and a series of concerts dedicated to the memory of I.A. Antonova. A special website has been launched, where a digital archive is collected, telling about the life of Irina Alexandrovna. nine0003

December 28
Charity Antique Bazaar in the Rarita Gallery

The mood of spiritual celebration awaits you at the New Year's Bazaar in the center of Moscow! Soviet New Year's toys, old books, porcelain, postcards, posters, engravings, badges, jewelry - all this can be tried on, touched, bought!

September 16
Pushkinsky, Tretyakovka, Garage and GES-2 united in the "Museum Four" united in the "Museum Four" (or M4). nine0003
Re-exposition in the Main building of the Pushkin Museum im.
A.S. Pushkin
Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts A.S. Pushkin Museum will hold exhibitions at the Russian Post
The Historical Museum has begun restoration of the building of the former Moscow City Duma on Revolution Square
The Pushkin Museum presents advertising posters of the London Underground from its collection at an exhibition in the Moscow Metro
Pushkin Museum opens for visitors
Born of a Legend by Tracy Deonne summary
Steve Kluger's Last Days of Summer summary
Highly Illogical Behavior by John Corey Whaley summary
Jude the Obscure by Thomas Hardy summary
The Lady Oracle by Margaret Atwood, summary
Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan, summary
Maya Angelou's Song Soared to Heaven, summary

Artificial intelligence in Italian museums will judge the popularity of artists by the facial expressions of visitors

Researchers hope that this technology will help organize exhibitions better, but creatives fear that it will contribute to the race for likes.

Learn more