What are long term effects of stress

Physical Effects of Stress on the Body

In this Article

Stress affects us all. You may notice symptoms of stress when disciplining your kids, during busy times at work, when managing your finances, or when coping with a challenging relationship. Stress is everywhere. And while a little stress is OK -- some stress is actually beneficial -- too much stress can wear you down and make you sick, both mentally and physically.

The first step to controlling stress is to know the symptoms of stress. But recognizing stress symptoms may be harder than you think. Most of us are so used to being stressed, we often don't know we are stressed until we are at the breaking point.

What Is Stress?

Stress is the body's reaction to harmful situations -- whether they’re real or perceived. When you feel threatened, a chemical reaction occurs in your body that allows you to act in a way to prevent injury. This reaction is known as "fight-or-flight” or the stress response. During the stress response, your heart rate increases, breathing quickens, muscles tighten, and blood pressure rises. You’ve gotten ready to act. It is how you protect yourself.

Stress means different things to different people. What causes stress in one person may be of little concern to another. Some people are better able to handle stress than others. And, not all stress is bad. In small doses, stress can help you accomplish tasks and prevent you from getting hurt. For example, stress is what gets you to slam on the brakes to avoid hitting the car in front of you. That's a good thing.

Our bodies are designed to handle small doses of stress. But, we are not equipped to handle long-term, chronic stress without ill consequences.

What Are the Symptoms of Stress?

Stress can affect all parts of your life, including your emotions, behaviors, thinking ability, and physical health. No part of the body is immune. But, because people handle stress differently, symptoms of stress can vary. Symptoms can be vague and may be the same as those caused by medical conditions. So it is important to discuss them with your doctor. You may have any of the following symptoms of stress.

Emotional symptoms of stress include:

  • Becoming easily agitated, frustrated, and moody
  • Feeling overwhelmed, as if you are losing control or need to take control
  • Having a hard time relaxing and quieting your mind
  • Feeling bad about yourself (low self-esteem), and feeling lonely, worthless, and depressed
  • Avoiding others

Physical symptoms of stress include:

  • Low energy
  • Headaches
  • Upset stomach, including diarrhea, constipation, and nausea
  • Aches, pains, and tense muscles
  • Chest pain and rapid heartbeat
  • Insomnia
  • Frequent colds and infections
  • Loss of sexual desire and/or ability
  • Nervousness and shaking, ringing in the ears, and cold or sweaty hands and feet
  • Dry mouth and a hard time swallowing
  • Clenched jaw and grinding teeth

Cognitive symptoms of stress include:

  • Constant worrying
  • Racing thoughts
  • Forgetfulness and disorganization
  • Inability to focus
  • Poor judgment
  • Being pessimistic or seeing only the negative side

Behavioral symptoms of stress include:

  • Changes in appetite -- either not eating or eating too much
  • Procrastinating and avoiding responsibilities
  • More use of alcohol, drugs, or cigarettes
  • Having more nervous behaviors, such as nail biting, fidgeting, and pacing


What Are the Consequences of Long-Term Stress?

A little stress every now and then is not something to be concerned about. But ongoing, chronic stress can cause or worsen many serious health problems, including:

  • Mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety, and personality disorders
  • Cardiovascular disease, including heart disease, high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, heart attacks, and strokes
  • Obesity and other eating disorders
  • Menstrual problems
  • Sexual dysfunction, such as impotence and premature ejaculation in men and loss of sexual desire in men and women
  • Skin and hair problems, such as acne, psoriasis, and eczema, and permanent hair loss
  • Gastrointestinal problems, such as GERD, gastritis, ulcerative colitis, and irritable colon


Help Is Available for Stress

Stress is a part of life. What matters most is how you handle it. The best thing you can do to prevent stress overload and the health consequences that come with it is to know your stress symptoms.

If you or a loved one is feeling overwhelmed by stress, talk to your doctor. Many symptoms of stress can also be signs of other health problems. Your doctor can evaluate your symptoms and rule out other conditions. If stress is to blame, your doctor can recommend a therapist or counselor to help you better handle your stress.

© 2021 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.

Photo Credit: Prostock-Studio / Getty Images


Department of Health and Human Services: "Stress and Your Health."

American Institute of Stress: "Effects of Stress."

Helpguide.org: "Understanding Stress."

How Stress Levels Are Measured

In this Article

Maybe it’s your demanding boss, morning gridlock, or relationship problems with a friend or family member. Whatever the cause, it’s likely you experience some level of stress on a daily basis.

But while some day-to-day stress is normal (and can even be a good thing if it motivates you), chronic, overwhelming stress can have a negative impact on your physical, mental, and emotional wellbeing. Knowing how to spot the signs and symptoms that you’re under too much stress can help you stay aware and address the issues before they harm your health.

Physical Signs

You might be overly stressed without even knowing it. Maybe you have certain physical symptoms and blame it on an illness or other condition. But the truth is, stress itself can cause problems in your organs, tissues, and just about every system in your body.

Depending on how you handle stress, you might have symptoms that affect everything from your hormones to your heart, and more.

Some of the physical signs that your stress levels are too high include:

Pain or tension in your head, chest, stomach, or muscles. Your muscles tend to tense up when you’re stressed, and over time this can cause headaches, migraines, or musculoskeletal problems.

Digestive problems. These can include diarrhea and constipation, or nausea and vomiting. Stress can affect how quickly food moves through your system and the way your intestines absorb nutrients.

Reproductive issues. Stress can cause changes to your sex drive, problems with irregular or painful periods in women, or impotence and problems with sperm production in men. Whether you’re a man or a woman, you might also feel reduced sexual desire when you’re under too much stress.

Changes to your heart rate and blood pressure. When you’re overwhelmed with stress, your body goes into “fight-or-flight” mode, which triggers your adrenal glands to release the hormones cortisol and adrenaline. These can make your heart beat faster and your blood pressure rise.

This usually happens when there’s a momentary stressor, and the effects pass once it’s over. For example, you might find your heart racing if you’re late for a meeting, but then it calms down once you’re there. However, over time, too many episodes of this kind of acute stress can cause inflammation in your arteries, which could be a contributing factor to heart attacks.

Mental and Emotional Signs

Stress can also affect how you think and feel, making it tough to get through your normal responsibilities and make rational decisions. In some cases, this kind of stress can impact behavior in other ways, and some people turn to drugs, alcohol, tobacco, or other harmful substances to cope with their feelings.

Excessive stress may also affect your appetite, causing you to eat more or less than usual, and it may affect or eliminate your motivation to exercise and stay fit. Additionally, the feelings you get when you’re stressed may make you feel like withdrawing from friends and family and isolating yourself.

Some of the psychological and emotional signs that you’re stressed out include:

  • Depression or anxiety
  • Anger, irritability, or restlessness
  • Feeling overwhelmed, unmotivated, or unfocused
  • Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much
  • Racing thoughts or constant worry
  • Problems with your memory or concentration
  • Making bad decisions

When to Get Help

If you’re struggling with stress and don’t know how to cope, you may want to seek help from a specialist. Your primary care doctor can be a good starting point. They can help you figure out if the signs and symptoms you’re experiencing are from a medical issue or an anxiety disorder.

They can also refer you to a mental health expert and provide you with additional resources and tools.

Some of the signs it’s time to get help:

  • Your work or school performance is suffering
  • You’re using alcohol, drugs, or tobacco to deal with your stress
  • Your eating or sleeping habits change significantly
  • You’re behaving in ways that are dangerous to yourself, including self-mutilation
  • You have irrational fears and anxiety
  • You have trouble getting through your daily responsibilities
  • You’re withdrawing from friends and family
  • You think about suicide or hurting other people

If your stress has gotten to the point that you’re thinking of hurting yourself or someone else, go to the nearest emergency room or call 911. You can also call one of the free suicide prevention helplines, including the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-8255. You don’t need to give your name.

© 2020 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.


HelpGuide.org: “Stress Symptoms, Signs, and Causes.”

The American Institute of Stress: “Stress Effects.”

Mayo Clinic: “Stress symptoms: Effects on your body and behavior.”

Cleveland Clinic: “Warning Signs of Emotional Stress: When to See Your Doctor.”

The effect of stress on the body | Blog Anti-Age Expert

Work, children, career, relationship difficulties - the list of sources of stress only gets longer over the years. And in moments of special experiences, the hypothalamus, the “checkpoint” of the brain, “turns on”. In tense situations, its task is to release stress hormones. At such moments, we feel how the heart is pounding, breathing quickens and muscles contract ...

This reaction of the body helps to protect it in an emergency, preparing it to react as quickly as possible. But when stress is repeated day after day, it is devastating to health.

Experts call stress the "silent killer." Let's figure out what its danger is and how to avoid serious consequences.

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What is stress

Stress is a natural physical reaction to life situations. Sometimes it is useful and even necessary, especially when an immediate or short-term response is required, such as in potentially dangerous circumstances. Your body responds to stress by increasing your heart rate and breathing rate and supplying oxygen to your muscles.

If this physiological response persists for weeks and stress levels remain high for longer than necessary, it can be detrimental to health.

However, in most cases, people do not pay attention to stress, while it takes a heavy toll on them. That is why it is important to know what its signs and symptoms are, as well as what the effect on the body is.

Types of stress

There are three types of stress: acute, episodic acute and chronic.

Let's see what their differences are:

  • Acute stress.

    It is the most experienced and arises as a result of the demands that we place on ourselves or others. Usually appears before an exciting moment, conflict, difficult situation, etc.

    To some extent, this type of stress can be positive because it stimulates motivation and can serve as a defense mechanism. However, if you cross the line, it can lead to exhaustion and serious health consequences, both physical and mental.

  • Chronic stress.

    This is the type of stress that most often affects people who find themselves in prisons, conditions of poverty, wars and circumstances that require constant vigilance.

    Chronic stress is the most serious and causes significant problems for the psychological health of people suffering from it.

  • Episodic acute stress.

    It affects people who set unrealistic goals for themselves and try to follow the requirements of society. Episodic acute stress is characterized by constant anxiety and a feeling of lack of control over the fulfillment of any requirement. A characteristic feature of people in episodic stress is anxiety about the future and a tendency to anticipate events.

Physical symptoms of stress

There are several typical signs of stress that can make themselves felt through physical well-being, namely:

  • Headache;

  • circulatory problems;

  • Cardiopalmus;

  • Voltage;

  • Abdominal pain;

  • Stomach upset;

  • sleep disorders;

  • Dizziness;

  • Frequent colds;

  • Poor or, conversely, increased appetite.

Psychological symptoms of stress

Stress is not limited to bodily manifestations. Here are his characteristic psychological symptoms:

  • Nervousness;

  • Hypersensitivity;

  • Feelings of helplessness and depression;

  • Pessimism;

  • Despondency;

  • Difficulty concentrating;

  • Forgetfulness or difficulty in facing new phenomena.

Due to such a variety of symptoms, stress can affect not only the state of health in general, but also all areas of life.

What factors provoke a state of stress

There are two types of factors that can cause stress:

  1. External stimuli: economic problems, family problems, overwork, fear, etc.

  2. Internal irritants: pain, illness, feelings of inferiority, sociological and other problems.

Causes of stress

More and more people are suffering from stress, especially in big cities where you have to live at high speeds.

The Whole Living Journal published a study revealing the main causes of stress:

  • Lack of money and financial obligations.

  • Work overload.

  • Lack of job satisfaction.

  • disharmony in personal relationships.

  • Family anxiety.

  • The inability to say "no".

  • Lack of free time.

  • Obsession with perfection.

  • Lack of motivation.

Regardless of the cause, it is very important to learn how to manage stress.

Stages of stress

There are 3 main stages of stress:

1. Mobilization phase. This is an immediate response to a dangerous or difficult situation. At this point, the heart rate increases, hormones such as cortisol are released, and the body receives an energetic boost of adrenaline to help it respond.

2. Resistance phase. After the first exposure to stress, the body needs to relax and return to normal. However, if we do not overcome the situation that generates stress, the body remains vigilant and gets used to high levels of blood pressure and hormones.

3. Exhaustion phase. At this stage, stress becomes chronic, and it becomes increasingly difficult for the body to deal with it. Its impact is felt emotionally and physically through various reactions:

Stressful situations happen to us inevitably, but if we find a way to deal with them, many of their negative effects can be avoided or at least reduced.

Health problems resulting from stress

Emotional overstrain can literally hit almost all organs and systems. Let's take a closer look at how stress affects our body.

  • Effect of stress on the muscular system. When we are under great stress, our muscles tense up as a physical reaction to the load. This automatic response is the body's way of protecting itself from pain and injury. Only when the initial stress passes does our musculoskeletal system begin to relax and release the accumulated tension.

    This buildup of tension can also lead to headaches and more severe migraine attacks. Most headaches, mild to moderate, are often caused by muscle tension in the head, neck, and shoulders.

    Over time, these stress-related pains can create a vicious cycle. Some people stop exercising because of these discomforts and take painkillers. However, due to inactivity, muscle atrophy can exacerbate chronic diseases of the musculoskeletal system. After all, the human body is designed to move and be active, which is why many doctors recommend exercise to reduce muscle tension and reduce stress-related strain on the musculoskeletal system.

  • Effects of stress on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. The long-term effects of stress generally lead to a wide range of cardiovascular problems. Stress hormones (adrenaline, norepinephrine, and cortisol) cause blood vessels to constrict to send more oxygen and energy to the muscles. But it also raises blood pressure. As a result, frequent or chronic stress causes the heart to work too hard and at too long intervals. The constant fight-or-flight response takes a toll on the human body, leading to an increased risk of stroke and heart attacks.

    In addition, ongoing acute stress can contribute to inflammation in the coronary arteries and vessels.

    Thanks to estrogen, women's blood vessels work better during times of increased stress, thereby protecting them from heart damage. However, postmenopausal estrogen levels are greatly reduced, and the female body becomes more susceptible to the effects of stress.

    Stress hormones also affect the respiratory system. During the physiological response to stress, breathing speeds up to distribute oxygen-rich blood throughout the body as quickly as possible. But if you have breathing problems like asthma or emphysema, stress can make your condition worse.

  • Effect of stress on the central nervous system. The central nervous system (CNS) is responsible for the body's reaction to danger ("fight or flight"). In the brain, the hypothalamus triggers a response, signaling the adrenal glands to release adrenaline and cortisol. These stress hormones speed up your heart rate in order to send more blood to your muscles, heart, vital organs, and other parts of the body that need it most in times of danger.

    When the situation is “taken under control”, the hypothalamus should, in theory, signal all of these systems to return to normal. But if this does not happen, or if the source of stress does not disappear, these physiological reactions continue.

    Chronic stress is also associated with behavioral disorders, including eating disorders, alcoholism, drug addiction, and social isolation.

  • Effect of stress on the digestive system. When you are under stress, the liver increases the production of blood sugar (glucose) to give the body an energy boost. But when it comes to chronic stress, the body cannot adapt to the frequent spikes in blood sugar. It is for this reason that chronic stress contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes.

    Elevated heart rate, rapid breathing, and stress hormones can also disrupt the digestive system. And because of the increased acidity in the stomach, the risk of acid reflux and heartburn increases. Note that stress alone does not cause ulcers, which are most commonly caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. However, stress increases the risk of developing an ulcer and can worsen an existing one.

    Increased nervous tension can also lead to diarrhea or constipation. Finally, people under stress can also suffer from nausea, vomiting, and indigestion.

  • Effects of stress on sexuality and the reproductive system. It exhausts both the body and the mind. Those under constant stress often experience a significant loss of libido. True, in humans, short-term stress increases testosterone production, but this effect is not sustainable. And with prolonged stress in men, testosterone levels can decrease. Therefore, it can disrupt sperm production and cause erectile dysfunction.

    Chronic stress also increases the risk of infections in the male reproductive organs, especially the prostate and testicles. In women, stress can disrupt the menstrual cycle, leading to irregular, heavier, and more painful periods. Chronic stress can also exacerbate the physiological symptoms of menopause.

  • Effect of stress on the immune system. It stimulates and strengthens the immune system, which is very useful in the face of immediate danger. In particular, strengthening your immune system can help you avoid infections and heal wounds faster. But over time, stress hormones can, on the contrary, weaken the immune system and, therefore, reduce the body's immune response to "invasions" from the outside.

Thus, people who are chronically stressed are more likely to contract viral illnesses such as the flu, colds, and other infections. Stress can also slow down the healing of various injuries and affect our emotional health.

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How stress can cause depression

It is perfectly normal to experience daily mood swings, ups and downs. But under conditions of chronic stress, the human mind is prone to depression. It happens when a by-product of stress hormones makes us feel tired or exhausted.

This feeling of low energy may persist and negatively affect the desire and ability to perform daily activities. This condition is known as "major depression".

Major depression symptoms:

  • Insomnia and other sleep problems.

  • Prolonged fatigue, feeling of loss of strength.

  • Increased irritability and arousal.

  • Significant changes in appetite.

  • Feeling worthless.

  • Feelings of guilt and self-hatred.

  • Feelings of hopelessness, which can lead to suicidal thoughts.

Those who suffer from major depression may develop other psychiatric disorders. If you are chronically stressed and have thoughts of self-destruction, seek help. This can either be a doctor or someone you trust and respect.

What makes stress worse

Stress can cause, and in some cases exacerbate, some health problems. For example, these:

  • Depression and anxiety.

  • Pain of any kind in any part of the body.

  • Sleep problems.

  • Autoimmune diseases.

  • Digestive problems.

  • Skin diseases, especially eczema.

  • Cardiovascular disease.

  • Weight gain or loss.

  • reproductive problems.

In addition, emotional overstrain can affect our behavior.

How stress affects behavior and personality

Stress hormones present in the body can damage brain cells. In particular, in the hippocampus, as well as in the frontal lobe. The hippocampus is the area responsible for memory retention, while the frontal lobe is responsible for vigilance (attention) and the use of judgment to solve various problems.

Obviously, those who are repeatedly stressed will subsequently have difficulties:

  • Problems with learning new things;

  • Preservation of newly acquired knowledge;

  • Poor self-discipline;

  • Low concentration;

  • Difficulty in making decisions.

Stress and anxiety go hand in hand. Many people who are stressed have some form of anxiety disorder.

What determines the body's resistance to stress?

Despite the fact that stress is harmful for everyone, the level of its tolerance varies from person to person. It depends on several factors:

  • “Support group”. A strong bond with family or friends can play an important role in coping with stress. A person who can rely on others is less stressed than a lonely person.

  • Feeling of control. If you are a confident person and believe that you are in control of your life, you are less likely to become a victim of chronic stress compared to a person who “goes with the flow” and blames circumstances for all his failures.

  • Worldview. Life outlook can protect you from chronic stress. If you are an optimistic and hopeful person who is ready to take on the challenges of life, you can easily prevent the harmful effects of stress on your emotional state and on your body.

  • Ability to deal with emotions. If you have the ability to recognize and accept your emotions and deal with them properly, you are much less likely to get caught up in chronic stress. At the same time, neglecting emotions is not at all a way out of stress, as many people think. You must give yourself enough time to deal with your emotions and overcome the detrimental effects of stress on your body.

Coping with stress

According to the American Psychological Association, there are different types of stress, and there is no single method for dealing with them. So everyone has to find their own way.

However, there are a few general guidelines that might work:

  • Move away from the cause of stress temporarily. Once you have identified the situation that is causing you stress, put it off as much as possible. It's not about avoiding a problem that you must solve, but about giving yourself a break from excessive mental stress.

  • Go in for sports. Exercise regulates physiological processes, helping to cope with stress and anxiety. A 10-year study of 288 families found that those who exercise experienced less anxiety. In addition, they tolerate the first stages of stress more easily than those who do not engage in any physical activity.

    During exercise, the body releases endorphins, which are natural pain relievers produced by our body.

    In addition, hormonal activity decreases, so the body produces less cortisol.

    Exercise makes it easier to fall asleep, so the body and mind get more rest.

    Daily exercise such as walking, dancing or cycling, for example, will help you manage stress better.

  • Practice yoga. Few exercises are as effective as yoga when it comes to stress management. In addition to the benefits of the exercises described above, research has shown that yoga acts as an antidepressant and sedative, as well as relaxing the mind.

    In addition, yoga promotes concentration, which helps to mentally separate yourself from the cause of stress.

  • Meditate. Meditation also helps to relax the body and mind. Focusing on the breath or the environment will force you to momentarily take your mind off the issue that is causing you stress. Taking a step back will open up a new perspective for you.

  • Try natural antidepressants. Infusions of natural herbs such as valerian, green tea or lemon balm have been proven to reduce stress.

  • Do fun and interesting things with your family or friends.

    Laughter is known to help relieve stress. In addition, listen to music, visit new places with friends or family, and take up hobbies like painting or making crafts. Doing interesting things will keep you out of trouble.

If none of this works, seek professional help.

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  • Stress is a physiological response to life's circumstances, but if it persists longer than necessary, it can be detrimental to health.

  • There are three phases of stress: mobilization, resistance, exhaustion.

  • Stress affects the muscular, respiratory, cardiovascular, central nervous, digestive, and reproductive systems.

  • Stress can lead to depression and exacerbate existing health problems, as well as cause new ones.

  • It also influences human behavior.

  • Resilience to stress depends on certain factors.

  • You can minimize the effects of stress with simple guidelines.


  1. Martin V. Cohen, Ph.D. "Stress: The Silent Killer" 2000.

  2. Emily Deans M.D. "Stress: The Killer Disease" Psychology Today, 2012.

  3. Steve Tovian, PhD, Beverly Thorn, PhD, Helen Coons, PhD, Susan Labott, PhD, Matthew Burg, PhD, Richard Surwit, PhD, and Daniel Bruns, PsyD. American Psychological Association 2016.

  4. Marissa Maldonado, Sovereign Health Group "How Stress Affects Mental Health" Psych Central, 2017.

  5. National Institutes of Health "5 Things You Should Know About Stress" 2017.

  6. Antoni MH, Baggett L, Ironson G, LaPerriere A, Klimas N, et al. Cognitive behavioral stress management intervention buffers distress responses and elevates immunological markers following notification of HIV-1 seropositivity. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 1991;59:906–915. [PubMed][Google Scholar]

  7. Antoni MH, Cruess DG, Cruess S, Lutgendorf S, Kumar M, et al. Cognitive behavioral stress management intervention effects on anxiety, 24-hour urinary catecholamine output, and T-cytotoxic/suppressor cells over time among symptomatic HIV-infected gay men. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 2000a;68:31–45. [PubMed][Google Scholar]

  8. Antoni MH, Cruess S, Cruess DG, Kumar M, Lutgendorf S, et al. Cognitive-behavioral stress management reduces distress and 24-hour urinary free cortisol output among symptomatic HIV-infected gay men. Ann. behavior. Med. 2000b;22:29-37. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Stress and disease.

How worry and anxiety affect our body

It seems that the body of a person who is constantly under stress is 40% faster than the body of a person who lives peacefully. In particular, today, where scary news is regularly and in large quantities, the problems of inner harmony are becoming an important issue.

How does stress specifically affect our bodies? Which organ or organs will be attacked first? Why can't you ignore such a problem? Psychotherapy, Elena Tarasevich, answers the most attractive questions.

Elena Tarasevich Lode Medical Center, psychotherapist from the highest level, candidate for medical school, associate professor

The period when people feel uncomfortable is important

various situations. By the way, it's not just bad.

The stress state motivates you to handle hard work and escape from a state of emergency. In addition, exciting events and clear emotions are often stressful. However, it is important not to lose sight of the moment when the stress load becomes too great and health is greatly threatened.

Stress is a non-specific reaction to all requests presented on the body. This is a group of physical and psychological reactions of the body to a specific stimulus, the so-called streets.

Depending on the time of stress, short-term stress and chronic stress differ. In some cases, if the amount of energy is increased, physical strength and concentration increase, gamblers and active, and stressors are long and regular, the former can be beneficial.

So if you're working with a "poisonous" boss on a difficult team, or you're always in conflict with your loved one, stress becomes chronic. The body is always nervous, and its cardiovascular, nerves and other systems are under stress.

It is necessary to distinguish between stress and nervous tension. Nervous tension is also very unpleasant, but it also refers to mental confusion, and stress does not have a serious change in physiological and hormones.

Stress status is divided into three stages.

  • Motivation: Energy is increased, heart rate is faster, breathing becomes shallower, blood pressure increases, and adrenaline and another "stress hormone" are released. In a sense, it is a "primitive" response that prepares the body to perform "fight or flight."

  • Resistance stage
  • Tiresome stage: If your body is exposed to pressure for a long time, the defense mechanism will inevitably fail. Physical and mental resources are depleted. All this negatively affects the function of the immune system, the nervous system and the cardiovascular system of the body.

If a state of stress continues for a long time, the coping mechanism can break down, causing chronic diseases such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, immunodeficiency, and health problems such as depression.

Good stress and bad stress

We use the word "stress" as a word that expresses a negative situation. In fact, as already mentioned, the effect of stress on the human body is seen not only in problems and problems, but also in positive events. To facilitate the distinction between these conditions, the concept of phasing and discomfort has been introduced.

Usress is "positive" stress.

  • Always short-term.
  • Motivate and improve performance.
  • It can withstand the physical and psychological relatively easily.
  • This ends in a relaxed and positive mood.

USRARSE example: baby birth, wedding day, career advancement, university enrollment, etc.

Usress is destructive and its characteristics are completely different.

  • There are both chronic and acute courses.
  • Recession and decline in labor productivity
  • Loss of adaptive capacity
  • Physiological malaise, which is the background of negative emotions.
  • Onset of mental and physical illness.

Causes of discomfort: severe illness of important people, long-term conflicts, unemployment, sleep problems, etc.

What is the disease that stimulates anxiety?

There are three types of stress, each with a different effect on human happiness.

  • Psychological or emotional area and due to strong positive or negative emotions.
  • It is physiological and is related to the influence of external factors such as thirst, hunger, pain and warmth.
  • This is short-term and is expressed as a short-term reaction of the body to external stimuli. Chronic and cannot escape without any further effort.

Signs of stress in different people have something in common.

  • Vegetable symptoms: headache, trembling, sweating, cold extremities, fatigue.
  • Tachycardia and chest pain
  • Muscle tension, braceism
  • Gastrointestinal disorders. Pain, diarrhea, constipation, nausea.
  • An eating disorder that leads to weight gain.
  • Colds and infectious diseases caused by reduced immunity.
  • Emotional problems S-depressed, anxiety, isolation, relaxation, pessimistic, decreased libido
  • Cognitive impairment - use, decreased concentration.
  • Transparency issue.

At first, these symptoms may appear alone. However, if an uneasy condition lasts for a long time, the following health disorders can easily worsen, causing a new onset.

  • Hypertension, arrhythmia and myocardial infarction (stress has been stated that stress will significantly worsen the progress of the disease, therefore, special risk groups include people with existing diseases.)
  • Acquired immunodeficiency activates the activity of stress hormones released from the adrenal cortex and suppresses the function of cells of the immune system.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, gastritis.
  • Psoriasis, acne, alopecia (hair loss).
  • Metabolic Syndrome - If the hormonal imbalance continues, weight will not be controlled by diet.
  • Depression, neurosis, cognitive/behavioral disorders α-hormone s-activity inhibit hippocampal stem cells, not only connect between neurons, but also have a violation of the formation of new nerve cells and the functioning of nerve circuits.
  • Alcohol and drug addiction are always underlined, and mental action substance abuse is topical.

Psychological distress from interpersonal relationships and trauma leads to the development of somatic illness. Vice versa. Serious diseases of the internal organs can negatively affect the psyche and cause stress.

How can I get out of this state?

— The longer stress lasts, the more likely people are to refuse to change their habits or eliminate factors that aggravate their symptoms. This is a big mistake, because the normalization of lifestyle is the most important step in any disease. At least follow this simple rule.

  1. Get out. Research has shown a strong link between chronic stress and sleep deprivation. You should develop the habit of going to bed and waking up at the same time. Try to sleep at least 7-8 hours.
  2. Avoid watching TV, using smartphones or tablets before bed, as blue light suppresses the secretion of melatonin, the sleep hormone.

With so many decisions at work, no time to do anything, and worrying thoughts that prevent you from falling asleep on time, trying to normalize your life doesn't work. In this case, medical support is possible. Our specialists will help you choose the most suitable treatment program and get you back to a stress-free life in the shortest possible time.

Types of cancer can be classified according to the location, size and cause of the tumor. The process of tumor development is influenced by many factors, including malnutrition and heredity. All types of cancer require special treatment regimens in order to be able to maintain a normal course of life.

Cancer types are characterized by differences in tumor cellular architecture, growth dynamics and survival during treatment.

Oncological diseases can occur in any system and organ of the body. Cancer types are classified based on the location of the tumor and many other factors. Thus, malignant tumor processes can occur in the gastrointestinal tract, reproductive system, upper respiratory tract and chest, skin, skeletal and soft tissues, blood and lymphatic system, brain and spinal cord. Cancer is a vigorous progressive pathological growth of abnormal cells that replace normal tissue.

Early diagnosis of many types of cancer is easy, so tumor diseases can be effectively and efficiently treated. It reveals the forms and types of oncological diseases in the latent period, when cancer cells have already regenerated, although the symptoms and signs of cancer have not yet appeared.

All types of cancer are symptomatic, depending on the location of the tumor and its stage. At the site of tumor growth, pain syndrome appears, the general condition worsens, body temperature slightly rises, and appetite decreases. An important condition for effective treatment is early detection, when cancer cells have not yet entered the blood or lymph nodes.

Stages of cancer development

Depending on the degree of the disease, the tumor is divided into stages. In the first phase, the tumor is small, and the tumor is located, in contrast to the first phase, the tumor grows, and in the third phase, cancer cells germinate in neighboring tissues and lymph nodes, as well as in the fourth phase. The tumor is actively progressing and has metastases to distant organs.

All types of cancer are classified according to the Unified System for the Measurement of Pathological Processes in the Body, which helps to compare the values ​​of cancer centers around the world. Cancer period letters and numbers are identified by the International Cancer Clinical Classification System and are named regardless of cancer type. There are three standards: the value of a cancerous tumor, transfer to the lymph nodes, and transfer to other organs.

What are metastases?

Metastases are tumor cells in the body, creating new lesions in other organs. The type of cancer does not affect the potential for multiple tumors. Metastasis progresses mainly in three stages.

  1. Invasive pathogenic cells move into the blood vessels.
  2. These cells follow the bloodstream, lymph nodes, canvas, etc.
  3. Invading cancer cells survive and a focus of secondary tumors is formed.

Diagnosis by computer imaging of fractures allows you to understand the type of cancer and the formation of metastasis in the body and choose a treatment that is effective in improving the image of the disease.

Types of cancer

The type of cancer is determined by various factors. Tumors are classified according to various criteria.

  • The place where the tumor is located.
  • Depending on the type of tissue where cancer cells proliferate.
  • About the structure of cancer cells.
  • According to the separation principle.
  • Depending on the complexity of growth

The type of cancer is divided by the location of the tumor. In other words, growth organs and systems that grow.

In addition, the type of cancer is divided into tissue type. Cancer cells actively spread to muscles, epithelium, bones, blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue. The emergence of malignant training in different organizations is called complex.

Contains the structure of cancer cells.

  • Cancer made in the epithelial.
  • Leukemia-cancer is generated by the hematopoietic system.
  • Melanoma … cancer prepared on the skin.
  • Sarcoma acans created in tissue junction.
  • Acans lymphoma generated in the lymphatic system.
  • Glioma: cancer such as brain tumors.

And because of the division of cancer cells, it is divided into types such as clinical cancer, morphological cancer and tissue cancer.

Gena and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common types of cancer. It occurs in the thyroid gland, pancreas, mammary glands, cervix, lungs, etc.

Risk factors

All types of cancer occur in the body under the influence of certain factors. The onset of tumor diseases is mainly influenced by lifestyle. Inappropriate meals with low foods that are rich in carcinogens cause malignant tumors. Excessive drinking and smoking can also cause cancer, and working in harmful industries and companies builds up harmful substances in the body.

Inheritance also affects the existence of cancer cells in the body. Pathological processes in cells can occur after mutations in the uterus and the process of physical development. Thus, newborn babies cause some kind of cancer with the development of body tissues.

Poor ecosystems and high levels of radiation are also causes of cancer.

Diagnosis of oncological diseases

Early diagnosis of the disease allows you to choose effective methods of treatment that increase the patient's chances of recovery and maintaining a normal life. Only by detecting cancer and determining its type can successful treatment be achieved.

Diagnosis for treatment begins with a professional examination and assessment of the symptoms of the disease, after which certain tests are prescribed. The type of cancer is determined after ultrasound and biopsy. False symptoms can be eliminated by conducting a comprehensive diagnosis, taking into account age, concomitant diseases, risk factors, etc.

Treatment methods for oncological diseases

Depending on the type of tumor, a treatment method is selected. The most effective are combined or complex approaches to getting rid of the disease.

Surgery is the main definitive treatment. For some types of cancer, the tumor can be removed inside or along with the organ. However, not always the solution is surgery, after which other methods of treatment are selected.

Further treatment, such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy, is given depending on the type of tumor.

The success of treatment is achieved in compliance with the treatment regimen and medical recommendations, preventive measures, observation by an oncologist. Early diagnosis of cancer helps prevent worsening of the condition, restore a normal lifestyle and avoid relapses.

Cancer prevention

Cancer prevention starts with a healthy lifestyle. Give up alcohol, smoking, harmful and fatty foods, lead an active lifestyle, calm your nervous state.

Cancer types should be monitored throughout life through screening tests. Since the cancer progresses slowly, symptoms may appear in the later stages, when treatment may not be effective. Thus, screening and careful treatment of dangerous symptoms can help you stay healthy for many years and choose the right treatment for any type of cancer, especially considering all risk factors.

The main task of the Federal State Budgetary Institution of the Ministry of Health of Russia "Institute of Radiation Medicine" is to fulfill the state task to provide medical care for the treatment of oncological diseases to citizens of the Russian Federation. FBBU "NMITs Radiology" of the Ministry of Health of Russia and its branches. Mnioi them. P.A. Herzen, MRRC im. A.F. Tsyba, Research Institute of Urology and Interventional Radiology. ON THE. Herzen them. ON THE. Tsyby). Lopatkina (Research Institute of Urology and Interventional Radiology named after N.A. Lopatkina) employs 520 highly qualified doctors (doctors and candidates of medical sciences), 1250 senior and 1st grade residents. Many others, including researchers, nurses and nurses, work with tens of thousands of patients. More than 8,000 patients annually receive high-tech medical care under the state guarantee at the Federal State Budgetary Institution of the Ministry of Health of Russia "NMIC of the Radiological Department". More than 14,000 patients have undergone surgery and completed 12,000 chemotherapy courses.

What is HIV infection? Cause, diagnosis and method of treatment will be analyzed by Dr. Kurakin O. Yu.

Kurakin O. Yu.

Definition of disease. Causes of the disease

HIV infection is a chronic infection that an immunodeficient person infects with immune cells (CD4).

The human immunodeficiency virus belongs to a retrovirus and a key virus. For the first time in 1970, information about the disease appeared. The virus itself was released by the scientist and viruses Françoise Barr e-Sinouchy in France in France at the same time by the scientists Robert Gallo, but the name adopted by the World Health Organization was five years later. It was. Then a case of an HIV-infected person was registered in the Soviet Union. [12]

Viruses are currently divided into two types of structurally different types, HIV-1 and HIV-2. In Russia, the United States, Europe and Central Africa, the first virus (HIV-1) is widespread, and the second type of virus (HIV-2) is epidemiologically important in India and West Africa.

In the natural environment, dried HIV remains active for several hours, several days in biological fluids, and for several years in frozen serum. When heated to 70-80°C, the virus drops after 10 minutes, and if it is treated with 70% ethanol solution, it will be inactivated after one minute. It is also sensitive to 0. 5% sodium hypochlorite solution, 6% hydrogen peroxide solution, 5% saline solution, ether and acetone. [2]

The shape of the virus is rounded, with two circulating nucleic acids (RNA) and a core containing enzyme enzyme (Xena River), integrase, protease and lunar. The nucleus is surrounded by internal proteins and external lipids. The inner envelope of HIV-1 consists of proteins P17, P24 and P55. The outer shell is "penetrated" by GP160 GP160, which consists of fragments between GP41 and GP120 (the protein that makes up the SO Shell), and GP41 and GP120 on the surface of the virion have receptors on human HIV cells (have the CD4 receptor protein. [13]

Route of HIV infection

Route of infection

  1. This is a physical thing.
  2. Sexual (contact between the opposite sex and the same sex).
  3. Vertical infection (from mothers to children infected during pregnancy, childbirth and lactation).
  4. Artificial non-orological (various effects associated with mucous membranes and skin membranes, for example, when using non-oral organs when using drugs).

It is important to note that the use of kissing, talking, hugging, shaking hands, sharing utensils and other household items does not cause HIV infection.

HIV in Russia

As of June 30, 2021, Russia has confirmed 1528,356 people diagnosed with HIV infection, and the breakdown is 1,122,879 HIV-infected and 405,477 deaths.

HIV infections are active in groups. Thus, in the first half of 2021, it was found that 67.3% and 28.9%-HIV were used in contact with the opposite sex and 2.9% of the same sex were infected. [7]

Possibility of contracting HIV

About eight women in 10,000 people and four men are said to be infected with HIV due to unprotected vaginal intercourse. It is said that unprotected anal sex has a high risk of HIV infection, 138 out of 10,000 passive partners, 11 cases are infected by active partners. [10]

HIV and pregnancy

Women who receive antiretroviral therapy in a timely manner do not acquire viruses during pregnancy or childbirth. If the virus is suppressed, you can give birth naturally. However, breastfeeding is also contraindicated due to the high risk of infection to children through breast milk. [3] [4].

If you have these symptoms, talk to your doctor. Do not take medicine at your own discretion and it is harmful to your health!

Symptoms of HIV infection

The incubation period for HIV is 4 to 3 months (although there are individual differences, up to one year).

Initial symptoms of HIV

HIV infection has no specific symptoms. All clinical symptoms may relate to other infectious diseases, non-fetal diseases, and secondary diseases that occur with immunodeficiency. However, the main symptoms of acute HIV infection can be distinguished only three or three months after infection.

  • Swelling of lymph nodes (most common cervical and axillary).
  • Heat production (with HIV, the temperature is often less than fever from -37.1 to 38.0 ° C).
  • rash

  • Inflammation of the tonsils of the palate occurs, leading to sore throat.
  • F Decay, insomnia; inflammation of the sky; tonsillitis; inflammation and pain in the taste; weakness, insomnia.
  • Headache

The above symptoms of HIV occur in about 30% of cases. In 30-40%, acute HIV infections have become more severe (herpes, pneumonia, meningitis, and encephalitis), and about 30% are said to be absent.

Even if clinical symptoms appear, this period lasts from several days to several months. Usually HIV symptoms for HIV last about 2-3 weeks and all symptoms disappear. The exception is swelling of the lymph node, which often lasts for this disease.

Do not find HIV symptoms. The only way to test for HIV infection is to have a blood test done in an HIV testing test room at least three months after being "at risk" or at least two months later.

The pathogenesis of HIV infection

The virus that invades the human body by any of the above methods attaches to the target cell film containing the CD4 protein using the specific glycoprotein GP120. This receptor exists in T-lymphocytes (T4, Helper) and plays an important role in the immune response. CD4 proteins are also available in monocal, macrophages, endothelial cells, etc.

The membrane-attached virus enters the cells and RNA is synthesized (made) by the DNA function of the reverse enzyme and incorporated into the healthy genetic makeup of the cells. There it can exist as a protein throughout your life. When promoters are activated, the brisk accumulation of new viral particles in infected cells results in the destruction of current cells and the death of new cells. [3]

The released gp120 protein can also bind to CD4 receptors present on uninfected T4 lymphocytes. Both are recognized by the immune system as foreign and destroyed by killer cells. Another cause of CD4 cell death is a bioactive substance secreted by HIV-infected macrophages. Infected helper T cells are also able to form large aggregations, depleting their numbers.

Cells of the immune system are important cells that protect the human body from foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and cancer cells. HIV-infected T4 cells cannot perform their main function, disrupting the immune system and preventing its normal response to foreign substances. HIV infection makes people vulnerable to microorganisms that do not pose a threat to uninfected people (opportunistic infections) and increases the risk of developing cancer.

In addition, the nervous system is often involved in the pathology. This causes functional and alimentary damage to nerve cells and impairs brain activity.

Classification and stages of development of HIV infection

Infection has five stages.

1) Latent period: the stage from infection to the production of antibodies and/or the development of a response, represented by the onset of "acute HIV infection". Duration - from 4 weeks to 3 months (in exceptional cases up to 1 year).

The average incubation period is 3 to 6 months. During this time, the virus actively multiplies in the human body, but neither clinically nor when tested for antibodies to HIV does not show any symptoms. But people at this stage already have an infection.

2) Primary stage - a stage that begins 3-6 months, respectively, up to 12 months after the moment of infection. At this time, active replication of the virus continues and a primary response occurs in the form of antibody production and clinical manifestations. Therefore, the second stage of HIV infection can be detected by testing for HIV antibodies in donated blood.

The primary infection stage may be (most often) asymptomatic or present with some non-specific manifestations of HIV.

  • hypothermia
  • rash
  • herpes infection;
  • symptoms such as pneumonia.
  • Usually, the period of 12 months from the onset of antibodies to HIV is considered to be the acute phase of HIV infection.
  • 3) The latent phase of HIV is a period of slow virus replication compared to the early stages. Detection of antibodies to HIV in the blood continues. The only sign of HIV is swollen lymph nodes, and not always. The duration of the stage without specific treatment is 6-7 years (in some cases 2-20 years).

4) secondary stage of the disease - the stage at which HIV continues to reproduce. Accompanied by the active destruction of CD4-lymphocytes, which leads to the depletion of the immune system. They lead to the development of secondary (including opportunistic) infections and tumors.


tuberculosis, tuberculosis, tuberculosis, tuberculosis, tuberculosis, tuberculosis, tuberculosis, tuberculosis, tuberculosis, tuberculosis, tuberculosis, tuberculosis, tuberculosis,

  • Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • diseases such as herpes zoster.
  • The duration of this phase depends on the disease, the initial reaction and the individual characteristics of the immune system.
  • 5) AIDS TERMINAL HIV-HIV The final stage of the progress of infection. The occurrence of severe secondary infections that threaten life, enlargement of the whole body, the occurrence of cancer and damage to the central nervous system (confusion, forgetfulness, lack of concentration, changes in behavior, headache, mood disorders, this may be accompanied by motor coordination disorder and difficulty walking) . [9]

If there are no specific treatments to be prescribed in a timely manner, the average will move to the AIDS stage 10-12 years after infection. [Four]

A complication of HIV infection is a secondary infection that occurs in a situation of immunodeficiency. Such diseases include:

Candida (oral pharynx, respiratory tract, esophageal mucosa) -Chacterium fungal infections caused by fine yeast fungi of the genus Candida. The main symptoms are sore throat when swallowed, white curd sticks to the tongue and tonsils, and the culture is hardened and the head is subtropical.

Complications of HIV infection

Environment herpes a is a viral infection characterized by a skin rash in the form of creeping (liquid plate with itching and subsequent formation of a hole and crust) with severe pain. The excitant is cranial gluten, which is a virus of the herpes family, and causes typical Osgood's disease when you first touch your body (mostly a child). Treatment is with antiretroviral drugs.

  • Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by several types of mycobacterium bacteria. The main symptoms include fever, cough, hyperhidrosis (especially night sweats) and shortness of breath. Diagnosis requires a lung test with FLG and CT and consultation with a physiological physician. A characteristic of HIV infection of Tuberculosis is that the treatment is difficult because it is distributed in frequent generalizations, that is, organs other than the lungs, and the prognosis worsens.

  • Kaposi's sarcoma is a malignant multiple intestinal tumor that invades the entire body. This feature lies in the fact that it is formed from the vascular endothelium and has a different clinical course. Basically a new being of the skin appears, but also affects the mucous membranes, lymphatic systems and internal organs (mainly the lungs and digestive tubes). Treatment should be carried out in cooperation with a tumor specialist.
  • Pneumonia I is a typical anti-fixed pneumonia for immunodeficiency. The main symptoms are intense breathing and fever. For the diagnosis, you need to do a CT scan of the lungs.
  • Cerebral Toxoplasma is a parasitic disease commonly seen in severe immunodeficiencies that form a large lesion in the brain. It takes into account the 2-3rd place among patients with AIDS in daily detection of infection. Various neurological symptoms appear, such as headaches, memory disturbances, and seizures. Treatment is performed with a neurologist.

  • In addition, bacteria and viral infections and cancer may occur. [【Four】]
  • An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISU) is used to diagnose HIV infection. It can confirm the presence of antibodies against HIV in the human body. Therefore, the HIV test is reliable only after the end of the incubation period, i.e. after the body has produced enough antibodies (up to 4 weeks after infection). In most cases, testing is more reliable at 3 months, but 100% testing is needed at 6 and 12 months to rule out HIV infection.

If the HIV test is positive, the same blood sample will be retested in the laboratory. If it is positive, another type of test is needed: an immune test. A positive immunospot test (following a positive ELISA) is the most accurate of all medical tests with a reliability of 99.9%. If the immunostain is negative, the first test is false positive and the person is not infected with HIV.

Diagnosis of HIV infection

Immunostaining results can be interpreted as positive, negative or ambiguous (i.e. the presence of at least one protein in the virus in immunocompromised individuals). Testing during the incubation period can give mixed results. Since the infection has occurred recently, there are few antibodies to HIV in the blood, but the immunostain becomes positive after a while. Inconsistent results can also occur in people who are not infected with HIV or who have certain chronic diseases. In this case, immunostaining will be negative or reveal the cause of an indeterminate result.

As many people think, an HIV test is not given under any wall of blood. However, all of these studies are voluntary.

blood donor

Foreigners and stateless persons who intend to enter the territory of the Russian Federation for more than 3 months.

  • medical personnel working with blood
  • detainee
  • If you do not belong to any of the above categories of citizens, you have not been tested for HIV at your annual preventive examination, so the presence or absence of an HIV certificate does not guarantee the presence or absence of HIV infection.
  • When an HIV infection is confirmed, a person goes to the AIDS center and is under the supervision of an infectious disease specialist.

Currently there are no drugs that can completely eliminate HIV. But there are drugs that can significantly prolong life and prevent the onset of AIDS. Preparation for treatment is carried out in all HIV-infected people. It will be provided free of charge after examination by an infectious disease specialist.

Treatment of HIV infection

Medicines used to treat HIV, called antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), are drugs that stop the virus from replicating and, as a result, restore or prevent a weakened immune system. People with HIV who take these drugs regularly do not transmit the virus through unprotected sex.

This is the treatment of HIV infection.

Need for daily medication (usually 3 or more).

Monitoring the effectiveness of treatment by an infectious disease doctor.

  • Be aware of possible side effects associated with drug use.
  • Treatment involves the use of well-studied modern drugs that do not have dangerous toxicity to other organs and systems, doctor's recommendations, and timely examination.
  • If you detect this early and start specific treatment early, the lives of people infected with HIV may not reach the average life of the population. Therefore, it is very important to start observation and treatment by a specialist as soon as possible.

HIV prevention

Forecast. Prevention

Unfortunately, there is no vaccine for this infectious disease.

As a method of prevention

Protected intercourse -

Use a sterilized device that has been sterilized in various operations with mucosal disruption and skin integrity.

  • HIV testing is carried out at least once a year for the entire population.
  • Compulsory HIV testing during pregnancy plan, registration related to pregnancy, pregnancy and pregnancy and prenatal.
  • Mandatory medicine for all women infected with HIV during pregnancy.
  • All HIV-infected women who can contract the virus should take medication. [4] [6]
  • If the HIV antibody test result is positive, this is required.
  • Contact the Center for AIDS Prevention and Control.

You can get detailed information about your health, HIV, rights and responsibilities.

  • Start taking your medication.
  • Follow the instructions of the responsible physician.
  • If you are infected with HIV, I would like to write separately that it is no different from other people, except that there is a virus in your body.
  • In recent years, homosexual HIV-positive people have often developed anal cancer due to exposure to HPV viruses. To prevent this, the New York Research Institute recommends that patients choose analysands. It contains.

Collection of anemia.

Rectal examination and testing.

  • Pafanicolaou rectal vertical examination Anus cover sample kit.
  • Corpos Copy [8].
  • The onset of anal cancer indicates pain and itching of the anus, bloody discharge, fecal incontinence, cone and sleeve on the periphery of the anus. Speak with an anal colon specialist to manage complications.
  • Death has some steps, as in other physiological processes.

The life of the human body depends on a certain rhythm, and all processes follow specific physiological laws. Following this unwritten law, we are born, live and die. Death has some steps, as in other physiological processes. However, there is a certain "point of return", and after that the exercise becomes one. The end of the end (from LAT Terminali s-final, Last) refers to a state in which the functions of specific organs and systems are gradually and steadily disrupted and lost in the boundary between life and death. This is one of the results that can be caused by pathological conditions such as various diseases, injuries and trauma. In Japan, three final states are used, proposed by scientists V.A.NEDOVSKY, that is, faith, agony and clinical death. In this stream series, life is relaxing. With the development of resuscitation, which science is resuscitation of the body, the finite life is included after resuscitation measures have been combined.

Indefinite variant period. In the acute phase, there are no such things as sudden cardiac arrest. It is characterized by the fact that there is no peripheral arterial pulse that can be detected by the peripheral artery, with complete malaise, confusion, coma and a contraction period of 80-60 mmHg. (However, cervical artery or femoral artery). Respiratory Disorders A- Severe severe difficulty in breathing, hangoses (blue sighs) and pale skin. The period of this stage depends on the reserve power of the body. However, if the cause (illness, trauma, trauma) is not resolved, these efforts only hasten the process of death. The transition from anxiety to anxiety is always carried out through the so-called end. This state lasts up to 4 minutes. The most distinguishing features are that they suddenly stop after an increase in breathing, that the pupils dilate and become unresponsive to light, and that the activity of the heart rhythm is suddenly suppressed (a continuous pulse on electrocardiograms is replaced by individual actions). The only exception is death under deep anesthesia, in which case the end is not set.

Suffering begins with a sigh or a short sigh, and the frequency and range of breathing exercises increase. When the control center of the brain switches, the function is transferred to the double unsurpassed structure of the brain. The body compresses its last strength, mobilizes whatever it can use, and tries to cling to its life. Just before death, heart rhythm was restored, blood flow was restored, and people could regain consciousness, which has been repeatedly drawn in novels and used in films. However, all these efforts do not have energy, the body burns the debris of energy carriers ATP and pure cell preparation. The weight of the substance burned during the agony may be different depending on the weighing. The loss of tens of grams, whose soul is “flying”, is explained by these processes. The pain usually ends with a suspension of heart, respiration, and brain activity over a short period of time. Clinical death occurs. undefined option. In the acute phase, there are no such things as sudden cardiac arrest. It is characterized by the fact that there is no peripheral arterial pulse that can be detected by the peripheral artery, with complete malaise, confusion, coma and a contraction period of 80-60 mmHg. (However, cervical artery or femoral artery). Respiratory Disorders A- Severe severe difficulty in breathing, hangoses (blue sighs) and pale skin. The period of this stage depends on the reserve power of the body. However, if the cause (illness, trauma, trauma) is not resolved, these efforts only hasten the process of death. The transition from anxiety to anxiety is always carried out through the so-called end. This state lasts up to 4 minutes. The most distinguishing features are that they suddenly stop after an increase in breathing, that the pupils dilate and become unresponsive to light, and that the activity of the heart rhythm is suddenly suppressed (a continuous pulse on electrocardiograms is replaced by individual actions). The only exception is death under deep anesthesia, in which case the end is not set.


Suffering begins with a sigh or a short sigh, and the frequency and range of breathing exercises increase. When the control center of the brain switches, the function is transferred to the double unsurpassed structure of the brain. The body compresses its last strength, mobilizes whatever it can use, and tries to cling to its life. Just before death, heart rhythm was restored, blood flow was restored, and people could regain consciousness, which has been repeatedly drawn in novels and used in films. However, all these efforts do not have energy, the body burns the debris of energy carriers ATP and pure cell preparation. The weight of the substance burned during the agony may be different depending on the weighing. The loss of tens of grams, whose soul is “flying”, is explained by these processes. The pain usually ends with a suspension of heart, respiration, and brain activity over a short period of time. Clinical death occurs. Indefinite variant period. In the acute phase, there are no such things as sudden cardiac arrest. It is characterized by the fact that there is no peripheral arterial pulse that can be detected by the peripheral artery, with complete malaise, confusion, coma and a contraction period of 80-60 mmHg. (However, cervical artery or femoral artery). Respiratory Disorders A- Severe severe difficulty in breathing, hangoses (blue sighs) and pale skin. The period of this stage depends on the reserve power of the body. However, if the cause (illness, trauma, trauma) is not resolved, these efforts only hasten the process of death. The transition from anxiety to anxiety is always carried out through the so-called end. This state lasts up to 4 minutes. The most distinguishing features are that they suddenly stop after an increase in breathing, that the pupils dilate and become unresponsive to light, and that the activity of the heart rhythm is suddenly suppressed (a continuous pulse on electrocardiograms is replaced by individual actions). The only exception is death under deep anesthesia, in which case the end is not set.


Suffering begins with a sigh or a short sigh, and the frequency and range of breathing exercises increase. When the control center of the brain switches, the function is transferred to the double unsurpassed structure of the brain. The body compresses its last strength, mobilizes whatever it can use, and tries to cling to its life. Just before death, heart rhythm was restored, blood flow was restored, and people could regain consciousness, which has been repeatedly drawn in novels and used in films. However, all these efforts do not have energy, the body burns the debris of energy carriers ATP and pure cell preparation. The weight of the substance burned during the agony may be different depending on the weighing. The loss of tens of grams, whose soul is “flying”, is explained by these processes. The pain usually ends with a suspension of heart, respiration, and brain activity over a short period of time. Clinical death occurs.

Clinical death

How many books have ever been written about "life after death"? There is a book about people who went to the "afterlife" and returned again to convey their impressions, or to convey the received "higher" knowledge. The debate around this will never stop, as it cannot be conclusively proven or disproved. The fascination with the last stages of human death is understandable. A person who had no heartbeat a few minutes ago, there was no air in his lungs, in fact already dead, is brought back to life by the intervention of a doctor. The Resurrection has been considered a miracle for centuries. But, like all miracles, they have an absolutely material basis. Thus, clinical death is established by three signs: complete cessation of blood circulation, respiration and brain activity. However, all of them are reversible and oxygen-free metabolic processes continue in the body. From this moment minutes and seconds are counted. The sooner complex resuscitation measures are carried out, the more likely it is that it will be possible to revive not only a person, but also the person himself. In fact, nerve cells in the brain are the most highly specialized cells in our body, so they are very sensitive to lack of oxygen or hypoxia. And in such an environment, they die very quickly. Cell death refers to the loss of certain functions in the cerebral cortex responsible for higher neural activity. The lifespan of nerve cells is usually 2-5 minutes and can be increased to 12-15 minutes at low ambient temperatures (a typical case is winter drowning). At some point, the number of dead brain cells reaches a limit, after which the so-called “social death” occurs, when the restoration of a full-fledged personality becomes impossible. Whether resuscitation of such patients is possible is a topic that is hotly debated not only by doctors, but also by the public and religious figures.

What doctors can do

A series of resuscitation measures started in time allows you to restore cardiac and respiratory activity, and then gradually restore the lost functions of other organs and systems. Of course, the success of resuscitation depends on the cause of clinical death. In some cases, such as massive bleeding, the effect of resuscitation is close to zero. When the doctor's efforts are in vain or help is not provided, clinical death leads to true or biological death. And this process is already irreversible.

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