Types of cognitive therapies

Types of Cognitive Behavior Therapy-CBT – CBT Therapist NYC | NYC Psychologist

What Is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)?

Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is often used as an umbrella term to describe therapies that are based in behavioral learning theories and/or cognitive theories. Characteristics shared by many Cognitive Behavioral Therapies include emphasizing the present, concrete goal setting, and understanding the interplay that thinking, feelings, and events have on human behaviors.

Some forms of CBT place a greater emphasis on the role of thinking on feelings and behaviors, while others may stress the influence of environmental factors. Depending on the specific Cognitive Behavior Theory, different interventions may be used in sessions.  

Types of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

There are a number of different Cognitive Behavior Therapies, and a number of Behavior Therapies which may be included by some under CBT as well, even if their developers believe they are more accurately identified as Behavior Therapies, like Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Some forms of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) you may encounter include:

  • Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT)
  • Cognitive Therapy (CT)
  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)
  • Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
  • Self-Instructional Training
  • Stress Inoculation Training, etc.

Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is often characterized as short-term. Short-term is probably in reference to traditional psychodynamic therapy, which often involves multiple sessions per week for years.  More specifically, scientific studies indicate for some psychological disorders, e.g., panic attacks, Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD), Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, bulimia, anger management problems CBT treatment can be delivered in eight to 20 weeks.  

Even Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) has a treatment protocol of 52 weeks.  While the treatment protocols in these studies have a specified number of sessions with a very defined clinical population, in practice there is greater flexibility.  This means that with proper ongoing assessment a skilled clinician can tailor the treatment to what a specific therapy client needs.  In some cases, this may mean therapy may be effective in fewer sessions that a treatment protocol.  

It is also clear though that many people entering into therapy may have more than one issue to be addressed, e.g., depression and OCD.  In a case like this, the number of sessions may take a few more than what a particular protocol stipulates. CBT therapists need to be familiar with the scientifically supported treatment protocols, but should also have a strong grasp on the underlying theories and clinical expertise in order to allow the effective and flexible application of interventions to specific therapy clients.

How Can Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Help?

Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) can be used as a short-term treatment to help people with specific problems and can help them to focus on current thoughts and beliefs they have. CBT is used to treat a wide range of diagnoses and conditions, including:

  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Anger Issues
  • Anxiety Disorders or Excessive Worries
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Child Behavior Problems
  • Obsessions and Compulsions (OCD)
  • Depression
  • Grief
  • Eating Disorders
  • Insomnia
  • Phobias
  • Problems with Stress or Procrastination
  • Substance Misuse or Substance Use Disorders
  • Trauma or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

What is Cognitive Processing Therapy?

Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) was developed by Dr. Patricia Resick, a psychologist.  Cognitive Processing Therapy has been shown to be an effective treatment for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).  

CPT is a 12 session manualized therapy.  Like many forms of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) the CBT therapist initially works to develop a strong therapeutic alliance (good rapport).  This is particularly critical for PTSD therapy clients who may often have issues around safety and trust, and who in treatment will, when the time is right, be asked to recall memories about traumatic events.  

During therapy, people then write an account of the traumatic event and through therapeutic exchanges with the therapist are able to identify which particular cognitive distortions may be present in his or her belief system. They learn how to challenge these thoughts, which are considered, “cognitive distortions,” which according to theorists may exacerbate anxiety, shame, and anger and thereby lead to clients avoid reminders of the trauma.

Cognitive Processing Therapy also involves psychoeducation about PTSD to better help therapy clients understand the nature of how PTSD symptoms develop and are maintained.  Therapy clients learn about the influence of beliefs (certain kinds of thoughts) on emotions as well as the role of avoidance in maintaining PTSD symptoms.  With practice therapy clients learn to identify specific kinds of cognitive distortions like unrealistic appraisals and attributions, as well as unfounded assumptions.  

As the realistic adaptive beliefs begin to dominate the cognitive distortions therapy clients can decrease avoidance behaviors and begin to see reductions in both emotional symptoms as well as an increase in healthy behaviors, e.g., returning to work, a more normal sleep schedule, or increasing emotional and physical intimacy, etc.  

Cognitive Processing Therapy combines exposure therapy used by behavior therapists and cognitive techniques from Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT).  The Veteran’s Administration (VA) has incorporated Cognitive Processing Therapy into many of their programs to help military veterans suffering from PTSD.

What is Cognitive Therapy?

Cognitive Therapy (CT) was developed by psychiatrist, Dr. Aaron T. Beck. Beck’s Cognitive Therapy was one of the earliest therapies to be considered a Cognitive Behavior Therapy, as opposed to a traditional Behavior Therapy.  Cognitive Therapy was originally designed to treat depression, i.e., major depressive disorder.  Beck hypothesized something known as the Beck Cognitive Triad.  

The Cognitive Triad included three types of cognitive distortions that he proposed cause and maintain depressive symptoms.  These negative cognitive distortions are about the self, the world, and the future. A depressed client may enter therapy with negative beliefs like, I am worthless (self), people don’t like me and I don’t do my job well (world), and things will never change (future).”  Negative views of the future can be particularly problematic as they relate to hopelessness, which may be a risk factor for suicide.

Cognitive Therapy includes many elements, such as agenda setting, activity scheduling, collaboratively establishing homework assignments, etc.  But the influence of cognitive distortions on negative emotions and maladaptive behaviors is emphasized.  In this therapy, like all Cognitive Behavior Therapies, rapport is established early.  

Remoralization is stressed initially in order to help depressed clients begin to have hope.  The overall theory of depression is presented, specifically the impact negative cognitive distortions have on emotional states and adaptive behaviors.  Depressed clients learn to identify when “automatic negative thoughts” arise and then how to identify the type of cognitive distortions they are.  Examples of cognitive distortions include:

  1. Catastrophising (“awfulizing” or minimizing)
  2. Dichotomous Thinking (black and white)
  3. Emotional Reasoning
  4. Fortune Telling
  5. Jumping to Conclusions
  6. Labeling
  7. Mind reading
  8. Overgeneralization
  9. Personalization
  10. Selective Abstraction
  11. Should Statements

Once depressed clients are able to identify these cognitive distortions they are asked to provide evidence that supports or contradicts the belief.  With successful challenges to these beliefs more realistic coping beliefs are reinforced.  Behavioral experiments are also conducted.  Behavioral experiments are intended to test the accuracy of negative cognitive distortions.  

For example, over-generalizations can be challenged with behavioral experiments.  A therapy client may believe he always fails at everything.  The behavioral experiment might be for him to sign up for a night class to see if he can pass it.  The behavioral experiment can then provide concrete evidence that he does not fail at everything.

Other techniques are also used in cognitive therapy that many consider more behavioral.  For example, scheduling pleasurable and mastery activities regularly is a common assignment.  There is a great deal of scientific evidence that depression symptoms are relieved with increases in time spent engaged in these activities.  

It is typical for depressed clients to isolate and refrain from engaging in activities that they previously enjoyed or demonstrated their competence.  Therefore assigning these activities is an important component of depression treatment. In fact some studies indicate that focusing on activity scheduling alone can effectively treat depression.

Dr. J Ryan Fuller has published in the areas of anger management and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and is currently the Clinical Director of New York Behavioral Health and is in private practice in New York City, located at380 Lexington Avenue, Suite 1619, New York, NY 10168. You can find Dr. J Ryan Fuller on Google+ and Twitter.

Email: [email protected]
Phone: 646-389-2045
Contact Page: https://jryanfuller.com/contact/

The 8 Types of Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Rather than a specific type of therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is better understood as an umbrella term. Many of the approaches that fall under the CBT umbrella focus on understanding the interaction between one’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. A CBT therapist works to help clients assess, recognize, and deal with problematic and dysfunctional ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving. 8 types of cognitive behavioral therapy

Generally speaking, CBT tends to be goal-oriented and short-term. However, the length of treatment depends on various factors,  including the severity of symptoms and consistency of treatment compliance, and practiced learned therapy skills between sessions. Depending on the specific type of CBT, different interventions may be used.

The following evidence-based interventions fall under the CBT umbrella and have successfully treated numerous mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, alongside others.

Cognitive Therapy is one of the earliest therapies to be considered CBT. It focuses on identifying and changing the unhelpful or distorted thinking patterns commonly experienced by individuals suffering from depression. Cognitive Therapy utilizes collaborative elements like agenda-setting and homework assignments between sessions, emphasizing the correction of cognitive distortions or thinking errors as well as maladaptive behaviors.

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) was developed by Dr. Marsha Linehan and is heavily based on CBT with one exception: it highlights validating or accepting uncomfortable thoughts, feelings, and behaviors instead of fighting them. By accepting and coming to terms with discomfort, DBT encourages change through a mindful and present stance. Initially designed to treat individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), DBT is one of the most commonly utilized treatment interventions today. Anyone who frequently experiences extreme, unpredictable, negative emotions can benefit from DBT.

Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based approach that is directive and goal-directed. MI recognizes that people start therapy with varying levels of commitment and willingness to change. Motivational Interviewing facilitates the internal motivation needed for behavior change while resolving any existing ambivalence towards change. Although initially developed to help people overcome substance use problems, MI is now used to explore and enhance motivation for changing almost any behavior.

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The central premise of ACT is that people’s thoughts and feelings are affected by events, the people around them, and their environment. ACT focuses on increasing tolerance for emotional pain, especially when avoiding pain prevents one from living a fulfilling and meaningful life. ACT promotes alternative ways to cope with and relate to emotional pain while clarifying a person’s values. Techniques from ACT help individuals get “unstuck” from their emotions so they can pursue more value-consistent actions.

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) involves identifying irrational beliefs, actively challenging these beliefs, and recognizing and changing maladaptive thought patterns. Albert Ellis created REBT based on the idea that each person holds a unique set of basic assumptions about themselves and the world, influencing their actions and reactions and influencing their perspective on situations.

Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). MBSR utilizes the principles of mindfulness meditation to manage stress and related symptoms. Although it’s primarily used in treating anxiety-related disorders and chronic pain, those who don’t have a diagnosis may find MBSR beneficial as they can learn to manage stress much more effectively.

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). MBCT is a relatively new form of CBT riding the crest of its third wave is Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). The essential element of MBCT is mindfulness. The focus doesn’t lie on changing thoughts like in other forms of CBT, but rather the way a person reacts to these thoughts. Research suggests that those who live with a significant amount of stress, anxiety, or chronic pain can benefit from MBCT. The goal is to help people make healthy choices with each new day and improve life on a moment-to-moment basis.

Exposure Therapy. Exposure therapy is a type of cognitive-behavioral treatment most frequently used to treat OCD, PTSD, and phobias. Through treatment, a person and their therapist work together to identify anxiety triggers and learn relaxation techniques to manage anxiety-induced distress. In a controlled, safe environment, the person would then confront those triggers while simultaneously implementing relaxation techniques. While some can encounter distressing memories at once or via flooding, others need to work up to them over time to avoid re-traumatization. In this case, a therapist will help ease one into the exposure process by leveraging relaxation techniques, typically starting with the more manageable memories.

Getting Started With Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

While each type of cognitive-behavioral therapy takes a different approach, all work to address the underlying thought patterns that contribute to psychological distress. Treatment progress is dependent on each individual’s unique circumstances and needs. You and your therapist will actively check in to ensure that progress is being maintained and that your treatment goals, values, and hopes are being accomplished.

At Washington Psychological Wellness, we actively work with and consult with outside providers, teachers, clergy, and family members to coordinate care. If you’d like to learn more about CBT and how it can help you achieve holistic mental wellness, contact us at Washington Psychological Wellness today.

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Types and benefits of cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is one of the most effective and well-studied therapeutic approaches used in the treatment of various mental disorders such as depression or anxiety. What is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and how effective is it?

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy was developed in the 1960s by the American psychiatrist Aaron Beck. The basis of this form of therapeutic treatment is the belief that thoughts, emotions, and human behavior can influence each other, creating not always the right patterns of behavior. In the process of life, a person, under the influence of emotions, fixes certain patterns of behavior in specific situations. Sometimes he copies the behavior of others, reacts to various phenomena and situations, as he used to, not suspecting that this harms him and others. If, for example, he is a pessimist, he will see everything in black. People fix their behavior and perception of the world through experience, so it is difficult for them to subsequently go beyond the established internal framework. Therapy is needed when fixed behaviors or beliefs are biased and can be harmful. The problem with a violation of the perception of the world becomes the subject of treatment. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy detects distorted interpretations of reality and replaces them with correct ones.

Who is eligible for CBT?

Cognitive behavioral therapy is widely used to treat anxiety and depressive disorders. Due to its high efficiency, it is most often used to relieve patients of phobias, panic attacks, neuroses, depression, bulimia, obsessive-compulsive disorders, schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress. This type of therapy is suitable for the treatment of postpartum depression, stress management, as well as for the rehabilitation of prisoners.

Cognitive behavioral therapy: main types and techniques

Cognitive behavioral therapy involves the use of behavioral and cognitive techniques. The search for a stimulus responsible for an inadequate response belongs to the cognitive part of therapy. The behavioral side consists of experiments that teach the patient new responses and behaviors without emotional burden.

One of the simplest and most common techniques is the so-called Socratic Dialogue. The therapist asks the patient questions in such a way that he can identify the source of his beliefs and tendencies. The doctor's role is to ask, listen to the answers and pay attention to the contradictions and logical errors appearing in his statements. This approach enables the patient to change perceptions, reconsider their beliefs, come to new conclusions and transform their behavior.

During a conversation with a patient, the therapist uses many effective techniques, such as paradox, exaggeration, probing, which help to identify non-functional reflections.

In addition to the Socratic dialogue in the therapeutic process, the therapist can use other methods of influence, such as switching attention or distraction, as well as special exercises to develop the habit of adequately responding to stressful situations.

Duration of therapy - about twenty hour sessions once or twice a week. One of the most important elements of successful therapy is the cooperation of the therapist with the patient. In this process, it is necessary to highlight:

  • stimulus - a specific situation that triggers the patient's action;
  • a special way of thinking in this situation;
  • feelings and physical sensations resulting from certain thinking;
  • behavior (action) of the patient.

In Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, the therapist attempts to find connections between the patient's thoughts, emotions, and actions. He has to analyze difficult situations and identify thoughts that led to a misinterpretation of reality. At the same time, it should help the patient realize how irrational his reactions were and give hope that the person can change his perception of the world.

Benefits of CBT

The effect of CBT is not only to change behavior, but also to understand the consequences of such changes. The main argument in favor of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy is its high effectiveness, confirmed by clinical trials. The advantage of this form of treatment is the development of the patient's self-awareness, control of his behavior and the development of an appropriate response to stimuli that were previously misinterpreted. This potential is maintained in the patient for a long time after the end of therapy, and allows avoiding repeated violations. An additional advantage of such therapy is an improvement in the quality of life. As a result of treatment, a person becomes motivated to act, and self-esteem increases.

In order to maintain normal mental health, one should get rid of negative emotions in time. The Wikium course “Brain Detoxification” helps in this matter.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy - Effective Techniques

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The foundation of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was laid by the eminent psychologist Albert Ellis and psychotherapist Aaron Beck.

Originating in the 1960s, this technique is recognized by the academic community as one of the most effective methods of psychotherapeutic treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy is a universal method of helping people suffering from various neurotic and mental disorders.

The authoritativeness of this concept is added by the dominant principle of the methodology - the unconditional acceptance of personality traits, a positive attitude towards each person while maintaining healthy criticism of the negative actions of the subject.

Methods of cognitive-behavioral therapy helped thousands of people who suffered from various complexes, depressive states, irrational fears. The popularity of this technique explains a combination of the obvious advantages of CBT:

  • a guarantee of achieving high results and a complete solution to the existing problem;
  • long-term, often life-long persistence of the effect obtained;
  • short course of therapy;
  • understandability of exercises for an ordinary citizen;
  • simplicity of tasks;
  • the ability to perform exercises recommended by a doctor on your own in the comfort of your own home;
  • a wide range of applications of techniques, the ability to use to overcome various psychological problems;
  • no side effects;
  • atraumaticity and safety;
  • the use of hidden resources of the body to solve the problem.

Cognitive behavioral therapy has shown good results in the treatment of various neurotic and psychotic disorders. CBT methods are used in the treatment of affective and anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, problems in the intimate sphere, and eating disorders. CBT techniques bring excellent results in the treatment of alcoholism, drug addiction, gambling, and psychological addictions.

General information

One of the features of cognitive-behavioral therapy is the division and systematization of all emotions of a person into two broad groups:

  • productive, also called rational or functional;
  • unproductive, called irrational or dysfunctional.

The group of unproductive emotions includes destructive experiences of an individual, which, according to the concept of CBT, are a consequence of irrational (illogical) beliefs and beliefs of a person - “irrational beliefs”. According to supporters of cognitive-behavioral therapy, all unproductive emotions and the dysfunctional model of personality behavior associated with it are not a reflection or result of the subject's personal experience. All irrational components of thinking and the non-constructive behavior associated with them are the result of a person's incorrect, distorted interpretation of their real experience. According to the authors of the methodology, the real culprit of all psycho-emotional disorders is the distorted and destructive belief system present in the individual, which was formed as a result of the wrong beliefs of the individual.

These ideas form the foundation of cognitive-behavioral therapy, the main concept of which is the following: the emotions, feelings and behavior of the subject are not determined by the situation in which he is, but by how he perceives the current situation. From these considerations comes the dominant strategy of CBT - to identify and identify dysfunctional experiences and stereotypes, then replace them with rational, useful, realistic feelings, taking full control of your train of thought.

By changing the personal attitude to some factor or phenomenon, replacing a rigid, rigid, non-constructive life strategy with flexible thinking, a person will acquire an effective worldview.

The functional emotions that have arisen will improve the psycho-emotional state of the individual and ensure excellent well-being under any life circumstances. On this basis, a conceptual model of cognitive-behavioral therapy was formulated , presented in an easy-to-understand ABC formula, where:

  • A (activating event) - some event occurring in reality, which is a stimulus for the subject;
  • B (belief) - the system of personal beliefs of an individual, a cognitive structure that reflects the process of a person's perception of an event in the form of emerging thoughts, formed ideas, formed beliefs;
  • C (emotional consequences) - final results, emotional and behavioral consequences.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy is focused on the identification and subsequent transformation of distorted components of thinking, which ensures the formation of a functional strategy for the behavior of the individual.

Treatment process

The treatment process using cognitive behavioral therapy techniques is a short course of 10 to 20 sessions. Most patients visit a therapist no more than twice a week. After a face-to-face meeting, clients are given a small “homework assignment”, which includes the performance of specially selected exercises and additional acquaintance with educational literature.

CBT treatment involves the use of two groups of techniques: behavioral and cognitive.

Let's consider cognitive techniques in more detail. They are aimed at detecting and correcting dysfunctional thoughts, beliefs, ideas. It should be noted that irrational emotions impede the normal functioning of a person, change a person’s thinking, force them to make and follow illogical decisions. Going off scale in amplitude, affective unproductive feelings lead to the fact that the individual sees reality in a distorted light. Dysfunctional emotions deprive a person of control over himself, force him to commit reckless acts.

Cognitive techniques are conditionally divided into several groups.

Group one

The purpose of the techniques of the first group is to track and become aware of one's own thoughts. For this, the following methods are most often used.

Recordings of one's own thoughts

The patient receives the task: to state on a piece of paper the thoughts that arise before and during the performance of any action. In this case, it is necessary to fix thoughts strictly in the order of their priority. This step will indicate the significance of certain motives of a person when making a decision.

Keeping a diary of thoughts

The client is advised to briefly, concisely and accurately record all thoughts that arise in a diary for several days. This action will allow you to find out what a person thinks about most often, how much time he spends thinking about these thoughts, how much he is disturbed by certain ideas.

Distance from non-functional thoughts

The essence of the exercise is that a person must develop an objective attitude towards his own thoughts. In order to become an impartial "observer", he needs to move away from emerging ideas. Detachment from one's own thoughts has three components:

  • awareness and acceptance of the fact that a non-constructive thought arises automatically, an understanding that the overcoming idea was formed earlier under certain circumstances, or that it is not its own product of thinking, but is imposed from outside by extraneous subjects;
  • awareness and acceptance that stereotyped thoughts are non-functional and interfere with normal adaptation to existing conditions;
  • doubt about the truth of the emerging non-adaptive idea, since such a stereotyped construct contradicts the existing situation and does not correspond in its essence to the emerging requirements of reality.

Second group

The task of the technicians from the second group is to challenge existing non-functional thoughts. To do this, the patient is asked to perform the following exercises.

Examining arguments for and against stereotypical thoughts

A person examines his own maladaptive thought and writes down the arguments for and against. The patient is then instructed to reread their notes daily. With regular exercise in the mind of a person, over time, the “correct” arguments will be firmly fixed, and the “wrong” ones will be eliminated from thinking.

Weighing advantages and disadvantages

This exercise is not about analyzing your own non-constructive thoughts, but about studying existing solutions. For example, a woman makes a comparison of what is more important for her: to maintain her own safety by not coming into contact with persons of the opposite sex, or to allow a share of risk in her life in order to eventually create a strong family.


This exercise provides that a person experimentally, on personal experience, comprehends the result of demonstrating one or another emotion. For example, if the subject does not know how society reacts to the manifestation of his anger, he is allowed to express his emotion in full force, directing it to the therapist.

Return to the past

The essence of this step is a frank conversation with impartial witnesses of past events that left a mark on the human psyche. This technique is especially effective in disorders of the mental sphere, in which memories are distorted. This exercise is relevant for those who have delusions that have arisen as a result of an incorrect interpretation of the motives that move other people.

Use of authoritative sources of information

This step involves giving the patient arguments drawn from scientific literature, official statistics, personal experience of the doctor. For example, if a patient is afraid of air travel, the therapist points him to objective international reports, according to which the number of accidents when using airplanes is much lower compared to disasters that occur on other modes of transport.

Socratic method (Socratic dialogue)

The doctor's task is to identify and point out to the client logical errors and obvious contradictions in his reasoning. For example, if the patient is convinced that he is destined to die from a spider bite, but at the same time declares that he has already been bitten by this insect before, the doctor points out a contradiction between anticipation and the real facts of personal history.

Change of mind - reassessment of facts

The purpose of this exercise is to change a person's current view of an existing situation by testing whether alternative causes of the same event would have the same effect. For example, the client is invited to reflect and discuss whether this or that person could have done the same to him if she had been guided by other motives.

Downscaling - decatastrophe

This technique involves the development of a non-adaptive thought of the patient to a global scale for the subsequent devaluation of its consequences. For example, to a person who is terrified of leaving his own home, the doctor asks questions: “In your opinion, what will happen to you if you go outside?”, “How much and for how long will negative feelings overcome you?”, “What will happen next? Are you going to have a seizure? Are you dying? Will people die? The planet will end its existence? A person understands that his fears in a global sense are not worth attention. Awareness of the temporal and spatial framework helps to eliminate the fear of the imagined consequences of a disturbing event.

Softening the intensity of emotions

The essence of this technique is to conduct an emotional reassessment of a traumatic event. For example, the injured person is asked to summarize the situation by saying to herself the following: “It is very unfortunate that such a fact took place in my life. However, I will not allow

this event will control my present and ruin my future. I'm leaving the trauma in the past. " That is, the destructive emotions that arise in a person lose their power of affect: resentment, anger and hatred are transformed into softer and more functional experiences.

Role change

This technique consists of an exchange of roles between the doctor and the client. The task of the patient is to convince the therapist that his thoughts and beliefs are maladaptive. Thus, the patient himself is convinced of the dysfunctionality of his judgments.

Postponing ideas

This exercise is suitable for those patients who cannot give up their impossible dreams, unrealistic desires and unrealistic goals, but thinking about them makes him uncomfortable. The client is invited to postpone the implementation of his ideas for a long time, while specifying a specific date for their implementation, for example, the occurrence of a certain event. The expectation of this event eliminates psychological discomfort, thereby making a person's dream more achievable.

Drawing up an action plan for the future

The client, together with the doctor, develops an adequate realistic program of actions for the future, which specifies specific conditions, defines the actions of a person, sets step-by-step deadlines for completing tasks. For example, the therapist and the patient agree that in the event of a critical situation, the client will follow a certain sequence of actions. And until the onset of a catastrophic event, he will not exhaust himself with disturbing experiences at all.

Group three

The third group of techniques is focused on activating the sphere of the individual's imagination. It has been established that the dominant position in thinking of anxious people is not occupied by “automatic” thoughts at all, but by obsessive frightening images and exhausting destructive ideas. Based on this, therapists have developed special techniques that act on the correction of the area of ​​​​imagination.

Termination method

When a client has an obsessive negative image, he is advised to utter a conditional laconic command in a loud and firm voice, for example: “Stop!”. Such an indication terminates the action of the negative image.

Repetition method

This technique involves the patient repeatedly repeating settings that are characteristic of a productive way of thinking. Thus, over time, the formed negative stereotype is eliminated.

Use of metaphors

To activate the patient's imagination, the doctor uses appropriate metaphorical statements, instructive parables, quotations from poetry. This approach makes the explanation more colorful and understandable.

Image modification

The method of modifying imagination involves the active work of the client, aimed at gradually replacing destructive images with ideas of a neutral color, and then with positive constructs.

Positive imagination

This technique involves replacing a negative image with positive ideas, which has a pronounced relaxing effect.

Constructive imagination

The desensitization technique consists in the fact that a person ranks the probability of an expected catastrophic situation, that is, he establishes and orders the expected future events in order of importance. This step leads to the fact that the negative forecast loses its global significance and is no longer perceived as inevitable. For example, a patient is asked to rank the probability of death when meeting with an object of fear.

Fourth group

Techniques from this group are aimed at increasing the effectiveness of the treatment process and minimizing the resistance of the client.

Purposeful repetition

The essence of this technique is persistent repeated testing of various positive instructions in personal practice.

Learn more