Therapy for youth

Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents: Different Types

Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents: Different Types

No. 86; updated April 2019

Psychotherapy is a form of psychiatric treatment that involves therapeutic conversations and interactions between a therapist and a child or family. It can help children and families understand and resolve problems, modify behavior, and make positive changes in their lives. There are several types of psychotherapy that involve different approaches, techniques, and interventions. At times, a combination of different psychotherapy approaches may be helpful. In some cases, a combination of medication with psychotherapy may be more effective.

Different types of psychotherapy:

  • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) helps a child understand and accept their inner emotions. ACT therapists help children and teens use their deeper understanding of their emotional struggles to commit to moving forward in a positive way.  
  • Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) helps improve a child's moods, anxiety, and behavior by examining confused or distorted patterns of thinking. CBT therapists teach children that thoughts cause feelings and moods which can influence behavior. During CBT, a child learns to identify harmful thought patterns. The therapist then helps the child replace this thinking with thoughts that result in more appropriate feelings and behaviors. Research shows that CBT can be effective in treating a variety of conditions, including depression and anxiety. Specialized forms of CBT have also been developed to help children coping with traumatic experiences.
  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) can be used to treat older adolescents who have chronic suicidal feelings/thoughts, engage in intentionally self-harmful behaviors, or have Borderline Personality Disorder. DBT emphasizes taking responsibility for one's problems and helps the person examine how they deal with conflict and intense negative emotions. This often involves a combination of group and individual sessions. 
  • Family Therapy focuses on helping the family function in more positive and constructive ways by exploring patterns of communication and providing support and education. Family therapy sessions can include the child or adolescent along with parents, siblings, and grandparents. Couples Therapy is a specific type of family therapy that focuses on a couple's communication and interactions (e.g. parents having marital problems). 
  • Group Therapy is a form of psychotherapy where there are multiple patients led by one or more therapists. It uses the power of group dynamics and peer interactions to increase understanding of mental illness and/or improve social skills. There are many different types of group therapy (e.g. psychodynamic, social skills, substance abuse, multi-family, parent support, etc.). 
  • Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) is a brief treatment specifically developed and tested for depression, but also used to treat a variety of other clinical conditions. IPT therapists focus on how interpersonal events affect an individual's emotional state. Individual difficulties are framed in interpersonal terms, and then problematic relationships are addressed. 
  • Mentalization Based Therapy (MBT) involves working with children and teens who struggle with who they are. MBT is focused on helping children grow into healthy individuals.   
  • Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) helps parents and children who struggle with behavior problems or connection through real-time coaching sessions. Parents interact with their children while therapists guide families toward positive interactions.
  • Play Therapy involves the use of toys, blocks, dolls, puppets, drawings, and games to help the child recognize, identify, and verbalize feelings. The psychotherapist observes how the child uses play materials and identifies themes or patterns to understand the child's problems. Through a combination of talk and play the child has an opportunity to better understand and manage their conflicts, feelings, and behavior.
  • Psychodynamic Psychotherapy emphasizes understanding the issues that motivate and influence a child's behavior, thoughts, and feelings. It can help identify a child's typical behavior patterns, defenses, and responses to inner conflicts and struggles. Psychoanalysis is a specialized, more intensive form of psychodynamic psychotherapy which usually involves several sessions per week. Psychodynamic psychotherapies are based on the assumption that a child's behavior and feelings will improve once the inner struggles are brought to light. 
  • Supportive Therapy gives children and teens support in their lives to cope with stress, identify helpful and unhelpful behaviors, and improve self-esteem.

Psychotherapy is not a quick fix or an easy answer. It is a complex and rich process that, over time, can reduce symptoms, provide insight, and improve a child or adolescent's functioning and quality of life.

At times, a combination of different psychotherapy approaches may be helpful. In some cases, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be most effective. Child and adolescent psychiatrists are trained in different forms of psychotherapy and, if indicated, are able to combine these forms of treatment with medications to help alleviate the child or adolescent's emotional and/or behavioral problems.

Find a Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist near you.

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You may also mail in your contribution. Please make checks payable to the AACAP and send to Campaign for America’s Kids, P.O. Box 96106, Washington, DC 20090.

The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) represents over 10,000 child and adolescent psychiatrists who are physicians with at least five years of additional training beyond medical school in general (adult) and child and adolescent psychiatry.

Facts for Families© information sheets are developed, owned and distributed by AACAP. Hard copies of Facts sheets may be reproduced for personal or educational use without written permission, but cannot be included in material presented for sale or profit. All Facts can be viewed and printed from the AACAP website ( Facts sheets may not be reproduced, duplicated or posted on any other website without written consent from AACAP. Organizations are permitted to create links to AACAP's website and specific Facts sheets. For all questions please contact the AACAP Communications Manager, ext. 154.

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Copyright © 2023 by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Types of Therapy - The Youth Mental Health Project

Types of Therapy

Just like with physical illnesses, there are many different types of treatments available that may help your child recover from mental illness. Mental health problems, however, are often invisible and not as easy to assess as some other illnesses. Understandably, many parents are hesitant to seek a diagnosis because of negative perceptions and fears about labeling their children. However, a professional mental health assessment can be an important tool for you and your doctor to use in determining the best course of treatment for your child (and is usually required by most health insurance companies for medical treatment and school districts for special services).

Unfortunately, there is no one treatment that works for every person and, typically, a combination of different approaches may be needed to help your family and your child cope with and manage emotions, thoughts, and behaviors that cause problems in their lives. The important thing to remember is that early intervention can make a significant difference in the length and severity of ANY health problem, including those related to mental health.

Treatment options vary widely and can include complementary and alternative approaches, medication, therapy, nutrition, exercise, social support, and education. Below is a brief description of some of the evidence-based psychotherapy practices, therapies, and interventions currently available.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

focuses on a child’s distorted or confused thoughts (cognition) and how those patterns impact his or her emotions, moods and behaviors. CBT can teach children specific tools and skills that will help them identify negative thoughts and replace them with thoughts that result in more appropriate feelings and behaviors. CBT can be effective in treating a variety of conditions, including depression and anxiety.

Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT)

is a modified form of CBT usually used to treat older adolescents who have chronic conditions that become debilitating and can lead to suicidal feelings and/or thoughts, intentionally self-harmful behaviors, and increased conflict with others. DBT can be used to treat depression, eating disorders, bipolar disorder, personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorder. DBT teaches communication skills to manage painful emotions and their resulting behaviors or conflicts, with a specific focus on mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotional regulation and interpersonal effectiveness. Typically DBT will include individual and group skills sessions.

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

is a form of therapy used to treat PTSD by helping the brain and body process the actual traumatic memories, along with all of the physical and emotional sensations associated with that memory, to find relief.

Family Therapy

focuses on helping family members learn how to improve and nurture the interactions within the family so that they are better able to function together, provide each other support, and improve communications. Focusing on family dynamics and systems, family therapy views family relationships as a vital component of mental health. Family therapy sessions can include the child along with parents, siblings, and grandparents.

Group Therapy

is a form of psychotherapy where there are multiple patients led by one or more therapists. Using the power of peer interactions and group dynamics, group therapy seeks to improve social and communication skills and increase understanding of mental health conditions or problems. There are many different types of group therapy.

Play Therapy

is generally used for younger children and involves the use of toys, blocks, dolls, puppets, drawings and games to help the child identify and communicate emotions and feelings. Using play materials and games, the therapist observes the child to identify and understand patterns or themes that explain the child’s problems. Through a combination of talk and play, the child will learn to understand and manage his or her emotions, feelings, and behaviors.

Self-help and Peer Support Groups

can help address feelings of isolation and help people gain insight into their mental health condition. Members of support groups may share frustrations, successes, referrals for specialists, where to find the best community resources and tips on what works best when trying to recover.


is a therapeutic intervention for both the child and the family members and is an important component of the treatment process. Psychoeducation provides information and education about diagnosed mental health conditions and illnesses to improve empathy, problem-solving, communication and support. It includes educating family and friends on coping strategies, resources, and how to recognize the signs of relapse.

Individual Therapy

is a process through which clients work one on one with a trained therapist in a safe, caring and confidential environment – to explore their feelings, beliefs, or behaviors, work through challenging or influential memories, identify aspects of their lives that they would like to change, better understand themselves and others, set personal goals, and work toward desired change. Sometimes it is referred to as psychotherapy or counseling. * THE CHICAGO SCHOOL OF PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY


is a method of psychiatric therapy originating from Sigmund Freud in which free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of resistance and transference are used to explore repressed or unconscious impulses, anxieties and internal conflicts.

Faith-based Therapy

is a Biblical model of therapy based on the dynamics of beliefs, choices, and faith. Faith-based counselors vary in amount of religious training and psychological expertise. Some may feel most comfortable seeking help outside the traditional psychological profession.


is a type of psychology and therapy focused on typical and normal developmental issues as it applies to the human experience. Many people assume that psychology, therapy, and counseling are all the same, and they all have to do with crazy people. That is one of the assumptions we hope to challenge. Counseling focuses on normal issues that come with development – issues where a simple hand or leg up would resolve the issue before it became a problem. This includes but is not limited to:

  • Career counseling
  • Family counseling
  • Individual counseling
  • Organizational counseling
  • Grief counseling


Download the fact sheet on Types of Therapy

If you or your child is thinking about harming yourself get help immediately.
You can call 911 or the National Suicide Prevention Line at 1.800.273.TALK (8255).

Hormonal youth. Sinai Clinic near Dobryninskaya metro station in Moscow


Hormones are active biological substances. When they enter the bloodstream, they regulate the metabolic process and physiological function.


Hormones are active biological substances. When released into the bloodstream, they regulate the metabolic process and physiological function. The appearance of laughter, tears, rapid aging, frequent illnesses, planning a child, hunger, satiety - these are the factors that are regulated by hormones. If we talk about beauty, then it directly depends on the endocrine system. You can meet a person who has problematic skin, overweight, abnormal growth, etc. This suggests that a hormonal imbalance has occurred in his body. nine0003

Hormones have a positive effect on the body when they are present in the body in a normal amount. Female representatives feel the imbalance of hormones much more strongly. Some types of hormones are responsible for certain systems in the body. For example, T3, T4, estradiol affect the metabolic process, therefore, with their lack, the skin becomes dry and flabby. The woman looks older than her age.

The rate of aging of the body is affected by regular renewal of the skin, nails, hair. Hair can become gray, their fragility will increase. In addition, hormones affect hunger and mood. Therefore, if every day begins with a bad mood, you need to think about hormonal imbalance, and turn to specialists until more serious problems appear. nine0003

In modern medicine, there is such a thing as hormone therapy. It is a method during which active substances are used that affect the age-related change in a person. Also, with the help of such therapy, it is possible to identify and stop a dangerous disease, until it passes into a more severe stage. This therapeutic method involves a hormonal effect on the body of a person who is over forty years old (hormone replacement therapy), and who has not yet reached this age. nine0003

HRT refers to a common regimen for the treatment of certain diseases. Hormone therapy is:

  • Braking. The method involves the impact on the pancreas, or rather the inhibition of its excessive activity. This is necessary when the patient is scheduled for surgery or radiation therapy. Basically, this method is used in oncology.

  • Stimulant. Such a short treatment helps to test the physical potential of the pancreas. The patient takes neurohormones to mobilize the adrenal glands. nine0003

  • Alternate. Based on the name of the method, it can be understood that this method helps the body in the presence of concomitant diseases. If a person has a malfunction of the endocrine glands, the appointment of long-term treatment is a mandatory procedure. Hormonal preparations should be taken taking into account the state of the human body.

Indications for hormone therapy

  • The onset of pathological menopause in reproductive age.

  • Penetration of infection into the genitourinary system.

  • The presence of artificially created amenorrhea after surgery.

  • Diagnosed osteoporosis.


  • Pregnancy.

  • Presence of bleeding when it is not possible to quickly make a diagnosis.

  • Acute stage of hepatitis.

  • The presence of a brain tumor or other untreated diseases.

  • In diabetes mellitus.

Why is it necessary to use HRT during menopause

To improve the quality of intimate life. Menopause in a woman is characterized by the appearance of dryness, itching, unpleasant odor in intimate places. Therefore, sex life becomes unacceptable. In such a situation, it is necessary to resort to a cardinal method. This is hormone replacement therapy.

Resolve sensitive issues. In addition to the worsened quality of intimate relationships, urinary incontinence may occur. This is quite difficult to hide from your partner. In such a situation, you should not self-medicate or use traditional medicine methods. A person can safely turn to a medical center where he will be assisted by qualified and experienced specialists in their field. nine0003

Eliminate embarrassing moments. With the onset of menopause, a woman begins to feel discomfort. It represents certain ebb and flow. During such periods, insomnia and irritability develop. The woman becomes aggressive towards the people around her. To prevent the development of serious complications, it is necessary to use hormone replacement therapy.

To prolong youth. The use of various anti-aging creams cannot be compared with the effectiveness of hormone replacement therapy. Thanks to this method, the epidermis of a woman, even in adulthood, remains elastic. nine0003

Getting the opportunity to conceive and give birth to a child after forty years. Thanks to modern medical methods, diagnosed menopause is a controversial issue. After using hormonal therapy, the ovaries begin to fully function in a woman, as a result, a full fusion with the spermatozoon occurs. This situation does not require the use of IVF.

Why Hormone Therapy is Necessary for Infertility

Women. Clomid is used to induce ovulation. The condition for this is the absence of adhesive disease in the fallopian tubes, minimizing the woman's ability to conceive a child. To activate the function of the ovaries, gonadotropin with recombinant and urinary effects on the reproductive function of a woman is used. Thanks to genetic engineering, drugs can be used that do not contain any impurities. As a result, the progression of eggs and follicles improves. nine0003

Men. If testicular dysfunction occurs, there is an increase in FSH. In such a situation, it is still necessary to examine the level of testosterone. With a high level of this hormone, a man is prescribed immediate hormone therapy. Thanks to this method, it is possible to eliminate erectile dysfunction, normalize body weight, get rid of a depressive state. Otherwise, a man will not be able to become a father without taking hormonal drugs.

Hormone therapy for certain pathological conditions

With epilepsy. After the woman's uterus has been removed, the use of long-term estrogen-progestogen treatment is prescribed to eliminate convulsions.

With amenorrhea. In such a situation, inhalation or intravenous administration of hormonal drugs occurs. The main point is to exclude the penetration of the drug into the gastrointestinal tract.

With uterine myoma. In most cases, such a diagnosis is made to women whose age exceeds 35 years. This situation requires an artificial introduction to menopause, with which the body will fight on its own. nine0003

With cardiovascular diseases. The danger of menopause lies in the increased risk of developing a heart attack. Thanks to the use of hormone therapy, blood pressure decreases, cholesterol plaques will form less intensively.

With a predisposition to Alzheimer's disease. This disease is terrible for its complications. The use of hormone replacement therapy allows you to block the initial stage of the disease. nine0003

The results of treatment therapy depend on how correctly the treatment regimen is drawn up. In the medical center, the reception is conducted by specialists who have extensive experience in this field. A treatment plan may include the following:

  • Find cause. If latent pathology is not detected, therapeutic measures may not have the desired effect. It is impossible to ensure the normal functioning of the endocrine glands without eliminating a venereal disease. There are cases when eliminating the provoking factor, the need for hormone replacement therapy disappears. nine0003

  • Hormone screening for men. During such an analysis, testosterone (androgen), prolactin (spermatogenesis), T4 (thyroxine), FSH (male fertility) are carefully examined. As a result, it is possible to adjust the lack of a hormone in a man, which helps to prolong his youth and sexual activity.

  • Before surgery. It is necessary to correct the hormonal balance in the case when the pathology is neglected. Endometrial hyperplasia involves surgery, the introduction of general anesthesia. After the operation, the patient is prescribed hormones and regular ultrasound examination of the uterus and ovaries. nine0003

Explain the details to the patient. Exist some diseases that need lifelong treatment. For example, thyroiditis. If hormonal therapy is carried out qualitatively, psychological stress is minimized.

Examination rules before hormonal therapy

To obtain the most truthful information that relates to the health of the patient, he needs to follow some rules for passing the examination. Namely: nine0003

1. Choose a time. To check the level of sugar in the blood, it is necessary to take an analysis on an empty stomach.

2. Consider the emotional state. During a stressful state, a change in hormonal levels occurs, so you need to remember this when donating hormones.

3. Full sleep. In the presence of insomnia, a change in blood counts may occur, as a result, the patient receives a false result.

Why Hormone Therapy is Necessary

Maintain youth for years to come. The onset of early menopause has a detrimental effect on the epidermis, namely on its elasticity. This is due to the fact that the collagen fibers are broken. If estrogen is activated, there is the possibility of prolonging the biological age, regardless of the patient's age. With a lack of estrogen, the skin becomes dry, papillomas appear, as a result of which the appearance of a person deteriorates.

Prevent menopause at an early age. With the exhaustion of the ovaries before the age of forty, a woman loses the opportunity to conceive and safely bear a child. If hormone replacement therapy is carried out, a woman can quickly become pregnant and give birth to a healthy baby. An important condition for such therapy is the supervision of an experienced and qualified specialist. nine0003

Increase libido in adulthood. If you use hormone substitutes, a person will be attracted to the opposite sex, regardless of his age. Particular attention should be paid to men.

Choice of medical center

By choosing our clinic, the patient is provided with the supervision of many qualified specialists. Doctors control the endocrine, genitourinary and cardiovascular systems. To determine the state of the human gastrointestinal tract, it is necessary to pass the appropriate tests, which can be taken in one clinic. nine0003

There are situations when a decision on therapeutic measures must be taken without delay. For this, the medical center has an express analysis service. Thanks to high-quality equipment and the experience of doctors, the patient is guaranteed a high-quality diagnosis in the shortest possible time.

How the procedure is carried out

The patient is consulted by a doctor. A survey is conducted, based on which the specialist draws up a scheme for further therapeutic measures. In some cases, the patient is prescribed additional laboratory tests. nine0003

Diagnostic stage. In order to correct the problem with hormone therapy, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive examination. An important point is to conduct an estrogen test (gestagen test for amenorrhea in women) and testerone control for men.

They make a diagnosis. The above problems are associated in most cases with early menopause in women and impotence in men. The diagnosis is made on the basis of laboratory tests. An important point is to conduct an ultrasound examination and donate blood to determine the level of hormones. nine0003

Medical activities. It is necessary to control the state of the epidermis in a woman. Otherwise, the risk of bleeding, infertility increases, which in turn leads to surgical intervention. The duration of treatment continues until the natural menopause occurs.

When is hormone therapy needed

  • To stimulate one's own hormones if over 35 years of age. In the presence of a genetic predisposition and the first symptoms of a malfunction of the endocrine gland, it is necessary to immediately visit an endocrinologist. An experienced doctor prescribes an additional examination. This is done by a gynecologist, geneticist, diabetologist. nine0003

  • Administering substitution therapy when over forty years of age. Thanks to the use of modern drugs, the production of your own hormones is maximally simulated.

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Hormonal tuning: microdoses to prolong youth

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More than half of the Russian Forbes list are people over 50 who can afford everything except eternal youth. In pursuit of it, new methods are being invented. Businessmen, socialite beauties and biohackers turned to hormonal tuning. "City" understands what it is - and how it works.

For a neophyte, “hormonal tuning” looks like perfect shamanism: for example, smear testosterone gel on the stomach at strictly defined hours, and drink an infusion of thyme at night to even out estrogen levels. nine0003

In fact, there is no shamanism here, and the trend for “hormonal tuning” came from the USA and Europe to Russia, although doctors of classical medicine both there and here historically treat “terrible hormones” with great distrust and prescribe them reluctantly, except during menopause.

But in our body, the orchestra of hormones governs many processes, and age has nothing to do with it: they are responsible for hunger, mood, libido, and emotions. If even one violin fails, the symphony turns into a chorus of hungry cats. Chronic fatigue can turn out to be a testosterone deficiency (yes, in women too), and insomnia can turn out to be a frenzied production of cortisol or a lack of melatonin. nine0003

“Hormonal games”: where to start

“There are no age and social restrictions for patients,” says endocrinologist Elena Pshinnik, the busiest doctor at the K + 31 Petrovsky Gate clinic, she has appointments from 8 to 20 for three days per week, a new patient can sign up only after three months. She studied preventive medicine with French professor Claude Dale, author of Lose Weight by Activating Hormones. - These are 25-year-old students, and burnt-out schoolchildren, adult men with the “syndrome of an effective manager” and young women gaining weight. We need a phased and correct restoration of a person, I literally collect each one brick by brick. Microdoses of hormones just help here, but the matter is not limited to them: Pshinnik is developing a program to compensate for the lack of trace elements and puts digestion in order. “Part of the hormones are synthesized in the intestines, if there is chronic inflammation, then there is nowhere to take estrogen with cortisol,” she explains. nine0003

Of course, it is a crime to start “hormonal games” without examinations, no self-respecting doctor will allow this. The problem is that many of the tests necessary to start treatment are simply not done in Russia, they have to be sent abroad. So does, for example, the online service Diagnost. The mechanics are simple: registration in a mobile application, then - boxes with test strips at home, urine analysis 4 times a day, passing the tests back to the courier - and they fly in an envelope to a laboratory in the USA. Based on the results, the doctor prescribes a scheme of bioidentical supplements and microdoses of hormones and consults online. nine0003

The service was founded by Tatyana Bakunina, a former top manager of the Brussels headquarters of Johnson & Johnson Medical and a Harvard graduate. More than ten years ago, she opened the first preventive medicine clinic in Brussels, and then there were only twenty people from Russia in the patient pool, over the past two years, the number of patients has gone into the thousands. And this new Russian fashion for hormonal tuning was the impetus to start with the Diagnost service in Russia - it appeared in the UK three years ago. nine0003

Bakunina is sure that already from the age of 25-40 it is necessary to start tracking hormones and their metabolites, that is, precursors: for example, the testosterone metabolite - the hormone DHEA. And then regularly go through a check-up and, if necessary, adjust the indicators. In this way, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders can be delayed or even prevented.

“At the end of the 2000s, everything in my body went wrong for a short time - the burnout syndrome overtook me for no reason at all,” says Sergey Yushin, head of the National Meat Association. - I remember answering a doctor's question at Bakunina's clinic in Brussels. “How do you feel in the morning?” "Like I'm dying." According to the analyzes, they saw what happened to me - a lot of indicators “went”. After 3 months of working with doctors, everything noticeably returned to normal. I've been on this system all the time ever since, sometimes we pause. Doctors say: everything is super, do not appear for a year. Now I am 60, and I am happy to go to the gym three times a week, regularly go out on the golf course, although fifteen years ago I had no energy at all in the evening. I advised the technique to many acquaintances: it did not suit someone, as it requires discipline and attention, this also happens. There are no impossible requirements, nothing supernatural, but every evening 50 g of cognac is impossible. And four times a day, take vitamins and other drugs by the hour - not everyone can build this into their lives. nine0003

Evidence-based medicine - against

Classical doctors are very wary of these schemes. In addition, the bioidentical hormones (of plant or laboratory origin) so beloved by biohackers and preventive endocrinologists are not approved for use by the FDA, an agency of the US Department of Health and Human Services.

“How can you recognize that something is wrong? Sheets of analyzes for big money, intimidation that the syndrome of "tired adrenal glands" is deadly. Prescribing testosterone to women and men with preserved libido. In these cases, I would advise you to seek a second opinion,” says Daria Ladygina, head of the endocrinology department of the Federal State Budgetary Institution “Central Clinical Hospital with a Polyclinic” of the Department of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation. nine0003

The money spent is a shame, but it’s worse if a real disease is treated with testosterone, Ladygina believes: “One of my patients, the head of a large organization who was prescribed testosterone without indications in “male” doses, realized that something was wrong with her. so, when she fired 30% of the employees.

“At the age of 40, in the absence of a history of hormonal failure, there is no need for such therapy. Only for preserving youth, it does not have a significant effect, ”says Pyon Dong Won, professor of endocrinology at the Sunchonhyang Medical Center in Seoul, to which the boutique medical tourism agency F63.9 sends Russians.Med&Tour. The Korean specialist insists: if weakness and apathy bother you, first of all, you need a high-quality check-up, without which no anti-age program is inconceivable. Perhaps it's not about hormones, but about low hemoglobin or psychological problems.

However, preventive endocrinologists themselves also call for caution and are indignant, seeing how couch experts from Instagram generously distribute universal schemes and arrange entire “hormonal marathons”.

Learn more