Theory of everything eq

EQ 101: Everything You Need to Know About Equalization

Mixing explained

This is lesson is step 9 / 9 of a LANDR Lesson Plan. Click here to start from the beginning or simply just keep on reading.

EQ is a massive subject for audio engineers. It’s so fundamental to the process that the majority of your time mixing music is probably spent tweaking EQ plugins.

For such a big topic, it’s important to have a firm grasp on the basics. EQ is a powerful tool and you can easily do more harm than good.

In this article I’ll go over everything you need to know to start using EQ like a pro—from the ground up.

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What is EQ in music?

EQ (or equalization) in music is the process of changing the balance of different frequency components in an audio signal.

Our ears can detect a huge range of frequencies—roughly 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Each element of your mix has energy in different parts of that range.

EQ is the the tool you use to manipulate the frequency content of your mix so that everything is balanced and clear.

Here’s a rough break down of where the common mix areas sit on the spectrum.

Timbres and frequencies

Imagine a french horn and an electric guitar both playing the same A=440Hz note.

What makes them sound different? Both instruments are playing a note with the same fundamental frequency, but each has its own unique timbre.

A sound’s timbre gives our brains a lot of information about what it represents in the real world.

A sound’s timbre gives our brains a lot of information about what it represents in the real world.

Unique, identifiable timbres are a property of all complex sounds. Complex just means any sound other than a basic sine wave.

All complex sounds can be broken down into simple sine wave components. These basic components are called partials.

If the partials are related to the fundamental by a whole number ratio (ie, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1 etc.) they’re harmonic. If not, they’re inharmonic.

A highly harmonic sound like a bowed cello string is rich in evenly related partials, while a highly inharmonic sound like a cymbal crash is made up of only unrelated ones.

When you use EQ to alter a sound, you’re really changing the volume of its partials relative to the rest. Keep this concept in mind as you move through the basics of EQ.

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EQ in mixing

Going back to our example, let’s say we record the french horn player and the guitarist playing a unison melody.

They each have distinct timbres, but when we record the performance with microphones, we notice the two sounds overlap.

In fact, they’re overlapping so much that it can be difficult to to hear them individually on the recording. This effect is called masking.

EQ is used in mixing to help reduce the effect of masking so that each instrument can be heard clearly.

Remember: EQing doesn’t create new frequencies. Think of EQing as sculpting… You’re working with raw material—the existing frequencies of your sound.

Filters and Bands

EQ is essentially a special application of a filter. The qualities of the filter that your EQ uses for its cuts or boost determines a lot about its sound—and the best way to use it.

The qualities of the filter that your EQ uses for its cuts or boost determines a lot about its sound—and the best way to use it.

If you break down the settings of an individual band of EQ, they’ll refer to basic characteristics of filters: type, slope, Q, and gain.

I’ll explain each one and how they affect your sound.


The filter type determines the general shape of the EQ band. The most common types are high/low pass, bell, notch, and high/low shelf.

High-pass (HPF) and low-pass (LPF) filters: These filters are named for the frequencies they leave unaffected, rather than the range they cut. A low cut is known as a high-pass filter and a high cut is known as low-pass filter.

Reach for these filter types when you need to clean up issues at the extreme ends of the spectrum.

The steep drop-off around the corner frequency can easily tame boomy low-end or piercing ultra-high resonance.

Bell: Bell filters are your standard tools boosting and cutting. Their shape can be manipulated using the Q parameter.

This is your go-to choice for sculpting and tone-shaping. Boost or cut at specific points and decide how broadly to affect neighboring frequencies with the Q control.

Shelf: Shelf or shelving filters boost or cut all frequencies above or below the corner frequency.

This EQ type is effective for making broad tonal changes. Think of low and high shelves like the treble and bass controls on your stereo system.

Notch: Notch or “band-stop filters” are used to selectively eliminate extremely narrow frequency ranges.

You can use these to eliminate offending room resonances that can arise from recording in untreated acoustic environments—but be careful, using many steep notches can create a comb-filtered, phase-shifted sound.


The slope of a filter refers to how aggressively the sound beyond its corner frequency is attenuated.

Filter slope is usually associated with HPF and LPF and types, but some modern EQs allow you to choose the slope of bell or shelving bands as well.

Slope is measured in dB/octave. The higher the number, the steeper the drop off around the corner frequency of the filter.

Slopes of 6db/octave to 24db/octave are common, although some advanced digital EQs can create slopes of up to 96db/octave.

Use less severe slopes like 6 or 12 db/octave to create gentle, transparent low end roll-off with a low-pass filter.

Get the tools to shape your sound with 30+ synths, instruments, effects and utilities plugins from industry leaders like Arturia, UJAM and more. Try LANDR Plugins.

Use sharper cut-offs like 24 and 48 db/octave for aggressive filtering at precise frequencies.


Q is short for quality factor. You can think of it as the “bandwidth” of an EQ band.

Q values of less than 1 will give you broader EQ curves, while values greater than 1 will give you tighter, more selective boosts or cuts.


Gain determines the amount of boost or cut you apply with your EQ. It’s measured in dB. Positive gain values indicate a boost, while negative ones make it a cut.

Hot tip: When you make adjustments with EQ, you also affect the overall gain of your signal.

That means extreme EQ settings can change your levels a lot. Make sure to keep gain staging in mind so you don’t run out of headroom.


The frequency is the centre of your EQ band’s action. This control determines the range where boosts or cuts will occur.

It’s important to remember that there’s no such thing as a perfect filter.

No matter how tightly you set your Q or how steep you make your slope, an EQ band will always affect a range of frequencies around the target, so be careful.

Adding and subtracting

The first rule of EQ is less is more.

Extreme tonal shifts can have a negative impact on your sound.

The best way to use EQ is to use it as little as possible. With that in mind, there are two main ways to approach EQ.

  • Additive EQ: boosting frequencies to achieve the results you want.
  • Subtractive EQ: cutting offending frequencies out.

There’s plenty of debate about whether it’s better to do one or the other.

The first rule of EQ is less is more.

But if your goal is to use the least EQ, you can simply choose whichever approach is the most direct route to your destination.

Get the tools to shape your sound with 30+ synths, instruments, effects and utilities plugins from industry leaders like Arturia, UJAM and more. Try LANDR Plugins.

For example, if you only need to cut one narrow range, using 3-4 bands to boost every other region of the spectrum is less transparent that using a single band to cut the main offender.

On the other hand, if all you need to do to make a sound pop is boost one range, cutting everything else and applying makeup gain isn’t the quickest route.

This debate is sometimes framed in terms of “corrective” vs. “creative” EQ, but that can be misleading.

No amount of EQ can fix a sound that wasn’t captured correctly at the source. As a recording engineer, your focus should be to get the sounds you need for your mix as early as possible in the process.

No amount of EQ can fix a sound that wasn’t captured correctly at the source.

Adding colour EQ to get a track to sit isn’t necessarily any more or less “creative” than other EQ tasks you might have in your mix.

Think of everything in terms of the big picture in your mix. Your goal is a polished, professional sound. Every process you apply is just a stepping stone to get there.

Equalize it

In the course of your mixing process, you’ll probably use EQ on every single track in your session.

With such an important tool, it’s important to have a solid foundation for how to use it.

Knowing how EQ affects the timbre of your sounds is the key to getting the right parameters for your mix or master.

Today though, there are smart plugins and AI mastering tools that make the process of EQing your track much easier.

Now that you have the fundamentals down, get back to your DAW and sculpt the perfect sound.

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Michael Hahn is an engineer and producer at Autoland and member of the swirling indie rock trio Slight.


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Improving Emotional Intelligence (EQ) -

emotional intelligence

When it comes to happiness and success in life, EQ matters just as much as IQ. Learn how you can boost your emotional intelligence, build stronger relationships, and achieve your goals.

What is emotional intelligence or EQ?

Emotional intelligence (otherwise known as emotional quotient or EQ) is the ability to understand, use, and manage your own emotions in positive ways to relieve stress, communicate effectively, empathize with others, overcome challenges and defuse conflict. Emotional intelligence helps you build stronger relationships, succeed at school and work, and achieve your career and personal goals. It can also help you to connect with your feelings, turn intention into action, and make informed decisions about what matters most to you.

Emotional intelligence is commonly defined by four attributes:

  1. Self-management – You're able to control impulsive feelings and behaviors, manage your emotions in healthy ways, take initiative, follow through on commitments, and adapt to changing circumstances.
  2. Self-awareness – You recognize your own emotions and how they affect your thoughts and behavior. You know your strengths and weaknesses, and have self-confidence.
  3. Social awareness – You have empathy. You can understand the emotions, needs, and concerns of other people, pick up on emotional cues, feel comfortable socially, and recognize the power dynamics in a group or organization.
  4. Relationship management – You know how to develop and maintain good relationships, communicate clearly, inspire and influence others, work well in a team, and manage conflict.

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Why is emotional intelligence so important?

As we know, it's not the smartest people who are the most successful or the most fulfilled in life. You probably know people who are academically brilliant and yet are socially inept and unsuccessful at work or in their personal relationships. Intellectual ability or your intelligence quotient (IQ) isn't enough on its own to achieve success in life. Yes, your IQ can help you get into college, but it's your EQ that will help you manage the stress and emotions when facing your final exams. IQ and EQ exist in tandem and are most effective when they build off one another.

Emotional intelligence affects:

Your performance at school or work. High emotional intelligence can help you navigate the social complexities of the workplace, lead and motivate others, and excel in your career. In fact, when it comes to gauging important job candidates, many companies now rate emotional intelligence as important as technical ability and employ EQ testing before hiring.

Your physical health. If you're unable to manage your emotions, you are probably not managing your stress either. This can lead to serious health problems. Uncontrolled stress raises blood pressure, suppresses the immune system, increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes, contributes to infertility, and speeds up the aging process. The first step to improving emotional intelligence is to learn how to manage stress.

Your mental health. Uncontrolled emotions and stress can also impact your mental health, making you vulnerable to anxiety and depression. If you are unable to understand, get comfortable with, or manage your emotions, you'll also struggle to form strong relationships. This in turn can leave you feeling lonely and isolated and further exacerbate any mental health problems.

[Read: Building Better Mental Health]

Your relationships. By understanding your emotions and how to control them, you're better able to express how you feel and understand how others are feeling. This allows you to communicate more effectively and forge stronger relationships, both at work and in your personal life.

Your social intelligence. Being in tune with your emotions serves a social purpose, connecting you to other people and the world around you. Social intelligence enables you to recognize friend from foe, measure another person's interest in you, reduce stress, balance your nervous system through social communication, and feel loved and happy.

Building emotional intelligence: Four key skills to increasing your EQ

The skills that make up emotional intelligence can be learned at any time. However, it's important to remember that there is a difference between simply learning about EQ and applying that knowledge to your life. Just because you know you should do something doesn't mean you will—especially when you become overwhelmed by stress, which can override your best intentions. In order to permanently change behavior in ways that stand up under pressure, you need to learn how to overcome stress in the moment, and in your relationships, in order to remain emotionally aware.

The key skills for building your EQ and improving your ability to manage emotions and connect with others are:

  1. Self-management
  2. Self-awareness
  3. Social awareness
  4. Relationship management

Building emotional intelligence, key skill 1: Self-management

In order for you to engage your EQ, you must be able to use your emotions to make constructive decisions about your behavior. When you become overly stressed, you can lose control of your emotions and the ability to act thoughtfully and appropriately.

Think about a time when stress has overwhelmed you. Was it easy to think clearly or make a rational decision? Probably not. When you become overly stressed, your ability to both think clearly and accurately assess emotions—your own and other people's—becomes compromised.

[Read: Stress Management]

Emotions are important pieces of information that tell you about yourself and others, but in the face of stress that takes us out of our comfort zone, we can become overwhelmed and lose control of ourselves. With the ability to manage stress and stay emotionally present, you can learn to receive upsetting information without letting it override your thoughts and self-control. You'll be able to make choices that allow you to control impulsive feelings and behaviors, manage your emotions in healthy ways, take initiative, follow through on commitments, and adapt to changing circumstances.

Key skill 2: Self-awareness

Managing stress is just the first step to building emotional intelligence. The science of attachment indicates that your current emotional experience is likely a reflection of your early life experience. Your ability to manage core feelings such as anger, sadness, fear, and joy often depends on the quality and consistency of your early life emotional experiences. If your primary caretaker as an infant understood and valued your emotions, it's likely your emotions have become valuable assets in adult life. But, if your emotional experiences as an infant were confusing, threatening or painful, it's likely you've tried to distance yourself from your emotions.

But being able to connect to your emotions—having a moment-to-moment connection with your changing emotional experience—is the key to understanding how emotion influences your thoughts and actions.

Do you experience feelings that flow, encountering one emotion after another as your experiences change from moment to moment?

Are your emotions accompanied by physical sensations that you experience in places like your stomach, throat, or chest?

Do you experience individual feelings and emotions, such as anger, sadness, fear, and joy, each of which is evident in subtle facial expressions?

Can you experience intense feelings that are strong enough to capture both your attention and that of others?

Do you pay attention to your emotions? Do they factor into your decision making?

If any of these experiences are unfamiliar, you may have “turned down” or “turned off” your emotions. In order to build EQ—and become emotionally healthy—you must reconnect to your core emotions, accept them, and become comfortable with them. You can achieve this through the practice of mindfulness.

[Listen: Mindful Breathing Meditation]

Mindfulness is the practice of purposely focusing your attention on the present moment—and without judgment. The cultivation of mindfulness has roots in Buddhism, but most religions include some type of similar prayer or meditation technique. Mindfulness helps shift your preoccupation with thought toward an appreciation of the moment, your physical and emotional sensations, and brings a larger perspective on life. Mindfulness calms and focuses you, making you more self-aware in the process.

Developing emotional awareness

It's important that you learn how to manage stress first, so you'll feel more comfortable reconnecting to strong or unpleasant emotions and changing how you experience and respond to your feelings. You can develop your emotional awareness by using HelpGuide's free Emotional Intelligence Toolkit.

Social awareness enables you to recognize and interpret the mainly nonverbal cues others are constantly using to communicate with you. These cues let you know how others are really feeling, how their emotional state is changing from moment to moment, and what's truly important to them.

[Read: Effective Communication]

When groups of people send out similar nonverbal cues, you're able to read and understand the power dynamics and shared emotional experiences of the group. In short, you're empathetic and socially comfortable.

Mindfulness is an ally of emotional and social awareness

To build social awareness, you need to recognize the importance of mindfulness in the social process. After all, you can't pick up on subtle nonverbal cues when you're in your own head, thinking about other things, or simply zoning out on your phone. Social awareness requires your presence in the moment. While many of us pride ourselves on an ability to multitask, this means that you'll miss the subtle emotional shifts taking place in other people that help you fully understand them.

  • You are actually more likely to further your social goals by setting other thoughts aside and focusing on the interaction itself.
  • Following the flow of another person's emotional responses is a give-and-take process that requires you to also pay attention to the changes in your own emotional experience.
  • Paying attention to others doesn't diminish your own self-awareness. By investing the time and effort to really pay attention to others, you'll actually gain insight into your own emotional state as well as your values and beliefs. For example, if you feel discomfort hearing others express certain views, you'll have learned something important about yourself.

Key skill 4: Relationship management

Working well with others is a process that begins with emotional awareness and your ability to recognize and understand what other people are experiencing. Once emotional awareness is in play, you can effectively develop additional social/emotional skills that will make your relationships more effective, fruitful, and fulfilling.

Become aware of how effectively you use nonverbal communication. It's impossible to avoid sending nonverbal messages to others about what you think and feel. The many muscles in the face, especially those around the eyes, nose, mouth and forehead, help you to wordlessly convey your own emotions as well as read other peoples' emotional intent. The emotional part of your brain is always on—and even if you ignore its messages—others won't. Recognizing the nonverbal messages that you send to others can play a huge part in improving your relationships.

Use humor and play to relieve stress. Humor, laughter and play are natural antidotes to stress. They lessen your burdens and help you keep things in perspective. Laughter brings your nervous system into balance, reducing stress, calming you down, sharpening your mind and making you more empathic.

Learn to see conflict as an opportunity to grow closer to others. Conflict and disagreements are inevitable in human relationships. Two people can't possibly have the same needs, opinions, and expectations at all times. However, that needn't be a bad thing. Resolving conflict in healthy, constructive ways can strengthen trust between people. When conflict isn't perceived as threatening or punishing, it fosters freedom, creativity, and safety in relationships.

Authors: Jeanne Segal, Ph.D., Melinda Smith, M.A., Lawrence Robinson, and Jennifer Shubin

  • References

    Gilar-Corbi, R., Pozo-Rico, T., Sánchez, B., & Castejón, J.-L. (2019). Can emotional intelligence be improved? A randomized experimental study of a business-oriented EI training program for senior managers. PLOS ONE, 14(10), e0224254. pone.0224254

    How to Improve Your Emotional Intelligence—Professional Development | Harvard DCE. (n.d.). Retrieved June 18, 2022, from

    Jiménez-Picón, N., Romero-Martín, M., Ponce-Blandón, J. A., Ramirez-Baena, L., Palomo-Lara, J. C., & Gómez-Salgado, J. (2021). The Relationship between Mindfulness and Emotional Intelligence as a Protective Factor for Healthcare Professionals: Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(10), 5491.

    Segal, Jeanne. The Language of Emotional Intelligence: The Five Essential Tools for Building Powerful and Effective Relationships. 1st edition. McGraw Hill, 2008.

    Segal, Jeanne S. Raising Your Emotional Intelligence: A Practical Guide–A Hands-on Program for Harnessing the Power of Your Instincts and Emotions. 1st edition. Holt Paperbacks, 2015.

Last updated: December 5, 2022

Theory of everything | is... What is Theory of Everything?

Theory of everything (eng. Theory of everything, TOE ) is a hypothetical unified physical and mathematical theory that describes all known fundamental interactions. Initially, this term was used in an ironic manner to refer to various generalized theories [1] . Over time, the term stuck in the popularizations of quantum physics to refer to a theory that would unify all four fundamental forces in nature. In the scientific literature, instead of the term "theory of everything", the term "unified field theory" is used, however, it should be borne in mind that a theory of everything can be built without the use of fields, despite the fact that the scientific status of such theories may be controversial. nine0016

During the twentieth century, many "theories of everything" have been proposed, but none of them has been able to pass experimental testing, or there are significant difficulties in organizing experimental testing for some of the candidates. The main problem of building a scientific "theory of everything" is that quantum mechanics and general relativity (GR) have different fields of application. Quantum mechanics is mainly used to describe the microcosm, while general relativity is applicable to the macrocosm. SRT (Special Theory of Relativity) describes phenomena at high speeds, and GR is a generalization of the Newtonian theory of gravity, combining it with SRT and extending it to the case of large distances and large masses. The direct combination of quantum mechanics and special relativity in a single formalism (quantum relativistic field theory) leads to the problem of divergence - the absence of final results for experimentally verified quantities. To solve this problem, the idea of ​​renormalization of quantities is used. For some models, the renormalization mechanism makes it possible to construct very well-working theories, but the addition of gravity (that is, the inclusion of GR as a limiting case for small fields and large distances in the theory) leads to divergences that cannot yet be removed. Although it does not follow at all that such a theory cannot be constructed. nine0016


  • 1 Fundamentals
  • 2 See also
  • 3 Notes
  • 4 Literature
  • 5 Links


After the construction of electrodynamics at the end of the 19th century, which united the phenomena of electricity, magnetism and optics on the basis of Maxwell's equations in a single theoretical scheme, the idea of ​​explaining all known physical phenomena on the basis of electromagnetism arose in physics. However, the creation of the general theory of relativity led physicists to the idea that in order to describe all phenomena on a single basis, it is necessary to combine the theories of electromagnetism and gravitation. nine0016

The first unified field theories were developed by David Hilbert and Hermann Weyl. In the future, Albert Einstein paid great attention to the "theory of everything". He devoted most of his life to trying to create it. Hilbert, Weil and, later, Einstein believed that it was enough to combine the general theory of relativity and electromagnetism, moreover, at the beginning it was not meant that they should be quantum, since quantum mechanics itself was not yet sufficiently developed. To a large extent, if not completely, the minimum program - the unification of general relativity and electrodynamics was solved within the framework of the Kaluza-Klein theory (and possibly some other theories), but almost by the time of its creation, it became relevant to include other fields in the theory and predict the existence of many particles, which was not entirely trivial, and later new difficulties became clear, and although the quantum version of the Kaluza-Klein theory was conceivable, however, quantization encountered the difficulties of a specific development, as well as quantization of the general theory of relativity itself separately. nine0016

Modern physics requires from the “theory of everything” the unification of four currently known fundamental interactions:

  • gravitational interaction,
  • electromagnetic interaction,
  • strong nuclear force,
  • weak nuclear force.

In addition, it must explain the existence of all elementary particles. The first step towards this was the unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions in the theory of the electroweak interaction, created in 1967 by Steven Weinberg, Sheldon Glashow and Abdus Salam. In 1973, the theory of the strong interaction was proposed. After that, several variants of the Grand Unification theories appeared (the most famous of them is the Pati-Salam theory, 1974), within which it was possible to combine all types of interactions, except for gravitational. True, none of the Grand Unification theories has yet been confirmed, and some have already been refuted experimentally on the basis of data on the absence of proton decay. The missing link in the "theory of everything" is the confirmation of any of the Grand Unification theories and the construction of a quantum theory of gravity based on quantum mechanics and general relativity. nine0016

At present, string theory, loop theory, and Kaluza-Klein theory are the main candidates for the "theory of everything". More about the last one. In the early twentieth century, there were suggestions that the universe has more dimensions than the observable three spatial and one temporal. The impetus for this was the Kaluza-Klein theory, which makes it possible to see that the introduction of an additional dimension into the general theory of relativity leads to the derivation of Maxwell's equations. Thanks to the ideas of Kaluza and Klein, it became possible to create theories operating with large dimensions. The use of extra dimensions prompted the answer to the question of why the effect of gravity is much weaker than other types of interactions. The generally accepted answer is that gravity exists in extra dimensions, so its effect on observable dimensions is weakening. nine0016

At the end of 2007, Garret Lisi proposed an "Extremely simple theory of everything" based on the properties of Lie algebras. Despite the discovered shortcomings of Lisi's theory, it can open a new line of work in the field of unified field theories.

In the late 1990s, it became clear that a common problem with the proposed versions of the "theory of everything" is that they do not strictly determine the characteristics of the observable Universe. Thus, many theories of quantum gravity allow the existence of universes with an arbitrary number of dimensions or an arbitrary value of the cosmological constant. Some physicists are of the opinion that in fact there are many universes, but only a small number of them are inhabited, which means that the fundamental constants of the universe are determined by the anthropic principle. Max Tegmark took this principle to its logical conclusion, postulating that "all mathematically consistent structures exist physically." This means that sufficiently complex mathematical structures can contain a "self-aware structure" that will subjectively perceive itself as "living in the real world". nine0016

There is an ongoing debate in the physics community about whether the "theory of everything" should be considered the fundamental law of the universe. One point of view, strictly reductionist, is that the "theory of everything" is the fundamental law of the universe and that all other theories describing the universe are consequences or limiting cases of it. Another point of view relies on the laws that Nobel laureate in physics Steven Weinberg called the laws of "free floating", which determine the behavior of complex systems. Criticism of the latter point of view draws attention to the fact that in such a formulation the "theory of everything" violates the principle of Occam's razor. nine0016

Other factors that reduce the explanatory and predictive value of the "theory of everything" are its sensitivity to the presence of boundary conditions in the Universe and the existence of mathematical chaos among its solutions, which makes its predictions accurate but useless.

See also

  • An exceptionally simple theory of everything
  • Quantum gravity
  • Quantum field theory
  • M-theory
  • Loop quantum gravity
  • Causal dynamic triangulation
  • Standard model
  • Supersymmetry
  • Grand Unification Theories
  • String theory
  • Unsolved problems of modern physics


  1. Thus, the great-grandfather of Ijon Tichy, a character in Stanisław Lem's sci-fi cycle, worked on The General Theory of Everything.


  • V. P. Vizgin Unified theories in the 1st third of the 20th century. - M .: Nauka, 1985. - S. 304.
  • Weinberg S. Dreams of a final theory. Dreams of a Final Theory - M.: LKI, 2008, - S. 256, ISBN 978-5-382-00590-4.


  • Great Soviet Encyclopedia, article "Unified Field Theory"
  • Unified Theory by Garret Lisi

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