Resilient personality definition

Characteristics of Resilient People | The Jed Foundation


Resilience is the ability to bounce back from difficult times in life.  Resilience comes from the lessons and skills we absorb as we grow up and as we face all of our difficulties whatever they are.  Why is resilience important?  Because if you are resilient, you will be able to face, overcome and even become personally strengthened by the challenges and problems in your life.  Resilience doesn’t make the problems go away and doesn’t solve all problems – it just helps you cope, adjust and stay on your feet. There are many ways to boost your resilience – read on to learn more about what characteristics resilient people share.

Support network

It really doesn’t matter who has your back in life – parents, friends, relatives, teachers, coaches – the point is that having a solid support system is a very important part of resilience.  The people in your support system will give you understanding, guidance and comfort when you’re struggling with a problem.   It is good to learn to ask for help from the people who support you.

Give back

It may seem odd to suggest that giving to others helps you get through your own problems, but keeping up your commitments (to yourself, family, friends), or a commitment to a cause (like volunteering) are very helpful ways to take the focus off your problems and expand your life skills and problem solving abilities.  Also, giving back to yourself is helpful – a resilient person would avoid feeling sorry for themselves – taking good care of your health or doing something nice for yourself are soothing ways to take the focus off stressful emotions.

Don’t give in

Resilient people learn to accept emotional pain and stress as part of life – they don’t allow their difficulties to define them.  Instead, they recognize their feelings, acknowledge the problems that they’re facing, trust that they have the ability to face their problems, and believe they have the strength to maintain their emotional balance.

Accept change

Accepting the fact that some things change is a basic part of resilience.  When your goals, plans, ideas or hopes are dashed because of unavoidable circumstances, a flexible and accepting attitude will allow you to focus on new plans or new hopes.  If you accept the things you can’t change or control, you’re free to put your effort into the things you can change and control.

Choose your attitude

Most of the time, you don’t get to choose the obstacles and difficulties that life puts in your path, but it’s good to remember that you get to choose your attitude toward adversity.  During hard times, it’s helpful to find something positive to think about and imagine a positive outcome.  Even if you don’t have all the answers and even if the solution to your problems isn’t obvious, you can choose to believe that things will work out and can tell yourself that your problems are manageable.  You can choose to see yourself as a fighter, not a victim.

Keep it in perspective

When a resilient person faces adversity, they’re likely to avoid making things worse by jumping to extremes – they tell themselves that their troubles won’t last forever and they don’t see every bump in the road as a catastrophe; they understand that things can’t be perfect and they have realistic expectations of themselves and what they can achieve.


You might have heard that “laughter is the best medicine”. And really, if you are able to laugh at yourself and laugh with others, you will lighten your load and lighten up! Laughter and humor are wonderful ways to connect to others and to release the feeling of stress that adversity causes you. If for no other reason, laughter is good for your body – it changes your body’s response to stress.

Assess your resilience

Take this quiz to learn how resilient you are: SCoRE My Resilience Factors Assessment

SCoRE® (Student Curriculum on Resilience Education®) helps students identify and adjust to the personal, social, and academic challenges of college life, including time management, staying healthy, making new friends, and goal setting. By building and supporting resilience, SCoRE teaches college students how to keep going in the face of adversity, a critical skill in school and life.

A key self-assessment in the SCoRE curriculum, My Resilience Factors, provides a quick, easy method to learn how resilient you are. In 10 minutes or less, you can complete the assessment and receive a personalized report that identifies your overall level of resilience as well as the specific factors that strengthen and potentially weaken your resilience.

Was your resilience score lower than you’d like? The good news is that resilience is a skill that can be developed with practice. If you want to learn more about resilience, you can purchase SCoRE: Self-Paced or SCoRE: Propel, which offers additional content geared toward students seeking disability services in college. Use promotion code JEDSCORE when ordering.

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The Resilient Personality: 4 Defining Features

4 minutes

Written and verified by the psychologist Valeria Sabater.

Last update: 15 November, 2021

Having a resilient personality is more than being strong. After all, authentic strength is not a product of physical ability, but of an indomitable will. Thus, a strong person doesn’t know how to give up. They’ll fall eight times and get up ten, allow themselves to fail and to keep looking at the future with hope.

While we’ve all heard about this personality type at some point, it’s interesting to know that the concept emerged in the 80’s in the field of social psychology.

Suzanne C. Kobasa, psychologist at the University of Chicago, wanted to know what was “special” about certain people. People not only able to tolerate stress better, but who also learned from difficult, demanding situations.

“The man who gets up is even stronger than he who has not fallen.
-Viktor Frankl-

A resilient personality was defined at that time as a subtle combination of certain biological components and the way these people learn from their experiences in society. However, the focus has changed a bit since then.

We could say that it grew and now we see a set of capabilities with indisputable potential that we should all develop.

In fact, if there’s anything big companies have begun to value, it is “mental toughness.” In other words, mental tenacity plus a resilient personality.

Because, in a world as complex and competitive as ours, it’s no longer enough to be brilliant and have talent. We must use all of our resources to keep progressing in any field, any scenario, any circumstance.

Peter Clough, professor of applied psychology at Manchester Metropolitan University, is a leader in the study of the resilient personality and mental tenacity. In books like “Developing Mental Toughness”,  he offers tools and psychometric tests to evaluate the four dimensions composing this capacity.

In addition, one aspect that we must be very clear on is that nobody is born with a resilient personality. None of these mental approaches and internal strengths are there from birth. Rather they’re the exceptional result of thoughts, attributions and attitudes that one must keep choosing based on their experiences. Both successes and, of course, their failures.

1. Confidence, the ability to believe in oneself

Let’s admit it, there’s no worse enemy than the one that lives within us. Our self-image is what determines our behaviors, after all. Therefore, if one views oneself as small, fragile, wounded and caught up in a tangle of indecision, they will seldom attain anything good or fulfilling. They will also not face challenges, struggles, and difficulties well.

As Ralph Waldo Emerson once said, it is self-confidence alone which is the first step towards success and well-being. We can put it another way: our life is our self-esteem.

In order to trust ourselves and our self-esteem, we have no choice but to summon the courage to face our fears. To feed our self-esteem and to set aside our limiting attitudes.

2. Self-control, somewhere between peace and positivity

The resilient personality is not characterized at all by a high capacity for self-control. They actually have it at an intermediate level, where they’re fully aware they can’t control everything. Everything that happens around them or what fate has in store for them… they realize it’s out of their hands.

A resilient person knows that part of life is governed by uncertainty. However, in the face of uncertainty, a refusal to surrender prevails. They connect with their own emotions in order to face what may come with courage.

In this way, in the midst of every difficulty, it will always be possible to achieve new goals and learn something new.

3. Face challenges without fear

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi once said it: changes are part of life. Absorbing them as best we can means an incentive for our personal growth.

However, we all know that challenges often come with the unwelcome trio of fear, stress, and anxiety.

A resilient personality is characterized most of all by cognitive flexibility and an ability to tolerate ambiguity well. Their inner vision, calm and mature, allows them to see every challenge not as a threat, but as a time to gather internal resources in order to put into place a positive and effective resistance.

4. Commitment to myself and those around me

Commitment in the resilient personality goes beyond oneself or one’s own benefit. A defining feature is their authentic social commitment, their sense of community and cooperation. This deep desire for altruism and social support often makes them an inspiration to others.

In fact, their mere presence and focused, relaxed attitude often lowers stress considerably in their surroundings.

For existentialist psychologists, a resilient personality is authentic person, someone who looks to the future with certainty, free from selfishness and moved by an express desire for the common good.

To conclude, this personality type brings together approaches, traits and internal processes where resilience abounds. Let’s start today to build these aspects in ourselves.

If we can’t choose our life circumstances, we can at least try to work on our thoughts and attitudes. We may be surprised by how much it changes our life.

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Psychological and emotional stability

Psychological stability, emotional stability, stress resistance are concepts that complement each other and form a personality system.

Psychological stability is a socio-psychological characteristic of a person, which consists in the ability to endure the extraordinary situation without any damage to oneself and overcome its consequences with the help of methods that improve the personality, increase the level of its adaptation and social maturity. In fact, this characteristic means the presence of an adaptive potential of the individual, which determines its ability to overcome difficult situations.

In modern psychological science, attempts are being made to holistically comprehend the personal characteristics responsible for successful adaptation and coping with difficult life situations.

It should be noted that researchers do not have a common opinion regarding the leading component of psychological stability.

Some authors consider the cognitive component to be the leading one, others - the emotional and volitional (stress resistance, emotional-volitional stability) or motivational components. Some researchers propose to consider a set of qualities that ensure a person's resistance to extreme factors. An integrative approach to considering this complex quality is the most promising.

For example, A.G. Maklakov introduced the concept of "personal adaptive potential", which determines a person's resistance to extreme factors. It includes the following characteristics: neuropsychic stability, the level of development of which provides tolerance to stress; self-assessment of the individual, which determines the degree of adequacy of the perception of the conditions of activity and one's capabilities; a sense of social support, causing a sense of self-worth to others; the level of personality conflict; experience of social communication. The author considers all of the listed characteristics to be significant in assessing and predicting the success of adaptation to difficult and extreme situations, as well as in assessing the rate of restoration of mental balance.

G.S. Nikiforov considers psychological stability as a complex quality of a person, the level of which is manifested in her professional activity, in the reliability of an employee. Psychological stability, in his opinion, is a synthesis of individual qualities and abilities, which combines balance, stamina, stability and resilience.

Balance is the ability to keep the level of tension without going beyond the acceptable (without leading to destructive stress).

Resilience implies the ability to withstand difficulties while maintaining faith in situations of frustration, and stability implies a constant level of mood.

Resilience lies in the ability of the individual to maintain freedom of behavior and lifestyle choices, as well as freedom from any kind of addiction.

Various aspects of psychological stability are also reflected in foreign science.
So, for example, studying the different impact of stressful life events on the illness of leaders, S. Kobasa proposed the concept of Hardiness - a personality trait, which in Russian literature is translated as endurance, stamina or vitality, courage, courage, strength, audacity. In the future, the concept of Hardiness was further developed in the works of S. Maddy, where it is considered as an integrative quality of a person, which is an indicator of a person's mental health.

Hardiness consists of three components: commitment, control, and ability to accept a challenge.
Obligation is a tendency to devote oneself completely to one's work, whatever it may be, in other words, the semantic and goal orientation of a person. Inclusion is an important definition of oneself and the world around, as well as the nature of their interaction. It gives strength, motivates a person to implementation, leadership, a healthy lifestyle and behavior, and also makes it possible to feel significant and valuable enough to be fully involved in solving problems, despite the presence of stressful factors and changes.
Control is the tendency to think and act as if there is a real possibility of influencing the course of events. This is a quality that motivates to find ways to influence the results of stressful changes and does not allow a person to fall into a state of helplessness and passivity. Having control, a person is sure that any difficult situation can be transformed so that it will be consistent with his life plans, it will be useful to him in some way. Evaluating even tragic events, a person reduces their significance and thereby reduces the psycho-traumatic effect.

Challenge (ability to accept a challenge) refers to the perception of danger as a challenge that marks the next turn of a changing life that encourages a person to continuous growth. This is the ability to experience any event as a stimulus for the development of one's own capabilities. This component of Hardiness helps a person to remain open to the environment and society. It consists in the perception by a person of a life event as a challenge to himself personally and upcoming trials.

Thus, there is a whole range of personal qualities that contribute to adaptive, non-traumatic experience of extreme situations and ensure the success of overcoming their consequences, which can be characterized as an integrative personality characteristic - psychological resistance to extreme situations.
In modern foreign studies, Hardiness is considered an important factor leading to reliable and sustainable results of professional activity, especially for extreme professionals. For example, the results of a study of 405 fire communities in Madrid showed that Hardiness can be a deterrent between occupational stressors and burnout.

The activities of firefighters are characterized by a high level of neuropsychic tension, which is associated with the presence of a real vital threat, with the impact of extreme factors of the situation, as well as the need to make decisions in conditions of novelty, uncertainty, lack of time and high responsibility.

As the difficulty of the situation increases, the effectiveness of professional activity depends to a greater extent on the psychological stability of a specialist, which, along with professional skill, which implies knowledge, skills and behavior in extreme situations, determines the effectiveness and reliability of the activity of an extreme profile specialist.

Psychological stability, which is a generalized mode of functioning and includes cognitive, emotional and behavioral components, should be manifested at all stages of the performance of the professional task of firefighters, which can be conditionally divided into three: preparatory, main and final.

The preparatory phase includes signaling a fire and going to the scene of an emergency. A feature of the preparatory stage is the suddenness and uncertainty of information. The main task of a specialist at this stage is to prevent a state of anxiety and bring the level of neuropsychic stress to an optimal level - a state of combat readiness.

The main stage includes direct professional actions aimed at saving people and material objects. The features of this stage are: danger, uncertainty of the situation, severe lack of time. The conditions of the situation impose increased requirements on the cognitive abilities of a specialist, which is expressed: in an objective assessment and analysis of the situation, in the search for unknown or conflicting information, in decision making. In the behavioral sphere, psychological stability at this stage is manifested in active actions aimed at changing the situation using non-specific forms of activity, i.e. actions that provide the most effective result in a particular emergency situation, flexibility and speed of transition from one task to another. Thus, the main task of specialists at this stage is to mobilize their resources to fulfill their professional duty.

At the final stage, an important task is to restore emotional balance with the help of self-regulation techniques and constructive transformative coping strategies.
Thus, psychological stability is the quality of a specialist's personality, which consists in the ability not to succumb to unfavorable circumstances of the tasks being solved, not to reduce the quality of performing professional actions under their influence.

The level of psychological stability of a specialist, on the one hand, is manifested in the reliability of professional activity. On the other hand, successful professional activity for many is the basis for a full-fledged experience of self-realization and satisfaction with life in general, which in turn increases the level of psychological stability.

Resilience in a Stress Model
One of the first and most compelling studies based on the resilience construct was a longitudinal study of managers at a large Illinois Bell Telephone Company (IBT).

The stressful situation in the company arose as a result of changes in the legislation regulating the telecommunications business in the United States. As a result of these changes, all enterprises in the industry were facing significant staff reductions within a few months, which was known in advance. This situation provoked reactions of distress, somatic illnesses and mental disturbances in many workers, awaiting the decision of their fate. A study conducted by Muddy found a clear inverse relationship between the severity of hardiness components and the likelihood of a serious illness within a year after the onset of a stressful situation in company managers.

With a low severity of all three components of hardiness, the probability of disease was 92.5%, with a high level of one of the components - 71.8%, with a high level of two components - 57.7%, and with a high level of all three components

How does resilience work? How does it help you overcome stress? According to the psychology of stress, all psychological factors affect stress in one of two ways (see Fig. 1): they can influence the assessment of the situation (“Is it a threat to me?”, “Can I cope with it?”), and can influence the reaction of a person, his behavior, overcoming difficulties.


Almost all theories of personality are based on the assumption that personality as a socio-psychological phenomenon is a vitally stable formation in its main manifestations. The stability of a person characterizes the sequence of her actions and the predictability of her behavior, gives her actions a natural character.
Feeling the stability of one's own personality and the personality of another is an important condition for the internal well-being of a person and the establishment of normal relationships with other people. If in some manifestations essential for communication with people the personality was not stable, then it would be difficult for people to interact with each other, to achieve mutual understanding: after all, each time they would have to re-adapt to a person and would not be able to predict his behavior .
However, many studies have found that human behavior is quite variable. In this regard, the question naturally arises: to what extent and in what way is the personality and its behavior really stable?

This theoretical question contains, as I. S.Kon1 has shown, a whole series of particular questions, each of which can be considered separately, and, proceeding from it, one can give different answers to the general question. For example: what is the constancy in question - behavior, mental processes, properties or personality traits? What is an indicator and measure of the constancy or variability of the evaluated properties in this case? What is the time range within which personality traits can be judged as constant or variable? and others. In addition, in line with different theories of personality, all these issues can and should be addressed in different ways. It is shown, for example, that even personality traits that should be a model of constancy (and the factor identified as a result of factor analysis should have such constancy) are in fact not constant and stable. There are also so-called "situational traits", the manifestation of which can vary from situation to situation in the same person, and quite significantly.
Along with this, longitudinal (long-term) studies of the development of the same people over, for example, a dozen or more years show that a certain degree of stability is still present in a person, although the measure of this constancy for various personal properties is not the same.
In one such study, conducted over 35 years, more than 100 people were assessed on a representative set of personality characteristics. The first time they were examined at the age corresponding to junior high school, then - in the upper grades of high school and then - again at the age of about 35 and 45 years.
During the three-year time period from the first survey to the second (after graduation), 58% of the personality variables showed significant positive correlations. Over a more than 30-year study period, from adolescence to age 45, significant correlations were obtained for 31% of all studied personality characteristics. In table. 13 lists the personality traits that have shown themselves to be quite stable during the entire time of study.
1Kon I.S. Persistence and variability of personality // Psychological journal. - 1987. - T. 8. - No. 4.

Table 13
The stability of some personal qualities over time (according to J. Block)
Correlation of survey results over a three-year period from adolescence to high school age Correlation
studies from
teenage pre
ages 35-45
years Assessed personality characteristic (judgment by which experts gave estimates)
0.58 0.53 Truly reliable and responsible person.
0.57 0.59 Inadequately controls his impulses and needs, is unable to delay receiving the expected pleasure.
0.50 0.42 Self-critical.
0.35 0.58 Aesthetically developed, has pronounced aesthetic feelings.
0.50 0.46 Mostly submissive.
0.39 0.43 Seeks to be among other people, sociable.
0.48 0.49 Disobedient and non-conforming.
0.45 0.42 Interested in philosophy, such issues as religion, values, the meaning of life.
It turned out that not only personal qualities, assessed from the outside, but also self-assessments are very stable over time. It was also found that personal stability is not characteristic of all people. Some of them, over time, reveal quite dramatic changes in their personality, and so profound that the people around them as individuals do not recognize them at all. The most significant changes of this kind can occur during adolescence, youth and early adulthood, for example in the range from 20 to 40-45 years.
In addition, there are significant individual differences in the period of life when a person's personality traits are more or less stabilized. In some people, the personality becomes stable in childhood and then does not change significantly, in others, the stability of psychological characteristics

Personality, on the contrary, is revealed quite late: only at the age of 20 to 40 years. The latter most often include people whose external and internal life in adolescence and youth was characterized by tension, contradictions and conflicts. The least personal changes and stable traits of character are revealed quite early on by those people who at school age did not encounter contradictions, did not come into conflict with adults, peers, social values ​​and norms.
Much less stability of behavioral reactions of personality manifestations is found in the case when we consider a person not for a long period of time, but from situation to situation. With the exception of intelligence and cognitive abilities, many other personality characteristics are situationally unstable. This applies, for example, to such individual characteristics of a person as aggressive behavior, honesty, self-regulation, dependence. Somewhat disappointing were also many attempts to link the stability of behavior in various situations with the possession of certain personality traits. In typical situations, the correlation between personality traits assessed using questionnaire tests and the corresponding social behavior turned out to be less than 0. 30. This is obviously not enough to accurately predict how a given person will behave in a particular situation, although such a prediction could be made with a certain degree of certainty for many typical situations, especially if one follows the behavior of a person over a sufficiently long period of time.
The greatest stability is possessed by dynamic features associated with congenital anatomical and physiological inclinations, properties of the nervous system. These include temperament, emotional reactivity, extraversion-introversion and some other qualities.
Supporters of social learning theory, who emphasize the importance of a particular situation in determining a person's behavior, believe that the opinion that he has stable personality traits is not sufficiently substantiated and is usually associated with the following typical inferences of an erroneous nature:
1. Many individual characteristics of people, such as, for example, physical appearance, manner of speaking, behaving, facial expressions, gestures, etc. , are indeed quite stable. Their stability prompts us to attribute stability to other

Gym, internal psychological properties of a person, which may not be stable.
2. Our experience of communicating with people forms in us a fairly stable idea of ​​them, which leaves an imprint on the subsequent perception and evaluation of these people. In the sphere of interpersonal perception, a phenomenon of constancy can be observed, similar to that which we encounter when studying people's perception of the objective world. Due to the constancy of interpersonal perception associated with the formed attitude, in a new situation, we are more inclined to notice in a person those signs that indicate the stability of his behavior, and not to see what changes in his behavior.
3. Our very presence in a certain situation already makes the other person behave consistently, as he behaved with us before. This is because constancy is highly valued as a personality trait. The same persons who behave with us in a certain way, demonstrating the stability of their personality in some traits, may behave differently with others, showing variability in the same traits, and stability in some others.
Thus, the answer to the question of personality stability is very ambiguous and indefinite. In some properties, as a rule, those that were acquired in later periods of life and are of little importance, there is actually no stability; in other personal qualities, most often basic and acquired in the early years, one way or another determined organically, it is. The real behavior of the individual, both stable and changeable, depends significantly on the constancy of the social situations in which we observe the person.
As for the stability of assessments of the stability of personal behavior, such assessments also cannot be a completely reliable evidence of the presence or absence of stable qualities in a person.
In special studies conducted on the same people over a long period of time in order to establish the degree of variability or constancy of their personality, it has been shown that more than half of the personal qualities with which a child enters school are retained throughout the entire period of study until graduation. schools. This indicates two things. Firstly, that many personal characteristics of a person, being formed at preschool age, subsequently retain their constancy. Secondly, about

that schooling has little effect on the development of the child's own personal characteristics.
It turned out, in particular, that the greatest resistance from childhood to adulthood, i.e. a small degree of variability, in adolescence and early adolescence, they show the desire for success, perseverance, the level of claims (especially high), and intellectual interests. Girls, in addition, have aesthetic tastes and sociability. A certain stability in adolescence, provided they were formed in earlier years, have abilities, responsibility, willpower, friendliness and openness.
And last, but not least, the issue related to the stability of the personality. The fact is that often no less value and vital significance than the constancy of human behavior, on the contrary, has its variability, adaptability. It testifies to another valuable ability of a person - his ability to adapt to changing conditions of life, to change himself as a person, if necessary. This kind of quality seems to be very valuable for the individual in cases where radical changes are taking place in society, requiring each person to significantly modify their views, attitudes, value orientations, etc. Therefore, variability under certain circumstances must be considered as a positive personal property of a person. If a person today is different than yesterday, it means that he is developing.
Topics and questions for discussion at seminars Theme 1. General idea of ​​personality.
1. The concept of personality.
2. Definitions of personality.
3. Individual, individuality, personality: the ratio of the volume and content of these concepts.
4. Personality structure.
Topic 2. History of personality research.
1. Three main periods in the scientific study of personality.
2. Philosophical and literary approach to personality.
3. Clinical period of personality study.
4. Beginning and development of experimental personality psychology.
Topic 3. Modern theories of personality.
1. Classification of modern theories of personality.
2. Psychodynamic theories of personality.

3. Sociodynamic theories of personality.
4. Humanistic theory of personality.
5. The latest trends in the theoretical development of personality problems.
Theme 4. Formation and development of personality.
1. Approaches to solving the problem of personality development in line with its various theories.
2. Stages of personality development according to the theory of E. Erickson.
Theme 6. The problem of personality stability.
1. General idea of ​​personality stability.
2. The vital importance of the phenomena of stability and variability of personality.
3. Stability and variability of individual personality traits.
4. The problem of age stability and personality variability.
5. Arguments for and against assertions about the stability of personality.
Topics for abstracts
1. Comparative analysis and synthesis of various definitions of personality.
2. Classification and content of the latest theories of personality.
3. Conditions and factors of normal and abnormal development of personality.
4. The problem of personality stability.
Self-study topics
1. Definitions of personality in various sciences: a comparative analysis.
2. History and modern theories of personality: continuity of positions and novelty in the formulation of questions.
3. The problem of norm and pathology in personality development.
4. Cultural-historical approach to the study of personality.
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Leontiev A.N. Activity. Consciousness. Personality. - M., 1982 (1975). (Activity and personality: 159-189. Motives, emotions and personality: 206-230.)

Leontiev A.N. Selected psychological works: In 2 vols. - Vol. 1. - M., 1983. (The beginning of personality is an act: 381-384.)
Merlin B.C. Personality as a subject of psychological research. - Perm, 1988. (The subject of psychological research of personality: 5-19. Personality properties: 19-41.)
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Freud 3. Introduction to psychoanalysis. Lectures. - M., 1991. (Wrong actions: 7-48. Dreams: 50-152. General theory of neuroses: 154-297. Freud and the problems of mental regulation of human behavior: 418-438. )
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Andreeva G.M. Social Psychology. - M., 1988. (personality in social psychology: 317-331.)

Asmolov A.G. Psychology of Personality. - M., 1990. (The problem of personality in science: 7-172. Properties of a person as a person: 173-256. Personal development: 257-306. Individuality of a person as a person: 307-363.)
Bassii F.V. The problem of the unconscious. On unconscious forms of higher nervous activity. - M., 1968. (Freud's theory: 67-97.)
Bratus B. S. Psychological aspects of the moral development of personality. - M., 1977. (Development of personality: 1-5.)
Bratus B.S. personality anomalies. — M., 1988. (Biological origin and personality: 74-80.)
Gippenreiter Yu.B. Introduction to general psychology. Lecture course. - M., 1988. (Personality and its formation: 281-310.)
Dodonov B.I. In the world of emotions. - Kyiv, 1987. (Emotions and personality: 22-25, 37-48, 79-116.)
Zeigarnik B.V. Personality theory in foreign psychology. - M., 1982. (Theory of Z. Freud: 6-12. Theory of C. Jung: 12-13. Theory of AAdler: 14-18. Theory of K. Horney: 18-21. Theory of G. Sullivan: 21-26. E. Fromm's theory: 26-30 E. Erickson's theory: 30-34 Frustration theory: 35-37 Humanistic personality theory: 37-57 Role theory: 57-63 Existential personality theory: 63-70 "psychology: 71-82. Personality theory in the French sociological school: 83-97.)
History of foreign psychology. 30-60s of the XX century. Texts. - M., 1986. (On the science of personality (K. Rogers): 200-231.)
Kon I.S. Persistence and variability of personality // Psychological journal. - 1987. - No. 4. - S. 126-137.
Leites N.S. Mental abilities and age. - M., 1971. (Abilities and personality: 221-278.)
Luk A.N. Emotions and personality. - M., 1982. (Psychological maturity of the individual: 6-13.)
Melnikov V.M., Yampolsky L.T. Introduction to experimental personality psychology. — M., 1985. (Traits and types of personality: 103-136.)
Merlin B.C. Personality as a subject of psychological research. - Perm, 1988. (Methods of psychological research of personality: 41-56.)
Merlin B.C. Essay on the theory of temperament. - M., 1964. (Temperament and personality relationships: 184-223.)
Morgun V.F., Tkacheva N.Yu. The problem of periodization of personality development in psychology. - M., 1981. (Personality. Theory: 23-33. Periodization of personality development: 55-67.)

Muzdybaev K. Psychology of responsibility. — L., 1983. (The concept of responsibility. Responsibility as a property of the individual: 5-43. Formation and development of personal responsibility: 89-118.)
Myasishchev V.N. Personality and neuroses. - L., 1960. (The problem of personality and Soviet psychology: 68-80.)
Psychology of personality formation and development. - M., 1981. (Psychological theory of the structure and development of personality: 45-66. Systematic approach to the ontogenesis of integral individuality: 87-105. Psychological analysis of the conditions for the formation and structure of a harmonious personality: 257-283. Formation of psychological mechanisms of ethical regulation of behavior: 320 —337.)
Robert M.-A., Tilman F. Psychology of the individual and the group. - M., 1988. (Typology of personalities: 152-161.)
Rubinstein SL. Fundamentals of General Psychology: In 2 vols. - Vol. II. - M., 1989. (Orientation of the individual. Attitudes and trends. Needs. Interests: 103-122. Self-awareness of the individual and her life path: 236-249.)
Sokolova EL". Projective methods of personality research. - M., 1980. (Protection mechanisms of personality: 30-34.)
Feldstein D.I. Psychology of personality development in ontogenesis. - M., 1989. (Psychological problems of personality development: 9-71. Activity and personality development: 72-125.)
Fridman L.M., Volkov K.N. Psychological science - to the teacher. - M., 1985. (On the concept of personality: 7-42.)
Abolin L.M. Psychological mechanisms of human emotional stability. - Kazan, 1987. (Emotional stability of the individual: 28-140.)
Aseev V.G. Motivation of behavior and personality formation. - M., 1976. (Formation of personality and motivation: 39-75, 135-143.)
Bleikher V.M., Burlachuk L.F. Psychological diagnostics of intelligence and personality. — Kyiv, 1978. (Personality research methods: Eysenck test, MMPI, questionnaire for the study of accentuated personality traits, Berkman-Richter method, projective methods, Rorschach method. TAT, frustration research, incomplete sentence method: 85-87.)
Bodalev A.A. Psychology about personality. - M., 1988. (Personality and its main manifestations: 5-11. Personality formation: 37-59.)
Bratus B.S. personality anomalies. - M., 1988. (Development of personality. Normapathology: 6-24, 175-222. Semantic sphere of personality: 80-109.)

Bruner D.S. Psychology of knowledge. Beyond immediate information. - M., 1977. (Personality and education: 13-130.)
Viliunas V.K. Psychological mechanisms of human motivation. - M., 1990. (Motivation and personality: 217-284.)
Grimak L.P. Reserves of the human psyche. Introduction to the psychology of activity. - 2nd ed., add. - M., 1989. (Self-programming of personality: 263-273. Creative self-consciousness: 291-302.)
Dubinin N.P., Karpets I.I., Kudryavtsev V.N. Genetics, behavior, responsibility. On the nature of antisocial acts and ways to overcome them. — M., 1989. (Formation of personality. Biological and social: 190-211. )
Klaus G. Introduction to the differential psychology of learning. - M., 1987. (Teaching and Personality: 79-118.)
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Lisina M.I., Silvestra A.I. Psychology of self-knowledge in preschoolers. - Chisinau, 1983. (Self-consciousness as a problem of psychology: 5-28.)
Miller J., Galanter E., Pribram K. Plans and structure of behavior. - M., 1964. (Neurodynamic aspects of personality: 125-131.)
Mislavsky Yu.A. Self-regulation and activity of the individual in adolescence. - M., 1991. (Self-regulation of the individual in the system of relations with other people: 6-55. Life path and self-regulation of the individual: 55-87.)
Myasishchev V.N. Personality and neuroses. - L., 1960. (Working capacity and personality diseases: 17-31.)
Norakidze V.G. Methods for researching the nature of personality. - Tbilisi, 1989. (Properties of personality and fixed attitude: 88-95. )
General psychology. - M-., 1986. (Person: 191-230.)
Petrovsky A.V. Personality. Activity. Collective. - M., 1982. (Person: 213-253.)
Psychology of personality formation and development. - M., 1981. (On the psychology of personality as a developing system: 3-19. Personal development in the process of life: 19-44. The relationship of potential and actual in personality development: 67-87. Communication as a condition for personality development: 177-197. )
Psychology of emotions. Texts. - M., 1984. (Emotional psychological types (K. Jung): 238-251.)
Ruvinskiy L.I. Self-education of the individual. — M., 1984.

Sarjveladze N.I. Personality and its interaction with the social environment. - Tbilisi, 1989. (The concept of personality. Difficulties in determining: 5-34. Personality structure. Social and psychological understanding: 35-48. Social attitudes of the individual: 70-91.)
Simonov P.V. Motivated brain. Higher nervous activity and natural science foundations of general psychology.

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