Not compatible relationship

15 Signs of Incompatibility in Relationship

“Are we compatible?” The question plagues many people as they wonder about whether they have a future with their partner or not. If you notice markers of incompatibility early, you can choose to walk away from the relationship or create better harmony.

The presence of signs of compatibility does not only mean that you share the same interests. It can also include sharing the same values, knowing how to handle differences, understanding and helping each other when stressed, having the same sexual energy, and feeling safe, among others.

Keep reading along to learn signs that indicate that you are incompatible with your partner and use these to understand your relationship better.

Compatible partners get along and can envision the future together. Their chemistry is marked by how easily their interests, habits, and hobbies align as they move forward.

Nevertheless, not all couples are fortunate to be compatible partners. You are likely wondering, “How compatible are we?” If you want to know the signs you and your partner are incompatible, here are some of them:

1. Unclear future

Imagine what your and your partner’s future looks like, as how you both see it needs to be aligned. One of the signs of incompatibility that isn’t easy to resolve is having different life goals.

When couples have different life goals you can resolve things by meeting each other halfway. You have to make sure that you are both happy when you compromise. If not, one might blame the other, which can cause issues in the relationship.

2. Different intellectual levels

If one partner is a doctorate graduate and the other is a dropout, this can be one of the signs of incompatibility in a relationship. Intellectual differences might be ignored at the start of the relationship, as they enjoy each other’s company and other traits.

But once they pass this phase, they can realize how different they are because of their educational attainment. Nevertheless, this is not one of the ultimate signs that couples are incompatible.

If you think you have intellectual differences, you can make your relationship work by engaging yourself in thoughtful and sensible conversations. You can also try to find similar things that you can enjoy together. Realize the difference and decide on how you feel about it.

Related Reading: How to Deal With Uncertainty in Relationships

3. Love is missing

When you see your partner, does your heartbeat increase? Maybe this was the situation before, but the love might have changed or eroded.

Even though many people think it is one of the obvious signs of incompatibility, they still choose to stay in the relationship. It could be because this relationship has been their comfort zone. Most choose to go through emotional incompatibility rather than making a change.

The problem might exist from the beginning but is noticeable only later. Or you notice it many years later when unhappiness begins to become unbearable and thus can make one feel miserable.

4. More hangouts with friends

Are you and your partner compatible? Your partner might not be interested in the relationship anymore if they prefer to use their energy and time for other people or things.

For a relationship to work, both should invest time. Trying to resolve issues is an indication that your partner wants to work the relationship out. If not, it is best to let it go.

5. Argue constantly

Arguments are inevitable in all kinds of relationships. Nevertheless, if couples do it all the time, this is not normal and can be one of the signs of incompatibility.

Counseling can help save the relationship if it is too hard to resolve it. You need to keep in mind that It is time to end the relationship if an argument becomes abusive.

Related Reading: How to Recognize When Arguments in a Relationship Are Healthy?

6. Both headstrong

If only one person is stubborn in the relationship, it should not be considered one of the signs of incompatibility. But the future of the relationship might not be promising if both are stubborn. That is because some stubborn people find it hard to admit that they are wrong or apologize.

Related Reading: 10 Ways To Stop Being Stubborn In A Relationship

7. No similar interests

How do you know if you are compatible with someone? You might be wondering if you both have the same interests. Compatibility is desirable, but this does not mean that all your interests need to be the same.

The relationship can work when you have different interests, but it’s better when some of these match. The relationship can become weak if you do not have this time together and share all your interests with other people or on your own instead.

8. Can’t be yourself

Not expressing or feeling uncomfortable to reveal your true selves to your partner can be one of the signs of incompatibility. For instance, you might feel the need to hide who you are to please your partner. You might also not be open about how you feel to avoid arguments.

You’re not compatible if you feel exhausted being with your partner. The exhaustion can happen because of the effort you put in just to make sure that you do and say the right things.

9. Wishing for change

If one cannot accept their partner for who they are, we can treat it as one of the most evident signs of incompatibility. But forced change is different from nudging each other for the better.

You might be incompatible with your partner if something about them makes you very upset or irritated, and accepting it is out of the question.

10. Unmatched sex drives

It can be frustrating for couples if one of them has more sex drive than the other. For incompatible relationships in this situation, one’s intimacy needs might not be met, and the other might feel pressured to meet those intimacy needs.

Sexual tension affects the other areas of the relationship. If there is a desire to improve the relationship, couples can utilize certain researched methods to improve things. A lack of effort towards positive changes is a further sign of deterioration.

Related Reading: How to Increase Sex Drive: 15 Ways to Boost Libido

11. No laughter together

According to research, laughter is a vital sign of wellness in relationships. Therefore, not telling jokes or making fun of yourself can be one of the signs of incompatibility.

You might not have fun together if your sense of humor is different or you and your partner cannot laugh at the same things. Being able to tease each other in a fun and acceptable way or doing something silly such as dancing around shows you can be comfortably funny with each other.

If one is very high strung and the other takes everything lightly, it is time to question if they are compatible or not. One of the critical factors to make a relationship lasting are laughter and fun. The relationship can perish if these key factors are lacking.

12. Different love languages

Relationship Expert Dr. Gary Chapman, in his book ‘The 5 Love Languages,’ explains the varied kinds of love languages. These languages showcase the people’s preferred ways of expressing their love for each other.

The 5 love languages are:

  • Affirmations
  • Acts of service
  • Receiving gifts
  • Quality time
  • Physical touch.

Incompatible signs can be present if you and your partner find it hard to feel the love of the other because of the difference in the manner of expression. Partners who have the same love languages will more easily recognize each other’s love due to the similarity and natural understanding.

Related Reading: What Are The 5 Love Languages? Everything You Need to Know

13. Differences in expressing emotions

The way compassion is shown to others, whether we know or do not know them, and how emotions are expressed is a massive part of who people are. If you cannot understand why they feel or do not feel the way you feel, this can be considered one of the signs of incompatibility.

Communication can be difficult if couples have varying degrees of emotion and empathy. For instance, you will feel misunderstood or unloved if your partner cannot understand why you feel frustrated. Or you might feel overwhelmed when your partner expresses themselves emotionally.

Related Reading: How to Share Your Feelings With Your Spouse

14. Different ‘alone time’ needs

There are differences in how people want to spend their time alone so that they can perform adequately. However, incompatibility can happen when one needs more time alone and the other wants to spend more time together.

The partner who wants to be alone more can feel guilt when they try to fulfill their need to be on their own. Rejection is what the other partner might feel. But willing couples can make this work through compromise and understanding.

15. Different schedules

If one partner is busy, the partner who has more free time can feel ignored. Dedicating time by doing activities together can resolve it. However, there should be no pressure or anxiety in doing so.

If the situation persists, then it can lead to insecurities and resentments building up. To maintain a healthy relationship, you should try to make time for each other regularly. If you are not doing that, the chemistry between you will fade, and so will the relationship.

Watch this video to learn why compatibility is more important than chemistry:


Finally, you understand the signs of incompatibility that partners can have. The question is if your current partner is the right one for you, or is it time to let them go and move on? There is no ultimate answer to this because every relationship is different.

However, with a better understanding of these signs of incompatibility, you can figure out the answer more quickly. You need to keep in mind that you need to look at things honestly and then analyze the true nature of your interaction with your partner.

10 Ways of Dealing With Incompatibility in Relationships

Relationships are complex. Even without issues of incompatibility, they can be challenging to navigate. But when you experience incompatibility in relationships, feeling overwhelmed is not uncommon.

Are you in such a situation? Do you feel like you and your partner are poles apart? Has the question “can incompatible relationships work” popped into your mind?

Well, the good news is that yes, there are ways to combat incompatibility in relationships! This article will tell you everything you need to know about overcoming incompatibility when you’re in love.

What is incompatibility? When you and your partner are very different in terms of hobbies, interests, beliefs, values, and so on.

But don’t worry, just remember that opposites can attract! Probably your differences were why you were attracted to each other initially!

There are so many healthy ways in which you can resolve incompatibility in relationships. You do not have to be worried! Just breathe, relax, and continue reading.

Understanding and accepting that you and your partner are not very compatible can be tough. However, this does not mean that there is no hope of sustaining the relationship.

There are ways to work around this challenge and overcome it. This section provides different strategies and ways to deal with and overcome incompatibility in relationships.

Consider the following strategies to deal with and overcome incompatibility in relationships:

1. Celebrate the differences

Celebrating differences might come off as a bit of a surprise, but it is true. Opposites can be highly attracted to each other. Think about it: so many introverts get romantically attracted to extroverts, although they may be so different from each other.

Differences can be beautiful. Celebrating differences can be a wonderful way to overcome compatibility issues in relationships.

For instance, an introverted person who loves their alone time and takes a lot of time to freely and openly interact with others can fall for an extrovert who opens up easily, makes friends quickly, and does not need personal space.

Even though research suggests that compatibility is the predictor of relationship satisfaction, you can make the differences work. When such individuals fall in love, it’s a beautiful celebration of their differences. This occurrence provides a golden opportunity to both individuals.

The extrovert may learn to understand the value of spending time with oneself, while the introvert learns that it isn’t so threatening to open up.

2. Work on the expectations

A significant cause for incompatibility in relationships is a lack of balance regarding the partners’ expectations from the relationship and each other. Studies have analyzed that people get into relationships and stay in them based on their future happiness and expectations.

Unbalanced expectations can give rise to a lot of conflicts in the relationship. Unbalanced expectations can shake a healthy relationship and threaten the potential of love.

When you start seeing signs of incompatibility, it is essential that you and your partner actively address this. Say your partner wishes to settle in a different city ultimately. You may want to stay at home.

So, it’s important to talk about these goals, hopes, and dreams and figure out how valuable it is to you and your partner. Reach a decision that works for both of you.

Related Reading: Managing Expectations in Your Marriage

3. Bridge the gap

A very effective way to overcome incompatibility in relationships is by focusing on the emotional connection in a relationship.

Feelings are important. Feelings matter and they often require validation. If you and your beloved don’t have a solid emotional connection, relationship incompatibility is likely.

Remember that the emotional connection you had with each other is what fuelled the desire to be together. If the emotional connection is suddenly lost, address it.

Both partners need to work on this. Recognize the cause of the disconnect (example: extra work pressure, work-life imbalance, financial pressure) and figure out how you both can fix this situation.

4. Work hard on communication

It is very well-known that healthy communication is pivotal to a long-term relationship. If the communication in the relationship is not healthy, you may find yourself in love but incompatible. Lack or improper communication can cause incompatibility in relationships.

Relationship Experts Marcus and Ashley Kusi, in their book ‘Communication in Marriage,’ talk about communication being a common area that requires work in most relationships. However, if you both work on bettering your communication skills, you can unlock the power to overcome incompatibility!

Communication is a potent tool. It has the power to establish healthy relationships. You and your lover can even consider couples therapy to work on this.

Related Reading: 20 Ways to Improve Communication in a Relationship

5. Find common ground

A key component of healthy relationships is having some common interests and hobbies with your partner. These common grounds help you both build beautiful memories together by spending quality time together.

Finding common ground does not mean that all your hobbies and interests should be the same. But it would be great if there were at least one or two common interests.

To overcome incompatibility in relationships, if you don’t share common hobbies with your partner at present, try new things together. You will definitely find a common interest.

Make a list of the activities that you like and tell your partner to do the same. Then choose one activity at a time from each other’s lists and try to do it together! Also, make a list of things you both haven’t tried and do those things!

Related Reading: How Important Are Common Interests in a Relationship?

6. Have a heart-to-heart

In incompatible relationships, there are so many opportunities to grow up together and nurture the relationship. Even couples who seem to be very compatible with each other experience situations where they are at odds.

It’s okay. Having difficulties is quite normal. The effort to resolve differences and combat incompatibility in relationships is what matters. It sets the trajectory for a healthy, loving relationship.

When you sense incompatibility, having heart-to-heart conversations where you’re both extremely honest with each other is key. If you’re scared about a decision that can harm the relationship, say it.

Couples therapy can be instrumental in having heart-to-heart conversations with your beloved.

It can be vital for improving communication skills because an unbiased professional therapist can help you figure out how you can healthily communicate with each other.

7. Accept areas of disagreement

Now keep in mind that this point is not about agreeing to disagree on everything. No, it’s not that. This point is mainly about those things that are minor.

Do not feel the pressure to give up your core values and morals and agree to disagree with your partner. Acceptance is just about the more minor things. Compromising on the smaller things (this can vary from person to person) indicates a sign of hope for this bond.

Related Reading: 5 Tips To Communicate With Your Partner When You Disagree

8. Be more open-minded

For people who are in love but incompatible, you have a fantastic opportunity in your hands! Incompatibility is not something terrible! You have the chance to grow as an individual as well as a couple.

How? When you and your partner have differences, you both have the chance to learn how to be more open-minded about these differences.

You can make good use of this and learn from each other. Think about all the new things and new perspectives you’ll learn about! It’s a fantastic way to make the most out of the incompatibility in relationships.

9. Consider the future

Think about where you will be in life in the next decade and get honest with yourself about it.

Incompatibility does not always equate to a breakup or separation. However, there are a few things you must take out the time to think about.

Incompatibility in relationships may manifest in various forms. You need to be very honest with yourself and figure out how you are different.

Do you have significant differences in your financial planning, family planning, and so on? Do you feel like you have to sexually, financially, and morally adjust to such an extent that you don’t even feel like you are yourself?

If so, then think about how your life will be in a decade. What is the type of life that you want in a decade? If it is very different from your partner’s, it may be time to end the relationship mutually.

Related Reading: Dreaming Together: 3 Essential Tips for Having a Happy Future as a Couple

10. Try to stay calm

There are many incompatible couples. Every couple is unique. Therefore, how partners differ from each other is also unique. As mentioned earlier, even very compatible people may differ in significant ways from each other.

So, try not to exhaust yourself mentally and emotionally over incompatibility in relationships. The best way to combat incompatibility is by staying calm about it. When you and your partner deal with the differences level-headedly, the outcome will be much better.

Do not forget to check out this fantastic incompatibility guide:


Just because you and your partner may be very different from each other doesn’t necessarily mean that you two cannot build a beautiful future together.

Differences in relationships are an excellent way to grow and learn from each other and accept each other! So, be open to new experiences and new perspectives, be honest with your beloved, communicate openly, and work on the emotional aspect of the relationship.

Relations between concepts. General characteristics of the relationship between concepts. Compatible concepts. Incompatible concepts - Logic

Whoever does not share what he has found is like a light in the hollow of a sequoia (ancient Indian proverb)

Bibliographic record: Relations between concepts. General characteristics of the relationship between concepts. Compatible concepts. incompatible concepts. - Text: electronic // - informational philological resource: [website]. – URL: (date of access: 01/10/2023)


    General characteristics of the relationship between concepts

    The world around us is by its nature a very complex system. This nature is manifested in the fact that all objects that we can only imagine are always in relationship with some other objects. The existence of one is conditioned by the existence of the other. Considering the relationship between concepts, it is necessary to define concepts comparable and incomparable. Incomparable concepts are far from each other in their content and do not have common features. So, "nail" and "vacuum" will be incomparable concepts. All concepts that cannot be called incomparable are comparable. They have some common features that make it possible to determine the degree of proximity of one concept to another, the degree of their similarity and difference.

    Comparable terms are divided into compatible and incompatible. nine0019 This division is carried out on the basis of the scope of these concepts. The volumes of compatible concepts coincide completely or in part, and the content of these concepts does not have signs that exclude the coincidence of their volumes. Volumes of incompatible concepts do not have common elements.

    For the sake of greater clarity and better assimilation of the relationship between concepts, it is customary to depict with the help of circular diagrams, called Euler circles. Each circle denotes the volume of the concept, and each of its points is the object contained in its volume. Circular diagrams allow you to represent the relationship between different concepts. nine0007

    Compatible concepts

    Compatibility relationships can be of three types. This includes equivalence, crossing and subordination.

    Equivalence. The relation of equivalence is otherwise called the identity of concepts. It occurs between concepts containing the same subject. The volumes of these concepts coincide completely with different content. In these concepts, either one object or a class of objects containing more than one element is conceived. More simply, in relation to equivalence, there are concepts in which one and the same object is thought. nine0007

    As an example illustrating the relationship of equivalence, we can cite the concepts of "equilateral rectangle" and "square". These concepts contain a reflection of the same object - a square, which means that the volumes of these concepts completely coincide. However, their content is different, because each of them contains different features that characterize the square. The relationship between two similar concepts on the circular diagram is reflected in the form of two completely coinciding circles (Fig. 1).

    Crossing (crossing). The concepts that are in relation to the intersection are those whose volumes partially coincide. The volume of one is thus partly included in the volume of the other and vice versa. The content of such concepts will be different. The intersection relation is schematically reflected in the form of two partially aligned circles (Fig. 2). The point of intersection on the diagram is hatched for convenience. An example is the concepts of "peasant" and "tractor driver"; "mathematician" and "tutor". That part of circle A, which is not intersected with circle B, contains a reflection of all the villagers - not tractor drivers. That part of circle B that is not intersected with circle A contains a reflection of all tractor drivers who are not villagers. At the intersection of circles A and B, villagers-tractor drivers are conceived. Thus, it turns out that not all villagers are tractor drivers and not all tractor drivers are villagers. nine0007

    Subordination (subordination). The relationship of subordination is characterized by the fact that the scope of one concept is completely included in the scope of another, but does not exhaust it, but is only a part of it.

    These are relations genus -> species -> individual.

    In this relation are, for example, the concepts of "planet" and "Earth"; "athlete" and "boxer"; "scientist" and "physicist". As you can easily see, here the scope of some concepts is wider than others. After all, the Earth is a planet, but not every planet is the Earth. In addition to the Earth, there are also Mars, Venus, Mercury and many more planets, including those unknown to man. The same situation occurs in the other examples given. Not every athlete is a boxer, but a boxer is always an athlete; any physicist is a scientist, but speaking of a scientist, we do not always mean a physicist, etc. Here one of the concepts is subordinate, the other is subordinate. Obviously, it subordinates a concept that has a larger volume. The subordinate concept is denoted by the letter A, the subordinate - by the letter B.

    In the diagram, the subordination relationship is displayed as two circles, one of which is inscribed in the other (Fig. 3).

    When two concepts enter into a subordination relation, each of which is general (but not singular), concept A (subordinate) becomes a genus, and B (subordinate) a species. That is, the concept of "planet" will be a genus for the concept of "Earth", and the latter is a species. There are cases when a single concept can be both a genus and a species. This occurs if the concept of the genus, which contains the concept of the species, refers to the third concept, which is wider than the last in scope. It turns out a triple subordination, when a more general concept subordinates a less general one, but at the same time is in a relationship of subordination with another, which has a larger volume. The following concepts can be cited as an example: "biologist", "microbiologist" and "scientist". The concept of "biologist" is subordinate to the concept of "microbiologist", but is subordinate to the concept of "scientist". nine0007

    A situation is possible when general and singular concepts enter into a relationship of subordination. In this case, the general and concurrently subordinating concept is a species. The individual concept becomes an individual in relation to the general. This type of relationship illustrates the subordination of the concept of "Earth" to the concept of "planet". You can also give the following example: "Russian writer" - "N. G. Chernyshevsky.

    Thus, the relationship of subordination can be simplified in linear diagrams: "genus - > species - > species". nine0019

    Looking ahead, it can be noted that the relationship “genus - > species - > individual" is used in such logical operations with concepts such as generalization, restriction, definition and division.

    Incompatible concepts

    incompatible concepts are concepts whose scope does not coincide either completely or partially. This happens as a result of the fact that the content of these concepts contains signs that completely exclude the coincidence of their volumes. nine0007

    Incompatibility relations are usually divided into three types, among which there are subordination, opposition and contradiction.

    Subordination. The relationship of subordination arises when several concepts are considered that exclude each other, but at the same time have subordination to another, common to them, wider (generic) concept. Since such concepts are mutually exclusive, it is quite natural that they do not intersect. For example, the concept of "firearms" in its scope contains "revolver", "machine gun", "rifle", etc. Considering these concepts, it can be noted that not a single revolver can be an automatic machine, just as not a single rifle is a revolver. Despite mutual exclusion, these concepts are subject to the general. On the circular diagram, the relationship of subordination is depicted as several circles (their number corresponds to non-intersecting concepts) inscribed in one, larger circle (Fig. 4). Concepts that are in relation to subordination to a more general concept for them, but do not intersect, are called co-subordinate. nine0007

    Subordinate concepts are types of a generic concept.

    When defining the concepts included in the relationship of subordination, an error is sometimes possible. It lies in the fact that instead of mutually exclusive concepts, as an example, concepts are given that are subordinate to one another (for example, "writer" - "Russian writer" - "N. V. Gogol"). As a result, the subordination relationship is replaced by a subordination relationship, which is not allowed.

    Opposite (contrast). nine0019 Concepts that are in relation to opposites can be called such species of the same genus, the contents of each of which reflect certain features that are not only mutually exclusive, but also replace each other.

    The volumes of two opposite concepts in their totality constitute only a part of the volume of the generic concept common to them, of which they are species and to which they are subordinate.

    Each of these concepts in the content has signs that, when superimposed on the opposite concept, overlap (replace) the signs of the latter. nine0007

    Characteristically, these concepts, by their linguistic nature, are antonyms. These words reflect the contrast well, as a result of which they are widely used in the educational process. Antonym words expressing opposite concepts are: "top" - "bottom", "black" - "white", "heavy projectile" - "light projectile", etc.

    , divided into several parts by opposite concepts. Opposite concepts, say "white" and "black", are on different sides of this circle and are separated from each other by other concepts, among which are, for example, "gray" and "green" (Fig. 5). nine0007

    Contradiction (contradiction). A contradiction relation arises between two concepts, one of which contains certain features, and the other denies (excludes) these features without replacing them with others.

    In this regard, two specific concepts that are in relation to contradiction occupy the entire volume of the concept that is generic for them. It should be especially noted that between two contradictory concepts there can be no other concept.

    Positive and negative concepts enter into the relation of contradiction. Words that make up contradictory concepts are also antonyms. Thus, on a linear diagram, the contradiction relation formula can be depicted as follows: a positive concept should be marked with the letter A, and a negative one (contradictory to the latter) should be designated as non-A. The concepts of "loud" and "quiet", "high" and "low", "pleasant" and "unpleasant" perfectly illustrate the relationship of contradiction. That is, the house can be large and small; chair comfortable and uncomfortable; fresh and stale bread, etc.

    When using Euler circles for clarity, the contradiction relation is depicted as a circle divided into two parts, A and B (not-A) (Fig. 6).

    4. Relations between concepts. Compatible and incompatible concepts. Types of compatibility and incompatibility.

    ●Concepts are in certain relationships. By content between concepts There can be only two types of relationships - comparability and incomparability. distant from each other in terms of content. concepts that have no common features, called incomparable (irresponsibility and thread, romance and brick). Between them logical relationships are impossible. nine0007

    Comparable concepts are concepts having in their content general, essential features (by which they are compared). Relations between concepts are depicted using diagrams - Euler circles.

    Between comparable concepts, two types are possible relations by volume: compatibility and incompatibility, and themselves related concepts are said to be compatible or incompatible.

    ●Compatible concepts are those whose scope fully or partially match. Between compatible concepts are formed the following ratios:

    1 - equal volume (concepts that differ in content, but the volumes of which are the same)

    2 - crossing (concepts, volumes which overlap)

    3 - subordination / subordination (concepts, if the volume of one is completely included in other, but does not exhaust it)

    ●Incompatible concepts are called, the volumes of which are not match up. Incompatible concepts can be in the following relationships.

    1 - subordination / coordination (concepts, whose volumes are mutually exclusive, but belong to some more general generic concept)

    2 - opposite (concepts, signs which contradict each other, and the sum their scope does not exhaust the generic concepts)

    3 - contradiction (two concepts that are species of the same genus and at the same time one concept points to some signs and other these signs negates, excludes, does not replace them no other indications)

    5. Generalization and restriction of concepts. Main requirement for these operations and errors in generalization and limitation. nine0007

    Logic concept generalization operation.

    Volume summary A is a logical operation, as a result which forms a name with a volume B containing volume A. In other words, generalize the name A - means to form such another name B (genus) that would subordinate to itself the name A (species).

    At first sight, generalization is the same as inclusion. However this is not entirely true. First of all, the difference in that, when generalizing, the more general name B can be in principle unknown. Its content is still needed work out, set volume or clarify, and the name itself, perhaps anew formulate while including A in B, these names act like data. Generalization processes - essential properties of scientific knowledge. Before there was a generic name "Boyle-Mariotte law", decades have passed hard work of scientists on research relationship between pressure and volume various gases. nine0007

    In the process of learning generic name in turn can be generalized, etc. Generalization limit in each particular case is some generic name. In different sciences are names fixing fundamental concepts (scientific categories): point, line, plane - in geometry, material point, mass, force, acceleration - in mechanics; atom, molecule, valence - in chemistry; work, goods, money, value - in the economic theories; object, property, relation - in logic.

    Logic concept restriction operation.

    Restriction - logical operation inverse to generalization. It consists in finding a name with a volume B, which is contained in volume A. To limit the volume of A means to find such another name B (species) that was would be in relation to subordination to A (genus). The limits are the names, the volumes of which are equal to one subject (single names). Yes, limit limit the name "capital" are the names of individual states: Minsk, Moscow, Tokyo, etc. nine0007

    a special variety restrictions is type allocation, or typing. The type is the name that homogeneous objects correspond in one way or another. If some items make up the volume of the name A and among them there are those that are unconditional (i.e. with degree equal to 1) belong to the volume B, while others have this property in some (smaller) degree, then the name with volume B is a type. So, limiting the scope of the name "man", you can get the name "tall man". This will be the type, since, based on practice and reasonable considerations, highlight, of course, tall people, the rest are sorted according to their degree belonging to tall people, to that boundaries beyond which are, of course, short people (the degree of their belonging to the volume of the name "tall man" is equal to 0). A type is thus a name with a fuzzy volume. nine0007

    ●Logic operations with name scopes should not be confuse with mental transitions from parts to the whole and vice versa from the whole to parts. The specifics of the last most becomes clear when compared with operations of generalization and restriction.

    Common name contains all content generalization result, but not vice versa. In other words, the species has all genus signs. For example, one can generalize name "newspaper", get the name "periodical edition", and no newspaper is conceivable without this generic trait. nine0007

    Otherwise, the matter is when moving from part to whole. Familiarizing yourself with individual rooms in a new apartment, you can make idea of ​​the apartment as a whole, but you can not transfer the properties of the entire apartment (for example, the fact that it consists of three rooms), for each part of the apartment. Part, therefore, does not have the content of the whole (here there is analogy with the relationship between collective and non-collective names).

    Therefore generalization operation mixing (restrictions) with mental transition operation from part to whole (from whole to part) is unacceptable and may serve as a source of serious misconceptions. For example, the East Slavic tribe krivichi can sometimes be considered as a variety, sometimes as part Slavs. In the first case, knowing that Eastern Slavs worshiped Perun, we will not make the mistake of concluding that Krivichi worshiped Perun (operation restrictions). In the second case from knowledge that the Eastern Slavs were subjected to raids by steppe dwellers, at all it does not follow that any part of them, for example, Krivichi, were subjected to these raids (transition from whole to part). Otherwise case there is a logical error. nine0007

    6. Definition of concepts and its structure. Explicit and implicit, real and nominal definitions. Rules for determining and possible mistakes.

    ●Definition is the disclosure of the content of the concept or the meaning of the name of this concept.

    Definition (logic) - definition, this is what we have and describe in other words.

    Definitions There are: real and nominal.

    Real share into: explicit and implicit.

    Explicit (definitions, which indicate the characteristics of defined subject):

    1) Definition through closest genus and specific difference

    2) Genetic

    3) Functional

    4) Correlative

    Implicit (in they reveal relationships in which there is a defined object with others items):

    1) Contextual

    2) Ostensive - these are those in which the meaning is revealed directly.

    ●Rated and real definitions of concepts.

    Nominal definition - definition, by means of which a new name is introduced, it is, as it were, expresses the requirement to call data term for a particular subject. For example the term legal means pertaining to to jurisprudence, legal. Such a definition can be characterized in terms of terms of efficiency, expediency. nine0007

    Real definition - a definition that reveals essential features of the subject describing some object. For example, evidence is proof of the guilt of the accused in the crime committed.

    ●Rules concept definitions.

    Correctness definitions depends on the structure concept, which is regulated by logical rules.

    1) The definition must be proportionate. Volume defined should be equal to the volume of the determinant. For example, debut is the first performance artist in front of the public. nine0007

    2) The definition should not contain circle (tautology)

    3) The definition should be clear. It should point to known signs, needing no definition and not containing ambiguity.

    4) The definition must not be negative. The negative definition indicates does not belong to signs. subject, but does not indicate signs belong. subject.

    ●Errors in defining concepts.

    1) The proportionality rule leads to 3 errors:

    a) Definition wide

    b) Definition narrow

    c) Definition wide and narrow at the same time

    2) Definition should not be negative

    3) The definition must not be a metaphor

    4) The definition must be clear

    5) The definition must be given by a person - specialist

    7. Division of concepts: the essence of the logical operations, its structure, types, rules and possible errors.

    Division - logical operation that reveals the volume concepts. Its essence lies in dismemberment of a known class of objects, covered by this concept, for more small classes. nine0007

    ●Volume concepts to be divided is called a divisible concept, and the resulting species concepts are named members division. The essential sign to which the volume is divided generic concept into species is called division base. Yes, the concept "crime" (divisible concept) divided into concepts such as "intentional crime" and "negligent crime." They are the members division. And the basis in the considered such an important example sign, like guilt. nine0007

    ●B logic distinguishes a number of types of division concepts:

    1) dichotomy (i.e. division into two parts)

    2) trichotomy (i.e. division into three parts)

    3) polytomy (i.e. multiple division)

    ●Regulations division of concepts.

    1) Division should be based on one basis only. it requirement means that the elected first, as a basis, a separate feature or set of features should be replaced during division by others signs. It is correct, for example, to divide climate is cold, temperate and hot. Dividing it into cold, moderate, hot, sea and continental will be already incorrect: at first, the division was carried out according to the average annual temperature, and then - by humidity. Such an error is called cross or inconsistent division. nine0007

    2) Division should be proportionate or exhaustive, those. the sum of the volumes of the division members must be equal to the scope of the divisible concept. it requirement warns against skipping individual members of the division. If, for example, when dividing crimes according to on the nature and degree of public danger of highlighting crimes light, moderate and felonies, then the rule proportionality will be violated, since one more division term is not specified - especially dangerous crimes. Such a division called incomplete. nine0007

    3) Division Members should exclude each other. They can be only incompatible, subordinate concepts. For example, wrong divisions are: students are divided into excellent students, underachievers and achievers, since the concepts of an excellent student and a successful are not mutually exclusive; crimes divided into intentional, reckless and military, as military at the same time may be intentional or careless

    4) Division should be consistent and continuous. From the genus one should proceed to the next views, and then from them to the nearest subspecies. If this rule is violated, a logical error occurs in division. So if right we first divided into branches - labor, criminal, civil, and then civil - on ownership, obligation law, inheritance law, then this correct, consistent and continuous division. But if after labor, criminal immediately call hereditary right, then this will mean a jump in division. nine0007

    8. General characteristic of judgment: essence, truth and falsity, the role and functions of judgments, their structure, judgment and sentence.

    ●Judgment — is a form of thought through which reveals the presence or absence any connection or relationship between items.

    Distinctive sign of judgment - statement or denial of something about something. The judgment may be true or false. Truth of judgment determined by its correspondence reality, it does not depend on our attitude to it and is objective character. The truth of judgments about the simplest everyday situations is obvious and not requires a special study. False judgments are judgments in which the connection concepts distorts objective properties and relations of the subject of thought In science, to confirm or deny any Judgment required years of strenuous labor. nine0007

    ●B in the form of judgments, all scientific truth. They also serve as a universal a form of spiritual communication between people, interchange of information. form of judgment usually accept legal articles laws and other regulations, regulating the behavior of people in society.

    Any judgment expressed in a sentence, but not every a sentence is a proposition. Judgment could be a sentence saying any information that is as true or false, i.e. it may be only a declarative sentence. nine0007

    The same judgment can be expressed in different sentences. For example, "Aristotle is the founder Science of Logic" and "Educator of Alexander Macedonian is the founder science of logic. In turn, the same same sentence can express different judgments. For example, a proposal Aristotle is the founder of the science of logic can express the following statements: "Aristotle (not anyone else) is the founder of the science of logic”; "Aristotle is the founder (and not successor) of the science of logic”; "Aristotle is the founder of the science of logic (and not physics or mathematics). nine0007

    ●Structure judgments in different languages ​​is the same, and sentence structure is different.

    B judgment can be distinguished the following elements: subject, predicate, connective and quantifier. Subject (S) judgments is the concept of the subject of judgment, what we judge; it contains the original knowledge. Predicate (P) is called concept of the attribute of an object, that which talking about the subject matter. Predicate contains new knowledge about the subject. Subject and predicate are called terms judgments. Bundle expresses relation between subject and predicate. The link unites the terms of the judgment into whole, establishing belonging or non-affiliation of the attribute to the subject. A link can be expressed in one word (is, essence, is) or a group of words, or a dash, or a simple agreement properties ("The dog barks", "Goes rain"). quantifier, or a quantifier word ("all", "none", "some"), characterizes the judgment in terms of its quantity, indicates on the relation of the judgment to the whole volume concept expressing the subject, or to its parts. nine0007

    ●To reveal the logical meaning of the sentence, find in it a subject and a predicate. AT simple cases they correspond subject and predicate. In difficult sentences the subject can be expressed subject group, and the predicate - predicate group. For example, in a sentence "Anyone who has benefited from a crime, guilty of committing it" by the subject is the subject group: "any, who profited from the crime" since this is the source information, and predicate - a predicate group: "guilty in its accomplishment", since this is a new information. But not always seen correspondence of the subject with the subject, predicate with a predicate. In a sentence "An outstanding Russian writer is Sholokhov" subject - "an outstanding Russian writer”, and the predicate is “Sholokhov”. Subject and predicate can be expressed and other members of the proposal. nine0007

    9. Types and composition of simple judgments. Them symbolic entry.

    Plain judgments - express the relationship of two concepts, do not include other judgments. Simple judgment consists of a subject, a predicate and ligaments.

    depending from what is denied or affirmed judgments are divided into:

    1) Attributive (relationship between an object and its sign) S - P

    2) Relational (relations between things) xRy

    3) Existential (the fact of existence subject) Eh

    10. Classification of simple categorical (attributive) judgments.

    It's called simple judgment that does not include other judgments. Attributive (from Latin "property", "sign") - judgments about the sign subject. They reflect the relationship between object and its sign, this connection affirmed or denied. attributive judgments are also called categorical, those. clear, unconditional. logical scheme of attributive judgment S - P, where S is the subject of the judgment, P is the predicate, "-" - link. For example, "The lawyer met with the accused. nine0007

    categorical judgments are divided into quality and quantity.

    ○By quality distinguish between affirmative and negative statements. The affirmative expresses belonging object of any property, negative - the absence of any properties, they differ in quality ligaments. Judgment with negative predicate, but with an affirmative connective regarded as affirmative for example, “This court decision is unfounded."

    ○By quantity distinguish single, private and general judgments. The quantitative characteristic is expressed a general quantifier. Single is called a proposition in which something is affirmed or denied about one subject. For example, "This building is a monument architecture." nine0007

    Private is called a judgment in which something partly affirmed or denied objects of a certain class using words some, many, few, majority, minority, part. For example, "Part of the crimes belong to economic". Common is called a proposition in which something is affirmed or denied about all subjects some class using the words all, no one, anyone, everyone. For example: "All witnesses testified", "No one come to the meeting.

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