Narcissistic personality disorder scale

Narcissism (16-item version)


The scientific study of narcism (also known as "narcissism") goes way back to the 19th century, and it is a well studied concept in psychiatry. Here is the DSM (3rd edition) description of narcism (as quoted from Raskin and Terry, 1988):

"" the narcissistic personality is defined by the following clinical criteria: a grandiose sense of selfimportance or uniqueness; a preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love; exhibitionism; an inability to tolerate criticism, the indifference of others, or defeat; entitlement or the expectation of special favors without assuming reciprocal responsibilities; interpersonal exploitativeness, relationships that alternate between extremes of overidealization and devaluation; and a lack of empathy. ""

The lifetime prevalence of the Narcicistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is quite high: 6.2%! It is higher in men (7. 7%) than in women (4.8%, as reported by Stinson et al., 1988). That means that nearly one in 13 men (and one in 21 women) are affected by the NPD at least once in their life.

People high in narcissism are typically lower in empathy. You can measure empathy with the PsyToolkit implementation of the Empathy Quotient scale.

Read here on Psychology Today about A day in the life of a narcissist

Since before the second world war, a number of psychological scales of narcism have been developed (Raskin and Terry, 1988, give an overview).

According to the Web of Science database, the Raskin and Terry (1988) is the most cited research article about narcism. It uses Raskin and Hall’s 1979 first publication of the widely used Narcissistic Personality Inventory.

The original Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) has 40 items. There is a brief version called the 16 item NPI, which uses items of the 40-item questionnaire. The demo shows the 16-item version. The NPI-16 does not capture all aspects of the NPI-40, but can be justified when limited testing time is available. Unlike the NPI-40, the NPI-16 is unidimensional, that is there are no subscales. The underlying factor structure of narcissism is still a matter of debate, so it would be hard to argue that there is one true measure.

The NPI is not a psychiatric assessment of the Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

The Morph and Rhodewalt 2001 paper is a really good introduction to the topic.

In the Ames et al (2006) study, there were 5 different studies with slightly different groups. Here is a short description of the group and the means, so that you can compare yourself. Narcissists have a score over . 5.

The 16 pairs are scored 0 or 1, and the score on the scale is the mean of all the answers.

The scores run from 0 to 1, from low to high on narcism.

Study Sample Mean age All Men Women


Psychology students






MBA students












Psychology students






MBA students


. 39



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Legal stuff

You can use the published scale, but you need to acknowledge and cite the original research (Ames, Rose, and Anderson, 2006) and Raskin and Terry (1988).


This questionnaire does not use the typical Likert scales, but instead uses the "multiradio" element to show two choices for each item. The score is the mean score (one item of each pair is scored 0 and one 1).

In the line t: multiradio 2, the number 2 indicates that we use two lines for each item. In principle, you can also use triplets (you would use the number 3) or more. That said, typically, this type of questionniare item typically uses pairs of items, like here.

Note that the in the list of items in the survey code, half the pairs are indented one space. That is done purely and only for human readability (otherwise, it is more difficult to know which lines follow pairs). The computer ignores this, and this is thus not a PsyToolkit requirement.

The survey color scheme is different from the default (here it is green). In PsyToolkit surveys, you can choose out of multiple color schemes for your survey.

The survey code for PsyToolkit

Copy and paste this code to your PsyToolkit account if you want to use the scale in your own online research project

l: npi q: For each pair of statements, choose the one you identify with most.<br> If you do not identify with either of them, choose the one that is least<br> objectionable or remote.<br> t: multiradio 2 o: random o: scores 0 1 - When people compliment me I sometimes get embarrassed - I know that I am good because everybody keeps telling me so - I prefer to blend in with the crowd - I like to be the center of attention - I am no better or worse than most people - I think I am a special person - I don’t mind following orders - I like having authority over people - I don’t like it when I find myself manipulating people - I find it easy to manipulate people - I usually get the respect that I deserve - I insist upon getting the respect that is due me - I try not to be a show off - I am apt to show off if I get the chance - Sometimes I am not sure of what I am doing - I always know what I am doing - Sometimes I tell good stories - Everybody likes to hear my stories - I like to do things for other people - I expect a great deal from other people - It makes me uncomfortable to be the center of attention - I really like to be the center of attention - Being an authority doesn’t mean that much to me - People always seem to recognize my authority - I hope I am going to be successful - I am going to be a great person - People sometimes believe what I tell them - I can make anybody believe anything I want them to - There is a lot that I can learn from other people - I am more capable than other people - I am much like everybody else - I am an extraordinary person l: npi_score t: set - mean $npi l: feedback t: info q: Your score (on a range from low to high, from 0 to 1) is {$npi_score}<br> Remember your score. After this question, there is a link back to the text about<br> the scale, and you can compare your score to that of others.<br> Narcissists seem to have scores over 0.5.<br>


  • Ames, D.R., Rose, P., Anderson, C.P. (2006).The NPI-16 as a short measure of narcissism. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 440-450.

  • Morf, C. C., & Rhodewalt, F. (2001). Unraveling the paradoxes of narcissism: A dynamic self-regulatory processing model. Psychological Inquiry, 12, 177–196.

  • Raskin, R.N. and Hall, C.S. (1979). A narcissistic personality inventory. Psychological Reports, 45, 590-590. You can run the 40-item test on this external website. You can download the 40 items as text document here.

  • Raskin, R. and Terry, H. (1988). A Principal-Components Analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and Further Evidence of Its Construct Validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 890-902.

  • Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., Goldstein, R. B., Chou, S. P., Huang, B., Smith, S. M., …​ Grant, B. F. (2008). Prevalence, Correlates, Disability, and Comorbidity of DSM-IV Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Results from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69, 1033-1045. Open access, click here to read.

Narcissism Test (NPI)

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Narcissism is one of the oldest and most written-about traits in psychology. The present test, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), is one of the most classical and widely used tests in psychology. The test is designed to measure subclinical narcissism in the general population. That is to say, the test cannot be used to diagnose Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) and someone who gets highest possible score on this test does not necessarily have NPD.

For each of the questions below, select the statement that applies the most to you.

Question 1 of 40

I wish somebody would someday write my biography. I don't like people to pry into my life for any reason.


The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the property of Robert Raskin, Howard Terry and Calvin S. Hall. It is used under a research license by IDR Labs International.

Although designed to measure subclinical narcissistic traits traits, the NPI should not be used to diagnose Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) or be confused with the Five Factor Model or Dark Triad systems of personality. The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the property of Robert Raskin, Howard Terry and Calvin S. Hall. It is used under a research license by IDR Labs International. Artwork and non-item text is the property of IDR Labs International. The narcissism threshold for U.S. adults was taken from Drew Pinsky and Mark Young: 'The Mirror Effect: How Celebrity Narcissism Is Seducing America' (Harper Collins 2009). The threshold for U.S. Presidents was taken from Watts, Lilienfeld, Smith, Miller, Campbell, Waldman, Rubenzer, and Faschingbauer: 'The double-edged sword of grandiose narcissism: implications for successful and unsuccessful leadership among U.S. Presidents' (Psychological Science Journal 2013 Dec;24(12):2379-89) and R. J. Deluga: 'Relationship among American presidential charismatic leadership, narcissism, and rated performance' (The Leadership Quarterly Journal Volume 8, Issue 1, 1997, Pages 49-65). The threshold for reality TV stars was taken from W.K. Campbell, Professor of Psychology at University of Georgia and author of 'The Narcissism Epidemic: Living in the Age of Entitlement' (Atria Books (2010).

The authors of this online personality test are certified in the use of multiple personality tests and have worked professionally with typology and personality testing. The results of our online Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) personality test are provided "as-is", and should not be construed as providing professional or certified advice of any kind. For more on our online personality test, please consult our Terms of Service.

Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-40) • Psychologist Yaroslav Isaikin

Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is a widely used tool for determining the degree of narcissism in social psychology research. Despite the fact that different sources offer different versions of the questionnaire, only one of them, consisting of 40 questions with ready-made answers, is most often used in research. The questionnaire is based on the clinical criteria for defining narcissism described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III). NOL is used to measure relevant characteristics in all segments of the population and is applicable to identify "normal" or "hidden" (borderline) narcissism (those who complete the questionnaire with high scores do not always fall under the diagnosis of narcissism).

Because the questionnaire was originally based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria, a lot of research has been done into its factor structure. Robert Raskin and Howard Terry (1988) identified 7 factors of narcissism, such as lust for power, a sense of superiority, exhibitionism, taking things for granted, vanity, tendencies to exploit other people's resources, and self-confidence. The above criteria have been broadly compared with the DSM criteria for defining narcissism. Since that time, a number of studies have been carried out, the essence of which was to test the factor structure of NOL. The results of studies varied, for example, some studies indicated the presence of three factors, others - four. Moreover, there are often cases where NOL factors show a very low level of internal consistency, despite the fact that the measurement range as a whole shows an acceptable level of reliability. Thus, it can be concluded that the factor structure of NOL is unknown. Recent studies have attempted to identify narcissism by just one criterion. Compared to NOL, this method has only one advantage: it does not combine narcissism and normal self-esteem or healthy self-esteem.

Research has shown that people who score high on NFA scores are more likely to cheat at games and cheat in romantic relationships. It also revealed the desire of such people for an unequal distribution of resources (more for themselves, less for others), the predominance of material values ​​and an obsession with their appearance.


I have a natural talent for influencing people

I am not very good at influencing people


Modesty does not suit me

Basically, I am a modest person


I will do anything for a dare

I tend to be a rather cautious person


When people compliment me, I sometimes feel embarrassed

I know I'm good because everyone tells me so every now and then


The thought of ruling the world scares me terribly

If I ruled the world, it would be better


Usually I can get out of any situation

I try to take responsibility for the consequences of my behavior


I like to blend in with the crowd

I like to be the center of attention


I will succeed

I am not very worried about success


I am no better or worse than other people

I think I am a special person

10. 10

I'm not sure I would make a good leader

I see myself as a good leader


I am confident

I would like to become more confident


I like to have power over people

I don't mind following others


I can easily manipulate people

I don't like it when it turns out that I manipulate people


I insist on getting the respect I deserve

I usually get the respect I deserve


I don't particularly like to show my body

I like to show my body


I can read a person like a book

People are sometimes difficult to understand


If I feel competent, I am ready to take responsibility for making decisions

I like to take responsibility for making decisions


I just want to be reasonably happy

I want to represent myself in the world

19. 19

There is nothing special about my body

I like to look at my body


I try not to flaunt myself

I tend to flaunt myself if possible


I always know what I'm doing

Sometimes I'm not sure why I'm doing something


I sometimes have to depend on people to get results

I rarely depend on someone else to get results


Sometimes I tell good stories

Everyone likes to hear my stories


I expect a lot from other people

I enjoy doing things for other people


I am never satisfied until I get everything I deserve

I am satisfied with what I get


Compliments make me feel uncomfortable

I like being complimented


I have a strong desire for power

I am not interested in power for the sake of power


I don't care about new fashions and hobbies

I enjoy being the source of new fashions and hobbies

29. 29

I like to look at myself in the mirror

I am not very interested in looking at myself in the mirror


I really enjoy being the center of attention

I feel uncomfortable being the center of attention


I can live the way I want

People can't always live the way they want


Having authority is not a big deal to me

People always seem to recognize my authority


I'd rather be a leader

It doesn't make much difference to me whether I'm a leader or not


I am going to be a great person

I hope that I will be successful


People sometimes believe what I tell them

I can make anyone believe anything I want


I am a born leader

Leadership is a quality that takes a long time to develop


I wish someone would write my biography someday

I don't like it when people pry into my life for whatever reason

38. 38

I get upset when people don't notice how I look when I go out in public

I don't mind blending in when I go out in public


I am more capable than other people

I have a lot to learn from other people


I am in many ways the same as everyone else

I am an extraordinary person

Narcissistic personality disorder test


  • 1 Narcissism Test
  • 2 Narcissistic Personality Test
  • 3 Character Accentuation Test
  • 4 Alternative Test

A variety of methods are used to diagnose narcissistic personality disorder. A psychologist or psychiatrist necessarily conducts a general examination and questioning of the patient and his relatives, clarifies in detail the manifestations of the syndrome, the age at which they were first noticed. Also, various tests can be used to clarify the diagnosis.

Narcissism test

NPI is an internationally recognized test for narcissism. It was developed in 1979 by Raskin and Hall to measure the manifestations of narcissism as a personality trait in sociopsychological research. It is based on the DSM III definition of narcissistic personality disorder, which was current at the time the test was developed. However, it cannot be used as the only tool for diagnosing narcissistic personality disorder. The test can show high scores even in healthy people or people with minimal manifestations of narcissism. It should only be used in combination with other examination methods for the most accurate diagnosis.

The test consists of 40 pairs of statements, from which the patient is asked to choose one that characterizes his personality and inherent features of behavior as much as possible. It is undesirable to think over the questions of the test for a long time, so its completion usually takes from 7 to 10 minutes.

For a more reliable interpretation of the results, it is recommended to pass this test under the supervision of a psychologist, and if you nevertheless passed it on your own, contact a professional with the results for a more reliable interpretation.

All test statements are divided into groups according to personality traits:

  1. Authority. This group of questions reveals a person's propensity for leadership, his desire to occupy leadership positions, confidence in his leadership abilities, the need for success, authority, power, and the degree of self-confidence.
  2. Self-sufficiency. In this group, questions are aimed at clarifying the ability to work independently, the tendency to take responsibility, confidence in one's abilities and capabilities, and the scale of plans for the future.
  3. Superiority. Here, the patient's self-conceit is clarified with the help of questions about his abilities, attitude to compliments, a sense of his own peculiarity, the desire to share the details of his life with others.
  4. The patient's conspicuousness is determined both by direct questions about the tendency to show oneself, and questions about the attitude to modesty, behavior in public, the desire to follow fashion, the tendency to be in the center of attention of other people and make bets with them.
  5. Use of people. This group of questions reveals the patient's ability to manipulate the minds of others, to avoid responsibility for actions, to understand people, to convince of anything, the presence of oratory.
  6. Vanity is defined by the love of narcissism and the tendency to show off one's body.
  7. Chosenness. The opinion about one's own superiority is revealed in a number of statements about the ability to be content with what is available, expectations from people, the desire for power, the need for respect, the desire to control others.

For each statement relating to narcissistic character traits, the subject is awarded one point. Thus, the maximum score is 40. The average score in the test, based on a survey of almost 3,500 people, is 15.2 points.

Test for narcissistic personality traits

Russian psychiatrists Shamshikova and Klepikova developed their own scale for assessing narcissistic personality disorder. The test is similar to the NPI, it has expanded the number of diagnostic scales and improved the system for assessing the severity of indicators. It includes 67 statements grouped into 9classes. When answering, it is proposed to evaluate the severity of each indicator on a five-point scale.

Groups of statements are made according to the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria:

  • Confidence in one's own uniqueness.
  • The need for special treatment.
  • Inability to understand the feelings of others.
  • Excessive sense of self-importance.
  • The need for admiration.
  • Envy of others.
  • Manipulation of relatives.
  • Insolence, arrogance.
  • Fantasizing about one's exclusive role.

Test for character accentuation

The standard Schmishek-Leonhard test for character accentuation can also tell a psychotherapist a lot. The identification of the predominance of signs characteristic of hyperthymic, demonstrative or exalted personalities indicates a high probability of the presence of narcissism. The same signs in the degree of character accentuation, especially if they are combined with narcissistic behavioral characteristics, can reliably indicate the corresponding personality disorder.

Alternative test

Researchers at Indiana State University have come up with an alternative test for narcissism. Their questionnaire includes only one question: “How much does the statement “I am a narcissist” characterize you?” and involves an assessment on a seven-point scale. They argue that the concept of narcissism is familiar enough to people that there is no need to ask further clarifying questions. If necessary, they offer to clarify that narcissistic personality disorder means selfishness, soullessness, self-centeredness. According to the authors of the study, about 2,500 people have already been interviewed and the test results are similar to those for the NPI test, which is considered the most reliable.

In any case, you should not blindly trust the tests. Narcissistic personality disorder is multifaceted and not only negative. A number of features of such people make them successful and help them achieve high results in their professional activities.

Learn more